|Coordinates (Foshan municipal government):|
|Municipal seat||Chancheng District|
|• CPC Committee Secretary||Lu Yi (鲁毅)|
|• Mayor||Zhu Wei (朱伟)|
|• Prefecture-level city||3,848 km2 (1,486 sq mi)|
|• Water||690 km2 (270 sq mi)|
|• Urban||3,848 km2 (1,486 sq mi)|
|• Metro||19,870.4 km2 (7,672.0 sq mi)|
|Elevation||16 m (52 ft)|
|• Prefecture-level city||9,498,863|
|• Density||2,500/km2 (6,400/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||2,500/km2 (6,400/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||3,300/km2 (8,500/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard Time)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-GD-06|
|Licence plate prefixes|
|GDP||¥ 940 billion |
|GDP per capita||¥ 124,324 |
|Cantonese Yale||Fahtsàan or Fahtsāan|
|Literal meaning||"Buddha Mountain"|
Foshan (UK: //, US: /-/), alternately romanized as Fatshan, is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong Province, China. The entire prefecture covers 3,848 km2 (1,486 sq mi) and had a population of 9,498,863 as of the 2020 census. The city is part of the western side of the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone whose built-up (or metro) area was home to 65,694,622 inhabitants as of 2020 (excluding Hong Kong not conurbated yet), making it the biggest urban area of the world.
Fóshān is the pinyin romanization of the city's Chinese name 佛山, based on its Mandarin pronunciation. The Postal Map spelling "Fatshan" derives from the same name's local Cantonese pronunciation. Other romanizations include Fat-shan and Fat-shun. Foshan means "Buddha Mountain" and, despite the more famous present-day statue of Guanyin (or Kwanyin) on Mount Xiqiao, who isn't a Buddha, it refers to a smaller hill near the centre of town where three bronze sculptures of Buddha were discovered in AD 628. The town grew up around a monastery founded nearby that was destroyed in 1391.
Foshan remained a minor settlement on the Fen River for most of China's history. It developed around a Tang-era Buddhist monastery that was destroyed in 1391. The Foshan Ancestral Temple, a Taoist temple to the Northern God (Beidi) that was rebuilt in 1372, became the new focus of the community by the 15th century.
By the early Ming, Foshan had grown into one of the four great markets in China, primarily on the strength of its local ceramics but also on account of its metalwork. Under the Qing, its harbor on the Fen River was limited to ships of a thousand tons' burden but it remained well connected with Guangdong's other ports. By the 19th century, Foshan was considered the "Birmingham of China", with its steel industry responsible for the consumption of the majority of the province's iron production.
20th century and onwards
Foshan was connected to Guangzhou and Sanshui by rail in the early 20th century. The Ancestral Temple was converted into the Foshan Municipal Museum upon the victory of the Communists in the Chinese Civil War in 1949.
Foshan remained primarily focused on ceramic and steel production until the 1950s, when it became an urbanizing political center. On 26 June 1951, it left Nanhai County to become a separate county-level city and, in 1954, it was made the seat of the prefectural government. Its economy stagnated as a result of the Cultural Revolution—traditional ceramic ware was forbidden and its workshops were turned to producing Maoist and Revolutionary folderol — but it continued to grow, reaching 300,000 people by the 1970s, making it the province's second city after Guangzhou.
As early as 1973, however, its agriculture and consumer industries were permitted to become an export production base and a modern highway linked it to Guangzhou soon after. This permitted its party secretary Tong Mengqing and mayor Yu Fei to take full advantage when Deng Xiaoping introduced his Opening Up policies after the fall of the Gang of Four.
In 1983, Foshan was promoted to a prefecture-level city with its former core becoming the new Chancheng District but lost the southwestern half of its former territory to Jiangmen. On 8 December 2002, Shunde and Nanhai joined its urban core as a full district. Shunde has gone on to obtain an unusual autonomous status in 2009, placing its oversight in the hands of the provincial government rather than the prefectural one.
Since 2020 a Japanese-themed street in Foshan has become a hit with young people unable to travel abroad due to the coronavirus pandemic. The 100m-long road called Ichiban Street has been outfitted by a local property developer to resemble famous commercial streets in Japan, complete with a sakura tree, an icon of Japan. The “exotic” street is attracting young people from nearby cities like Guangzhou, Zhongshan and Zhuhai as the younger Chinese generation likes many things about Japanese culture and design.
Foshan lies on the Fen River in the estuaries making up the west side of the Pearl River Delta. Guangzhou lies 25 kilometers (16 mi) to the northeast, Zhongshan to the southeast, Jiangmen to the south, Qingyuan to the north, and Zhaoqing to the west.
|Climate data for Foshan (Nanhai District, 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1981–2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||26.7
|Average high °C (°F)||18.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||14.0
|Average low °C (°F)||11.1
|Record low °C (°F)||2.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||53.1
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||7.2||9.3||13.8||14.6||17.2||18.5||16.5||15.8||12.3||5.3||5.7||5.7||141.9|
|Average relative humidity (%)||71||76||79||80||79||80||77||77||74||67||67||65||74|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||104.3||75.1||61.8||73.2||112.5||132.6||178.8||167.5||157.0||170.5||150.8||140.4||1,524.5|
|Percent possible sunshine||31||23||17||19||27||33||43||42||43||48||46||42||35|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration|
Foshan had a ¥0.8 trillion gross domestic product in 2015, raising its per capita GDP past $10,000. Shunde District in particular has a high standard of living, with its 3,000+ electronical appliance factories responsible for more than half of the world's air conditioners and refrigerators. Foshan now has more than 30 towns specialized in particular industries, including furniture, machinery, and beverages.
The Foshan Hi-Tech Development Zone was founded in 1992. Its total planned area is 7.55 km2 (2.92 sq mi). The zone is very close to the national highway G325 as well as Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport. The major industries in the zone including automobile assembly, biotechnology and chemicals processing.
Foshan is close to Guangzhou and considers its link with Guangzhou to be very important. As such, it is part of the Pearl River Delta and Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area metropolis, centered on Guangzhou.
A dialect from the Samyap branch of Cantonese is used by the city natives. Besides that, Mandarin is also used, mainly in business and education, although natives do not use much of it in their daily lives.
In 2013 to 2014, Foshan planned to improve public transportation by putting forward six measures:
The first line of FMetro opened in 2010, and another two lines are under construction and due to be completed in 2021 and 2022.
The existing line of FMetro network:
- Line 1 (Guangfo Line): From Xinchengdong Station to Lijiao Station
- Line 2: From Nanzhuang Station to Guangzhou South Railway Station
- Line 3: From Shunde Polytechnic Station to Zhen'an Station
Foshan is a main interchange for railway routes linking Guangzhou, Hong Kong and western Guangdong Province. It is connected with Hong Kong via the KCRC Guangdong Through Train service from Foshan railway station, an inter-city train service that was extended from Guangzhou to Foshan in the 1990s.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2020)
Two professional football teams have played in Foshan. From 1989 to 1997 Foshan Fosti (now disbanded) played at the New Plaza Stadium in Chancheng (now demolished). Foshan Fosti mainly played in the second tier, but did play in the eight team top tier in 1993. In 2007, newly created Guangdong Sunray Cave played at Nanhai District Stadium (now demolished), before moving to the Century Lotus Stadium in 2008. Sunray Cave then moved to Guangzhou, although did play the final games of the 2013 China League One back at Century Lotus Stadium. They returned to Guangzhou in 2014 and then disbanded.
- Crowne Plaza Foshan Hotel
- Foshan Ancestral Temple (Zumiao)
- Nanfeng Kiln
- Liang's Garden
- Wong Fei-hung Memorial Hall
This section needs additional citations for verification. (December 2020)
- Itami, Hyōgo Japan
- La Possession, Réunion, France (since 1989)
- Port Louis, Mauritius
- Oakland, California, United States
- Stockton, California, United States
- Markham, Ontario, Canada (Friendly co-operative)
- Townsville, Queensland, Australia
- Medway, United Kingdom
- Starogard Gdański, Poland
- St. George's, Grenada
- Ingolstadt, Bavaria, Germany (since 2013)
- Wong Kei-ying (ca. 1815-1886), Hung Ga master, doctor, father of Wong Fei Hung and one of the members of the Ten Tigers of Canton.
- Leung Jan (1826-1901), Wing Chun master, doctor and instructor of Ip Man
- Wong Fei Hung (1847–1924), Hung Ga master and doctor, honored at a memorial hall in Chancheng.
- Ip Man (1893–1972), Wing Chun grandmaster and instructor of Bruce Lee.
- Pu Jun Jin (born 1984), racing driver
- Wang Yue, (2009-2011), toddler killed in one of the most notorious examples of the bystander effect.
- "China: Guăngdōng (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map". Citypopulation.de. Retrieved 27 January 2022.
- All GDP2017 data of the cities in Guangdong is based on Guangdong Statistical Yearbook ("Guangdong Statistical Yearbook 2018" (Press release). China Statistics Press. September 1, 2018. Retrieved May 6, 2019.)
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. XV (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Theodore Shabad (1956). China's Changing Map: A Political and Economic Geography of the Chinese People's Republic. New York: Frederick A. Praeger. p. 166. LCCN 55-11530. OCLC 916993074.
With the exception of Shiukwan on the Canton-Hankow railroad, Kwangtung's regional centers are situated along the coast, notably in the Canton delta. There, in addition to Canton, are the cities of Fatshan, Kongmoon and Shekki. The metropolis of western Kwangtung is Tsamkong, and Pakhoi is the chief town of the western panhandle.
- Baynes, T. S., ed. (1878), Encyclopædia Britannica, vol. 5 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons ,
- McDermott, Joseph P., State and Court Ritual in China, p. 281.
- Vogel, Ezra F. (October 1990), One Step Ahead in China: Guangdong under Reform, p. 182, ISBN 9780674639119, archived from the original on 2016-10-30, retrieved 2016-10-30.
- Chinese, unable to travel abroad, are flocking to a mock Japanese street in Guangdong, South China Morning Post, 1 October 2020
- Farrell, Samuel. "Foshan". Bing Maps. Archived from the original on May 27, 2016. Retrieved May 28, 2016.
- 中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 28 May 2023.
- 中国气象数据网 (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 28 May 2023.
- "Foshan: From Buddhist Hill to World Manufacturing Centre", MacauHub, 11 September 2015, archived from the original on 5 April 2017, retrieved 30 October 2016.
- "RightSite.asia | Foshan Hi-Tech Development Zone". Archived from the original on 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2012-04-25.
- 中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码 (in Simplified Chinese). Ministry of Civil Affairs. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02.
- Guangzhou Bureau of Statistics (广州市统计局) (August 2013). 《广州统计年鉴2013》 (in Simplified Chinese). China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-6651-0.
- Census Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China; Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China (2012). 中国2010人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料 (1 ed.). Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2.
- Ministry of Civil Affairs (August 2014). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》 (in Simplified Chinese). China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9.
- Foshan City Transportation Bureau home page Archived 2015-01-08 at the Wayback Machine Foshan City Transportation Bureau. Retrieved February 1, 2014
- "FIBA Basketball World Cup 2019 high-ranking LOC officials confirmed, FIBA to open three offices in China". FIBA. 14 June 2016. Archived from the original on 20 March 2018. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
- "Guangzhou Asian Games Venues and Transportation". Archived from the original on 2019-04-19. Retrieved 2019-04-19.
- "The Foshan Tour". European Challenge Tour. PGA European Tour. Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "Football in Foshan and why it matters - Wild East Football". wildeastfootball.geezerbuild.com. Archived from the original on 2018-07-08. Retrieved 2018-07-08.
- "Ville de la Possession - Jumelages". Archived from the original on 2012-05-17. Retrieved 2012-05-17.
- "Stadt Ingolstadt - Aktuelles". Archived from the original on 2017-08-22. Retrieved 2019-12-08.
- "Ingolstadt und Foshan". Archived from the original on 2017-09-21. Retrieved 2014-08-03.
- Foshan travel guide from Wikivoyage