|Trade names||Minocin, Minomycin, Akamin, others|
|By mouth, intravenous, topical|
|Elimination half-life||14–22 (11–26) hours|
|Excretion||Mostly fecal, 10–15% renal|
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||457.483 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
|Specific rotation||= −166°|
|Solubility in water||Low|
|(what is this?)|
Minocycline, sold under the brand name Minocin among others, is a tetracycline antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections such as pneumonia. It is generally less preferred than the tetracycline doxycycline. It is also used for the treatment of acne and rheumatoid arthritis. It is taken by mouth or applied to the skin.
Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, allergic reactions, and kidney problems. Serious side effects may include anaphylaxis, a lupus-like syndrome, and easy sunburning. Use in the later part of pregnancy may harm the baby and safety during breastfeeding is unclear. It works by decreasing a bacterium's ability to make protein thus stopping its growth.
Minocycline was patented in 1961 and came into commercial use in 1971. It is available as a generic medication. A month supply in the United Kingdom costs the NHS about £14 as of 2019. In the United States the wholesale cost of this amount is about US$12. In 2017, it was the 237th most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than two million prescriptions.
Minocycline and doxycycline are frequently used for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Both of these closely related antibiotics have similar levels of efficacy, although doxycycline has a slightly lower risk of adverse side effects. Historically, minocycline has been an effective treatment for acne vulgaris. However, acne that is caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a growing problem in many countries. In Europe and North America, a number of people with acne no longer respond well to treatment with tetracycline family antibiotics because their acne symptoms are caused by bacteria (primarily Cutibacterium acnes) that are resistant to these antibiotics. In order to reduce resistance rates as well as increase the effectiveness of treatment, oral antibiotics should be generally combined with topical acne creams such as benzoyl peroxide or a retinoid (tretinoin, adapalene, etc.). Minocycline itself is used both orally and topically in the treatment of acne.
Minocycline is also used for other skin infections such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as well as Lyme disease, as the one pill twice daily 100-mg dosage is far easier for patients than the four times a day required with tetracycline or oxytetracycline. Its superior ability to cross the blood-brain barrier adds to its effectiveness against Lyme disease.
Although minocycline's broader spectrum of activity, compared with other members of the group, includes activity against Neisseria meningitidis, its use for prophylaxis is no longer recommended because of side effects (dizziness and vertigo).
A list of uses includes:
- Amoebic dysentery
- Bubonic plague
- Gonorrhea (when penicillin cannot be given)
- Gougerot-Carteaud syndrome (confluent and reticulated papillomatosis)
- Hidradenitis suppurativa
- For use as an adjuvant to HAART
- Periodontal disease
- Perioral dermatitis
- Respiratory infections such as pneumonia
- Rocky Mountain spotted fever
- Syphilis (when penicillin cannot be given)
- Urinary tract infections, rectal infections, and infections of the cervix caused by certain microbes
Both minocycline and doxycycline have shown effectiveness in asthma due to immune-suppressing effects. Minocycline and doxycycline have modest effectiveness in treating rheumatoid arthritis. However, the 2015 American College of Rheumatology guideline for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis does not include minocycline. Recent research indicate that centrally infused minocycline attenuates brain microglial activation, neuroinflammation and sympathetic activation during pulmonary hypertension 
The drug is contraindicated in people with known hypersensitivity to tetracycline antibiotics, as there is complete cross sensitivity in this group. It is also contraindicated in people with severe liver impairment and after the 16th week of pregnancy.
Minocycline may cause upset stomach, diarrhea, dizziness, unsteadiness, drowsiness, mouth sores, headache, and vomiting. It increases sensitivity to sunlight, and may affect the quality of sleep and rarely causes sleep disorders. It has also been linked to cases of lupus. Prolonged use of minocycline can lead to blue-gray staining of skin, fingernails, and scar tissue. This staining is not permanent, but can take a very long time for the skin color to return to normal; however, a muddy brown skin color in sun-exposed areas is usually permanent. Permanent blue discoloration of gums or teeth discoloration may also occur. Rare but serious side effects include fever, yellowing of the eyes or skin, stomach pain, sore throat, vision changes, and mental changes, including depersonalization.
Occasionally, minocycline therapy may result in autoimmune disorders such as drug-related lupus and autoimmune hepatitis, which usually occurs in men who also developed minocycline-induced lupus; however, women are more likely to develop minocycline-induced lupus. Significant or complete recovery occurs in most people who develop minocycline-induced autoimmune problems within a period of a few weeks to a year of cessation of minocycline therapy. Autoimmune problems emerge during chronic therapy, but can sometimes occur after only short courses of a couple of weeks of therapy. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome can occur during the first few weeks of therapy with minocycline.
Minocycline, but not other tetracyclines, can cause vestibular disturbances with dizziness, ataxia, vertigo, and tinnitus. These effects are thought to be related to minocycline's greater penetration into the central nervous system. Vestibular side effects are much more common in women than in men, occurring in 50 to 70% of women receiving minocycline. As a result of the frequency of this bothersome side effect, minocycline is rarely used in female patients.
Symptoms of an allergic reaction include rash, itching, swelling, severe dizziness, and trouble breathing. Minocycline has also been reported to very rarely cause idiopathic intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri), a side effect also more common in female patients, potentially leading to permanent vision damage if not recognized early and treated.
Contrary to most other tetracycline antibiotics (doxycycline excluded), minocycline may be used in those with kidney disease, but may aggravate systemic lupus erythematosus. It may also trigger or unmask autoimmune hepatitis.
Minocycline can cause the rare condition of secondary intracranial hypertension, which has initial symptoms of headache, visual disturbances, dizziness, vomiting, and confusion. Brain swelling and rheumatoid arthritis are rare side effects of minocycline in some people.
Minocycline, like most tetracyclines, becomes dangerous past its expiration date. While most prescription drugs lose potency after their expiration dates, tetracyclines are known to become toxic over time. Expired tetracyclines can cause serious damage to the kidney due to the formation of a degradation product, anhydro-4-epitetracycline. Minocycline's absorption is impaired if taken at the same time of day as calcium or iron supplements. Unlike some of the other tetracycline group antibiotics, it can be taken with calcium-rich foods such as milk, although this does reduce the absorption slightly.
Minocycline, like other tetracyclines, is associated with esophageal irritation and ulceration if insufficient fluids are taken with the drug before sleep.
A 2007 study suggested that minocycline harms amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. Patients on minocycline declined more rapidly than those on placebo. The mechanism of this side effect is unknown, although a hypothesis is that the drug exacerbated an autoimmune component of the primary disease. The effect does not seem to be dose-dependent because the patients on high doses did not do worse than those on the low doses.
The combination of minocycline with dairy, antacids, calcium and magnesium supplements, iron products, laxatives containing magnesium, or bile acid sequestrants may decrease doxycycline's effectiveness by forming chelates. Combining it with isotretinoin, acitretin or other retinoids can increase the risk for intracranial hypertension. Minocycline significantly reduces concentrations of the anti-HIV drug atazanavir in the body.
Mechanism of action
Minocycline is quickly and nearly completely absorbed from the upper part of the small intestine. Taking it together with food, including milk, has no relevant influence on resorption. It reaches highest blood plasma concentrations after one to two hours and has a plasma protein binding of 70–75%. The substance penetrates into almost all tissues; very high concentrations are found in the gallbladder and liver. It crosses the blood–brain barrier better than doxycycline and other tetracyclines, reaching therapeutically relevant concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid and also in inflamed meninges.
Minocycline is inactivated by metabolization in the liver to about 50%. The rest is predominantly excreted into the gut (in part via the gallbladder, in part directly from blood vessels) and eliminated via the feces. About 10–15% are eliminated via the kidneys. The biological half-life is 14–22 (11–26) hours in healthy people, up to 30 hours in those with kidney failure, and significantly longer in those with liver disease.
Society and culture
Many forms of minocycline are no longer covered by patent, so it is marketed under a variety of trade names:
- Minostad (in Europe, for the treatment of acne)
- Arestin (1-mg doses administered locally into periodontal pockets, after scaling and root planing, for treatment of periodontal disease.)
- Solodyn (extended-release, for the treatment of acne)
- Minopen (in Japan)
- Maracyn 2 (for treatment of bacterial infections in aquarium fish and amphibians)
- Quatrocin (in Syria)
- Minox (in Ireland)
- Minoz (in India and Romania)
- Divaine (in India)
- Dentomycin (2% minocylcine gel for use in periodontal pockets)
In October 2015, a bottle of 30 of tablets of one brand cost $1,040.41 wholesale. Expensive medications like this were sold through the specialty pharmacy Philidor by Valeant Pharmaceuticals International Inc in a 2015 controversial legal tangle involving both companies.
Early research has found a tentative benefit from minocycline in schizophrenia, with several trials underway. A 2014 meta-analysis found minocycline may reduce negative and total symptom scores and was well tolerated.
Current research is examining the possible neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of minocycline against the progression of a group of neurodegenerative disorders including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease. As mentioned above, minocycline harms ALS patients.
A trial found no difference between minocycline and placebo in people with Alzheimers' disease. Minocycline also has been used as a "last-ditch" treatment for toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients. Minocycline is somewhat neuroprotective in mouse models of Huntington's disease.
A 2007 study reported the impact of the antibiotic minocycline on clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes and serum immune molecules in 40 MS patients over 24 months of open-label minocycline treatment. Despite a moderately high pretreatment relapse rate in the patient group prior to treatment (1.3/year pre-enrollment; 1.2/year during a three-month baseline period), no relapses occurred between months 6 and 24 on minocycline. Also, despite significant MRI disease-activity pretreatment (19/40 scans had gadolinium-enhancing activity during a three-month run-in), the only patient with gadolinium-enhancing lesions on MRI at 12 and 24 months was on half-dose minocycline. Levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12), which at high levels might antagonize the proinflammatory IL-12 receptor, were elevated over 18 months of treatment, as were levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). The activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 was decreased by treatment. Clinical and MRI outcomes in this study were supported by systemic immunological changes and call for further investigation of minocycline in MS.
Data from cellular and animal models
- PARP1 inhibition Ki = 13.8 nM
- Neuroprotection IC50 = 10 nM
- Microglia full inhibition = 20 nM
- Suppression of the mouse's locomotor activity = 0.5 mg/kg
- "Minocycline Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. 4 December 2018. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
- "Minocycline Hydrochloride Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
- Dinnendahl, V; Fricke, U, eds. (2010). Arzneistoff-Profile (in German). 7 (24 ed.). Eschborn, Germany: Govi Pharmazeutischer Verlag. Minocyclin. ISBN 978-3-7741-9846-3.
- DrugBank: DB01017 (Minocycline)
- British national formulary : BNF 76 (76 ed.). Pharmaceutical Press. 2018. p. 556. ISBN 9780857113382.
- "Minocycline topical foam" (PDF). FDA. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
- "Minocycline Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- Fischer, Janos; Ganellin, C. Robin (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 489. ISBN 9783527607495.
- "NADAC as of 2019-02-27". Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- "The Top 300 of 2020". ClinCalc. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
- "Minocycline Hydrochloride - Drug Usage Statistics". ClinCalc. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
- Strauss; et al. (2007). "Guidelines of care for acne vulgaris management". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 56 (4): 651–63. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2006.08.048. PMID 17276540.
- "Minocycline, Doxycycline and Acne Vulgaris". ScienceOfAcne.com. 07/11/2011. Retrieved 2012-08-07. Check date values in:
- Kircik LH (November 2010). "Doxycycline and minocycline for the management of acne: a review of efficacy and safety with emphasis on clinical implications". J Drugs Dermatol. 9 (11): 1407–11. PMID 21061764.
- Hubbell; et al. (1982). "Efficacy of minocycline compared with tetracycline in treatment of acne vulgaris". Archives of Dermatology. 118 (12): 989–92. doi:10.1001/archderm.1982.01650240033017. PMID 6216858.
- Eady; et al. (2003). "Propionibacterium acnes resistance: a worldwide problem". Dermatology. 206 (1): 54–6. doi:10.1159/000067822. PMID 12566805. S2CID 6111436.
- Ross; et al. (2003). "Antibiotic-resistant acne: lessons from Europe". British Journal of Dermatology. 148 (3): 467–78. arXiv:0706.4406. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2133.2003.05067.x. hdl:10454/3069. PMID 12653738.
- Rogers RL, Perkins J (September 2006). "Skin and soft tissue infections". Prim. Care. 33 (3): 697–710. doi:10.1016/j.pop.2006.06.005. PMID 17088156.
- Bernier C, Dréno B (May 2001). "[Minocycline]". Ann Dermatol Venereol (in French). 128 (5): 627–37. PMID 11427798.
- Fraser A, Gafter-Gvili A, Paul M, Leibovici L (March 2005). "Prophylactic use of antibiotics for prevention of meningococcal infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials". Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 24 (3): 172–81. doi:10.1007/s10096-005-1297-7. PMID 15782277. S2CID 1259483.
- Bishburg E, Bishburg K (November 2009). "Minocycline--an old drug for a new century: emphasis on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Acinetobacter baumannii". Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents. 34 (5): 395–401. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2009.06.021. PMID 19665876.
- Copeland KF, Brooks JI (15 April 2010). "A Novel Use for an Old Drug: The Potential for Minocycline as Anti-HIV Adjuvant Therapy" (PDF). J Infect Dis. 201 (8): 1115–7. doi:10.1086/651278. PMID 20205572.
- U.S. National Library of Medicine (2009, Dec 11) 'Perioral dermatitis'. Retrieved 7 August 2010.
- Joks R, Durkin HG (December 2011). "Non-antibiotic properties of tetracyclines as anti-allergy and asthma drugs". Pharmacol. Res. 64 (6): 602–9. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2011.04.001. PMID 21501686.
- Greenwald RA (December 2011). "The road forward: the scientific basis for tetracycline treatment of arthritic disorders". Pharmacol. Res. 64 (6): 610–3. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2011.06.010. PMID 21723947.
- "Clinical Practice Guidelines: Rheumatoid Arthritis". American College of Rheumatology. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
- Sharma, Ravindra K.; Oliveira, Aline C.; Kim, Seungbum; Rigatto, Katya; Zubcevic, Jasenka; Rathinasabapathy, Anandharajan; Kumar, Ashok; Lebowitz, Joseph J.; Khoshbouei, Habibeh; Lobaton, Gilberto; Aquino, Victor (June 2018). "Involvement of Neuroinflammation in the Pathogenesis of Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension". Hypertension (Dallas, Tex.: 1979). 71 (6): 1156–1163. doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.118.10934. ISSN 1524-4563. PMC 5945302. PMID 29712738.
- Nonaka K, Nakazawa Y, Kotorii T (December 1983). "Effects of antibiotics, minocycline and ampicillin, on human sleep". Brain Res. 288 (1–2): 253–9. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(83)90101-4. PMID 6661620. S2CID 22726747.
- "MedlinePlus Drug Information: Minocycline Oral".
- Geria AN, Tajirian AL, Kihiczak G, Schwartz RA (2009). "Minocycline-induced skin pigmentation: an update". Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. 17 (2): 123–6. PMID 19595269.
- MedicineNet: Minocycline Oral (Dynacin, Minocin) - side effects, medical uses, and drug interactions
- Cohen, P. R. (2004). "Medication-associated depersonalization symptoms: report of transient depersonalization symptoms induced by minocycline". Southern Medical Journal. 97 (1): 70–73. doi:10.1097/01.SMJ.0000083857.98870.98. PMID 14746427. S2CID 27125601.
- Mongey AB, Hess EV (March 2008). "Drug insight: autoimmune effects of medications-what's new?". Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol. 4 (3): 136–44. doi:10.1038/ncprheum0708. PMID 18200008. S2CID 205340777.
- Ochsendorf F (2010). "Minocycline in acne vulgaris: benefits and risks". Am J Clin Dermatol. 11 (5): 327–41. doi:10.2165/11319280-000000000-00000. PMID 20642295. S2CID 24501240.
- Sweet, Richard L.; Gibbs, Ronald S. (2001). Infectious Diseases of the Female Genital Tract (4th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 635.
- Friedman DI (2005). "Medication-induced intracranial hypertension in dermatology". Am J Clin Dermatol. 6 (1): 29–37. doi:10.2165/00128071-200506010-00004. PMID 15675888. S2CID 28395784.
- Gough A, Chapman S, Wagstaff K, Emery P, Elias E (January 1996). "Minocycline induced autoimmune hepatitis and systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome". BMJ. 312 (7024): 169–72. doi:10.1136/bmj.312.7024.169. PMC 2349841. PMID 8563540.
- Krawitt EL (January 2006). "Autoimmune hepatitis". N. Engl. J. Med. 354 (1): 54–66. doi:10.1056/NEJMra050408. PMID 16394302. S2CID 5361674.
- Friedman, Deborah I (2005). "Medication-Induced Intracranial Hypertension in Dermatology". American Journal of Clinical Dermatology. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 6 (1): 29–37. doi:10.2165/00128071-200506010-00004. ISSN 1175-0561. PMID 15675888. S2CID 28395784.
- Lefebvre N, Forestier E, Farhi D, et al. (2007). "Minocycline-induced hypersensitivity syndrome presenting with meningitis and brain edema: a case report". Journal of Medical Case Reports. 1: 22. doi:10.1186/1752-1947-1-22. PMC 1884162. PMID 17511865.
- "Principles and methods for the assessment of nephrotoxicity associated with exposure to chemicals". Environmental health criteria: 119. World Health Organization (WHO). ISBN 92-4-157119-5. ISSN 0250-863X. 1991
- Piscitelli, Stephen C.; Rodvold, Keith (2005). Drug Interactions in Infectious Diseases. Humana Press. ISBN 978-1-58829-455-5.
- Drugs.com 'Minocycline Disease Interactions'. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
- Couzin, J. (2007). "Clinical research. ALS trial raises questions about promising drug". Science. 318 (5854): 1227. doi:10.1126/science.318.5854.1227a. PMID 18033854. S2CID 72187805.
- "Minocycline". mediQ. Retrieved 2020-08-06.
- Haberfeld H, ed. (2020). Austria-Codex (in German). Vienna: Österreichischer Apothekerverlag. Minostad 50 mg-Kapseln.
- "How ARESTIN is supplied and dosed". OraPharma, Inc. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
- Rockoff, Jonathan D.; Whalen, Jeanne (28 October 2015). "Pharmacy's Sales Tactics Disclosed". Dow Jones News. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
- Rapoport, Michael (29 October 2015). "Valeant Countersues R&O Pharmacy Billing dispute draws attention to drug maker's work with specialty pharmacies". The Wall Street Journal.
- Dulaney, Chelsey (May 6, 2015). "Alexion to Buy Synageva for $8.4 Billion". The Wall Street Journal.
- Dean, OM; Data-Franco, J; Giorlando, F; Berk, M (May 1, 2012). "Minocycline: therapeutic potential in psychiatry". CNS Drugs. 26 (5): 391–401. doi:10.2165/11632000-000000000-00000. PMID 22486246.
- Arehart-Treichel, Joan (17 August 2012). "Will Antibiotic Fulfill Its Psychosis-Fighting Promise?". Psychiatric News. 47 (16): 10. doi:10.1176/pn.47.16.psychnews_47_16_10-a.
- Oya, K.; Kishi, T.; Iwata, N. (Aug 4, 2014). "Efficacy and tolerability of minocycline augmentation therapy in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Hum Psychopharmacol. 29 (5): 483–91. doi:10.1002/hup.2426. PMID 25087702.
- "Preliminary Study Shows Creatine and Minocycline May Warrant Further Study In Parkinson's Disease" (Press release). National Institute of Health. February 23, 2006.
- Chen M, Ona VO, Li M, Ferrante RJ, Fink KB, Zhu S, Bian J, Guo L, Farrell LA, Hersch SM, Hobbs W, Vonsattel JP, Cha JH, Friedlander RM (2000). "Minocycline inhibits caspase-1 and caspase-3 expression and delays mortality in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington disease". Nat Med. 6 (7): 797–801. doi:10.1038/77528. PMID 10888929. S2CID 22681391.
- Tikka TM, Koistinaho JE (15 June 2001). "Minocycline provides neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotoxicity by inhibiting microglia". Journal of Immunology. 166 (12): 7527–33. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.166.12.7527. PMID 11390507.
- Nirmalananthan N, Greensmith L (2005). "Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: recent advances and future therapies". Current Opinion in Neurology. 18 (6): 712–9. doi:10.1097/01.wco.0000187248.21103.c5. PMID 16280684. S2CID 3255995.
- Amin, AR; Attur, MG; Thakker, GD; Patel, PD; Vyas, PR; Patel, RN; Patel, IR; Abramson, SB (November 1996). "A novel mechanism of action of tetracyclines: Effects on nitric oxide synthases". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 93 (24): 14014–14019. Bibcode:1996PNAS...9314014A. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.24.14014. PMC 19486. PMID 8943052.
- Howard R, Zubko O, Bradley R (2020). "Minocycline at 2 Different Dosages vs Placebo for Patients With Mild Alzheimer Disease". JAMA. 77 (2): 164. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.3762. PMC 6865324. PMID 31738372.
- Lacassin, F; Schaffo, D; Perronne, C; Longuet, P; Leport, C; Vilde, JL (January 1995). "Clarithromycin-Minocycline Combination as Salvage Therapy for Toxoplasmosis in Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 39 (1): 276–277. doi:10.1128/AAC.39.1.276. PMC 162527. PMID 7695324.
- Beal F, Ferrante J (2004). "Experimental Therapeutics in Transgenic Mouse Models of Huntington's Disease". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 5 (5): 373–84. doi:10.1038/nrn1386. PMID 15100720. S2CID 19496441.
- Zemke D, Majid A (2004). "The potential of minocycline for neuroprotection in human neurologic disease". Clinical Neuropharmacology. 27 (6): 293–8. doi:10.1097/01.wnf.0000150867.98887.3e. PMID 15613934. S2CID 30431947.
- Maier K, Merkler D, Gerber J, Taheri N, Kuhnert AV, Williams SK, Neusch C, Bähr M, Diem R (2007). "Multiple neuroprotective mechanisms of minocycline in autoimmune CNS inflammation". Neurobiol. Dis. 25 (3): 514–25. doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2006.10.022. PMID 17239606. S2CID 39628457.
- Popovic N, Schubart A, Goetz BD, Zhang SC, Linington C, Duncan ID (2002). "Inhibition of autoimmune encephalomyelitis by a tetracycline". Annals of Neurology. 51 (2): 215–23. doi:10.1002/ana.10092. PMID 11835378.
- Rosenblat JD, McIntyre RS (2017-10-28). "Efficacy and tolerability of minocycline for depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials". Journal of Affective Disorders. 227: 219–225. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2017.10.042. PMID 29102836.
- Alano CC, Kauppinen TM, Valls AV, Swanson RA (Jun 2006). "Minocycline inhibits poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 at nanomolar concentrations". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103 (25): 9685–90. Bibcode:2006PNAS..103.9685A. doi:10.1073/pnas.0600554103. PMC 1480467. PMID 16769901.
- Tikka T, Fiebich BL, Goldsteins G, Keinanen R, Koistinaho J (April 2001). "Minocycline, a tetracycline derivative, is neuroprotective against excitotoxicity by inhibiting activation and proliferation of microglia". J Neurosci. 21 (8): 2580–8. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.21-08-02580.2001. PMC 6762519. PMID 11306611.
- "Minocycline". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.