Filo

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Filo pastry)
Jump to: navigation, search
Filo
Baklava.jpg
Baklava, made with filo pastry
Alternative names Filo pastry, phyllo, fillo
Type Pastry
Main ingredients Flour dough

Filo (or phyllo) (Greek: φύλλο 'leaf') is a kind of very thin unleavened dough used for making pastries such as baklava and börek in Middle Eastern and Balkan cuisines. Filo-based pastries are made by layering many sheets of filo brushed with melted butter; the pastry is then baked.

History[edit]

Main article: Baklava § History

The current practice of stretching raw dough into paper-thin sheets likely originated in the kitchens of the Topkapı Palace during the time of the Ottoman Empire, based on Central Asian and Romano-Byzantine techniques.[1][2] Baklava is probably the earliest dish using filo, and is documented as early as the 13th century.[3]

Preparation[edit]

Filo dough is made with flour, water, and a small amount of oil and rakı or white vinegar, though some dessert recipes also call for egg yolks. Homemade filo takes time and skill, requiring progressive rolling and stretching to a single thin and very large sheet. A very big table and a long roller are used, with continual flouring between layers to prevent tearing.

Machines for producing filo pastry were perfected in the 1970s, and have come to dominate the market.[4] Filo for domestic use is widely available from supermarkets, fresh or frozen.

Use[edit]

When using filo to make pastries, the thin layers are made by first rolling out the sheets of dough to the final thickness, then stacking them with melted butter layers; this contrasts with puff pastry and croissant doughs, where the layers of butter are stacked into a thick layer of dough, then folded and rolled out multiple times to produce a laminated dough containing thin layers of dough and fat.

Related methods[edit]

Very thin pastry sheets can also be made by touching lumps of dough to a hot surface, as in the North African malsouka or by cooking very thin batters, as in the South Indian pootharekulu.

Uses[edit]

Filo can be used in many ways: layered, folded, rolled, or ruffled, with various fillings. Notable pastries made with filo include:

  • Baklava - Layers of filo with chopped nuts, sweetened and held together with syrup or honey.
  • Banitsa - A Bulgarian dish consisting of eggs, cheese and filo baked in the oven.
  • Börek - A savory filo pie originally from the Ottoman Empire.
  • Bougatsa - A type of Greek breakfast pastry.
  • Bülbül yuvası - A Turkish dessert with pistachios and syrup.
  • Bundevara - A Serbian sweet pie filled with pumpkin.
  • Galaktoboureko - A Greek dessert consisting of filo and semolina custard.
  • Gibanica - A Serbian dish made from filo, white cheese, and eggs.
  • Kasseropita - A Greek pie made from filo and kasseri cheese.
  • Pastizz - A savory pastry from Malta filled with ricotta or mushy peas.
  • Spanakopita - A Greek spinach pie.
  • Tiropita - A Greek dish similar to Börek, filled with a cheese-egg mixture.
  • Zelnik - A savory pie from the Balkans.

Name[edit]

Though filo's roots are in Ottoman cuisine, the English term comes from the Greek name, which means leaf.[5][6]

The Turkish name yufka means both the thin dough used for baklava and börek, and a kind of flatbread, also called sac ekmeği, cooked on a sac, a domed metal plate.[7] The bread form may have been "an early form of filo" since the Kitab Diwan Lughat al-Turk, a dictionary of Turkic dialects by Mahmud Kashgari recorded plated/folded bread as one meaning of the word yuvgha.[citation needed]

Filo is known by a variety of names in ethnic and regional cuisines. Among them are:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Perry, Charles. "The Taste for Layered Bread among the Nomadic Turks and the Central Asian Origins of Baklava", in A Taste of Thyme: Culinary Cultures of the Middle East (ed. Sami Zubaida, Richard Tapper), 1994. ISBN 1-86064-603-4
  2. ^ Patrick Faas (2003). Around the Roman Table: Food and Feasting in Ancient Rome. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 185.
  3. ^ Gülbeşeker: Türk tatlıları tarihi, p. 236, at Google Books
  4. ^ Press release from Athens Foods, Cleveland, OH
  5. ^ Oxford Dictionaries.
  6. ^ Alan Davidson (2014). The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-967733-7. p. 307.
  7. ^ Türk Dil Kurumu, Büyük Türkçe Sözlük search form

Bibliography[edit]

  • Perry, Charles. "The Taste for Layered Bread among the Nomadic Turks and the Central Asian Origins of Baklava", in A Taste of Thyme: Culinary Cultures of the Middle East (ed. Sami Zubaida, Richard Tapper), 1994. ISBN 1-86064-603-4.
  • Engin Akın, Mirsini Lambraki, Kosta Sarıoğlu, Aynı Sofrada İki Ülke: Türk ve Yunan Mutfağı, Istanbul 2003, ISBN 975-458-484-2.

External links[edit]

  • The dictionary definition of filo at Wiktionary
  • Media related to Phyllo at Wikimedia Commons
  • Phyllo dough at Wikibook Cookbooks