Kingston upon Hull
|Kingston upon Hull|
|City and Unitary authority|
Hull shown within the East Riding of Yorkshire
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Region||Yorkshire and the Humber|
|Ceremonial county||East Riding of Yorkshire|
|• Type||Unitary authority, City|
|• Governing body||Hull City Council|
|• Leadership:||Leader & Cabinet|
|• MPs:||Emma Hardy (Lab)
Diana Johnson (Lab)
Karl Turner (Lab)
|• City||27.59 sq mi (71.45 km2)|
|Population (mid-2016 est.)|
|• City||260,200 (Ranked 58th)|
|• Density||9,030/sq mi (3,486/km2)|
|• Urban||573,300 (LUZ)|
| • Ethnicity
|89.7% White British
0.3% White Irish
4.1% Other White
1.1% S. Asian
1.3% Mixed Race
2.3% Chinese and other (0.8% Chinese)
|Time zone||Greenwich Mean Time (UTC+0)|
|• Summer (DST)||British Summer Time (UTC+1)|
|ONS code||00FA (ONS)
Kingston upon Hull, usually abbreviated to Hull, is a city and unitary authority in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It lies upon the River Hull at its confluence with the Humber Estuary, 25 miles (40 km) inland from the North Sea, with a population of 260,200 (mid-2016 est.). Hull is 154 miles (248 km) north of London, 50 miles (80 km) east of Leeds and 108 miles (174 km) northeast of Birmingham.
The town of Wyke on Hull was founded late in the 12th century. The monks of Meaux Abbey needed a port where the wool from their estates could be exported. They chose a place at the confluence of the rivers Hull and Humber to build a quay.
The exact year the town was founded is not known but it was first mentioned in 1193. Renamed Kings-town upon Hull by King Edward I in 1299, Hull has been a market town, military supply port, trading hub, fishing and whaling centre and industrial metropolis.
After suffering heavy damage in the Second World War (the 'Hull Blitz'), Hull weathered a period of post-industrial decline, gaining unfavourable results on measures of social deprivation, education and policing. In the early 21st century spending boom before the late 2000s recession the city saw large amounts of new retail, commercial, housing and public service construction spending.
Tourist attractions include The Hull People's Memorial, the historic Old Town and Museum Quarter, Hull Marina and The Deep, a city landmark. The redevelopment of one of Hull's main thoroughfares, Ferensway, included the opening of St Stephen's Hull and the new Hull Truck Theatre. Spectator sports include Championship League football and Super League Rugby. The KCOM Stadium houses Hull City football club and Hull F.C. rugby league club and KCOM Craven Park Stadium rugby league club Hull Kingston Rovers. Hull is also home to the English Premier Ice Hockey League Hull Pirates.
The University of Hull was founded in 1927 and now enrols more than 16,000 students. It is ranked among the best in the Yorkshire and the Humber region and located in the leafy Newland suburb, in the north-west of the city.
- 1 History
- 2 Governance
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demography
- 5 Economy
- 6 Culture
- 7 Parks and green spaces
- 8 Media
- 9 Sport
- 10 Transport
- 11 Infrastructure
- 12 Education
- 13 Dialect and accent
- 14 Notable people
- 15 International relations
- 16 See also
- 17 Notes
- 18 References
- 19 External links
Kingston upon Hull stands on the north bank of the Humber Estuary at the mouth of its tributary, the River Hull. The valley of the River Hull has been inhabited since the early Neolithic period but there is little evidence of a substantial settlement in the area of the present city. The area was attractive to people because it gave access to a prosperous hinterland and navigable rivers but the site was poor, being remote, low-lying and with no fresh water. It was originally an outlying part of the hamlet of Myton, named Wyke. The name is thought to originate either from a Scandinavian word Vik meaning inlet or from the Saxon Wic meaning dwelling place or refuge.
The River Hull was a good haven for shipping, whose trade included the export of wool from Meaux Abbey. In 1293 the town was acquired from the abbey by King Edward I, who on 1 April 1299 granted it a royal charter that renamed the settlement King's town upon Hull or Kingston upon Hull. The charter is preserved in the archives of the Guildhall.
In his Guide to Hull (1817), J. C. Craggs provides a colourful background to Edward's acquisition and naming of the town. He writes that the King and a hunting party started a hare which "led them along the delightful banks of the River Hull to the hamlet of Wyke … [Edward], charmed with the scene before him, viewed with delight the advantageous situation of this hitherto neglected and obscure corner. He foresaw it might become subservient both to render the kingdom more secure against foreign invasion, and at the same time greatly to enforce its commerce". Pursuant to these thoughts, Craggs continues, Edward purchased the land from the Abbot of Meaux, had a manor hall built for himself, issued proclamations encouraging development within the town, and bestowed upon it the royal appellation, King's Town.
The port served as a base for Edward I during the First War of Scottish Independence and later developed into the foremost port on the east coast of England. It prospered by exporting wool and woollen cloth, and importing wine and timber. Hull also established a flourishing commerce with the Baltic ports as part of the Hanseatic League.
From its medieval beginnings, Hull's main trading links were with Scotland and northern Europe. Scandinavia, the Baltic and the Low Countries were all key trading areas for Hull's merchants. In addition, there was trade with France, Spain and Portugal. As sail power gave way to steam, Hull's trading links extended throughout the world. Docks were opened to serve the frozen meat trade of Australia, New Zealand and South America. Hull was also the centre of a thriving inland and coastal trading network, serving the whole of the United Kingdom.
Sir William de la Pole was the town's first mayor. A prosperous merchant, de la Pole founded a family that became prominent in government. Another successful son of a Hull trading family was bishop John Alcock, who founded Jesus College, Cambridge and was a patron of the grammar school in Hull. The increase in trade after the discovery of the Americas and the town's maritime connections are thought to have played a part in the introduction of a virulent strain of syphilis through Hull and on into Europe from the New World.
The town prospered during the 16th and early 17th centuries, and Hull's affluence at this time is preserved in the form of several well-maintained buildings from the period, including Wilberforce House, now a museum documenting the life of William Wilberforce.
During the English Civil War, Hull became strategically important because of the large arsenal located there. Very early in the war, on 11 January 1642, the king named the Earl of Newcastle governor of Hull while Parliament nominated Sir John Hotham and asked his son, Captain John Hotham, to secure the town at once. Sir John Hotham and Hull corporation declared support for Parliament and denied Charles I entry into the town. Charles I responded to these events by besieging the town. This siege helped precipitate open conflict between the forces of Parliament and those of the Royalists.
Throughout the second half of the 19th century and leading up to the First World War, the Port of Hull played a major role in the transmigration of Northern European settlers to the New World, with thousands of emigrants sailing to the city and stopping for administrative purposes before travelling on to Liverpool and then North America.
Parallel to this growth in passenger shipping was the emergence of the Wilson Line of Hull. Founded in the city in 1825 by Thomas Wilson, by the early 20th century the company had grown – largely through its monopolisation of North Sea passenger routes and later mergers and acquisitions – to be the largest privately owned shipping company in the world, with over 100 ships sailing to different parts of the globe. The Wilson Line was sold to the Ellerman Lines – which itself was owned by Hull-born magnate (and the richest man in Britain at the time) Sir John Ellerman.
Whaling played a major role in the town's fortunes until the mid-19th century. Hull's prosperity peaked in the decades just before the First World War; it was during this time, in 1897, that city status was granted. After the decline of the whaling industry, emphasis shifted to deep-sea trawling until the Anglo-Icelandic Cod War of 1975–1976. The conditions set at the end of this dispute initiated Hull's economic decline.
Many of the suburban areas on the western side of Hull were built in the 1930s, particularly Willerby Road and Anlaby Park, as well as most of Willerby itself. This was part of the biggest British housing boom of the 20th century (possibly ever).
The city's port and industrial facilities, coupled with its proximity to mainland Europe and ease of location being on a major estuary, led to extremely widespread damage by bombing raids during the Second World War; much of the city centre was destroyed. Hull had 95% of its houses damaged or destroyed, making it the most severely bombed British city or town, apart from London, during the Second World War. More than 1,200 people died in air raids on the city and some 3,000 others were injured.
The worst of the bombing occurred in 1941. Little was known about this destruction by the rest of the country at the time, since most of the radio and newspaper reports did not reveal Hull by name but referred to it as "a North-East town" or "a northern coastal town". Most of the city centre was rebuilt in the years following the war. As recently as 2006 researchers found documents in the local archives that suggested an unexploded wartime bomb might be buried beneath a major new redevelopment, the Boom, in Hull.
Following the Local Government Act 1888, Hull became a county borough, a local government district independent of the East Riding of Yorkshire. This district was dissolved under the Local Government Act 1972, on 1 April 1974 when it became a non-metropolitan district of the newly created shire county of Humberside. Humberside (and its county council) was abolished on 1 April 1996 and Hull was made a unitary authority area.
The single-tier local authority of the city is now Hull City Council (officially Kingston upon Hull City Council), headquartered in the Guildhall in the city centre. The council was designated as the UK's worst performing authority in both 2004 and 2005, but in 2006 was rated as a two star 'improving adequate' council and in 2007 it retained its two stars with an 'improving well' status. In the 2008 corporate performance assessment the city retained its "improving well" status but was upgraded to a three star rating.
The Liberal Democrats won overall control of the City Council in the 2007 local elections, ending several years in which no single party had a majority. They retained control in the 2008 local elections by an increased majority and in the 2010 local elections. Following the UK's local elections of 2011, the Labour Party gained control of the council, increasing their majority in the 2012 and retained this following the 2014 local elections. They increased their majority by one in the 2015 local elections.
William Wilberforce is the most celebrated of Hull's former MPs. He was a native of the city and the member for Hull from 1780 to 1784 when he was elected as an Independent member for Yorkshire.
At Humber Estuary. The city centre is west of the River Hull and close to the Humber. The city is built upon alluvial and glacial deposits which overlie chalk rocks but the underlying chalk has no influence on the topography. The land within the city is generally very flat and is only 2 to 4 metres (6.5 to 13 ft) above sea level. Because of the relative flatness of the site there are few physical constraints upon building and many open areas are the subject of pressures to build., 154 miles (248 km) north of London, Kingston upon Hull is on the northern bank of the
The parishes of Drypool, Marfleet, Sculcoates, and most of Sutton parish, were absorbed within the borough of Hull in the 19th and 20th centuries. Much of their area has been built over, and socially and economically they have long been inseparable from the city. Only Sutton retained a recognisable village centre in the late 20th century, but on the south and east the advancing suburbs had already reached it. The four villages were, nevertheless, distinct communities, of a largely rural character, until their absorption in the borough—Drypool and Sculcoates in 1837, Marfleet in 1882, and Sutton in 1929. The current boundaries of the city are tightly drawn and exclude many of the metropolitan area's nearby villages, of which Cottingham is the largest. The city is surrounded by the rural East Riding of Yorkshire.
Some areas of Hull lie on reclaimed land at or below sea level. The Hull Tidal Surge Barrier is at the point where the River Hull joins the Humber Estuary and is lowered at times when unusually high tides are expected. It is used between 8 and 12 times per year and protects the homes of approximately 10,000 people from flooding. Due to its low level, Hull is expected to be at increasing levels of risk from flooding due to global warming.
Unlike many other English cities, Hull has no cathedral; but since 13 May 2017, it has a Minster, Hull Minster. This was formerly known as Holy Trinity Church, and dates to about 1300, Hull is in the Anglican Diocese of York and has a Suffragan bishop.
Hull forms part of the Southern Vicariate of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Middlesbrough and included among Hull's Catholic churches is St Charles Borromeo, the oldest post-Reformation Roman Catholic church in the city.
There are several seamen's missions and churches in Hull. The Mission to Seafarers has a centre at West King George Dock and the St Nikolaj Danish Seamen's Church is located in Osborne Street.
Located in Northern England, Hull has a temperate maritime climate which is dominated by the passage of mid-latitude depressions. The weather is very changeable from day to day and the warming influence of the Gulf Stream makes the region mild for its latitude. Locally, the area is sunnier than most areas this far north in the British Isles, and also considerably drier, due to the rain shadowing effect of the Pennines. It is somewhat milder than west coast areas at a similar latitude such as Liverpool in summer due to stronger shielding from maritime air. It is also one of the most northerly areas where the July maximum temperature exceeds 21.5 °C (70.7 °F), although this appears to be very localised around the city itself.
The absolute maximum temperature recorded is 34.4 °C (93.9 °F), set in August 1990. Typically, the warmest day should reach 28.8 °C (83.8 °F), though slightly over 10 days should achieve a temperature of 25.1 °C (77.2 °F) or more in an "average" year. All averages refer to the 1981-2010 period.
The absolute minimum temperature is −11.1 °C (12.0 °F), recorded during January 1982. An average of 32.5 nights should report an air frost.
|Climate data for Hull, elevation 2 metres (6.6 ft), 1981–2010, extremes 1960–|
|Record high °C (°F)||14.6
|Average high °C (°F)||7.3
|Average low °C (°F)||1.9
|Record low °C (°F)||−11.1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||55.2
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||54.8||76.3||110.6||151.2||195.4||177.1||193.8||181.1||145.1||111.7||65.4||50.5||1,512.9|
|Source #1: Met Office|
|Source #2: KNMI|
|Climate data for Hull, elevation 2 metres (6.6 ft), 1971–2000, extremes 1960–|
|Average high °C (°F)||7.0
|Average low °C (°F)||1.5
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||58.08
At around 00:56 GMT on 27 February 2008, Hull was 30 miles (48 km) north of the epicentre of an earthquake measuring 5.3 on the Richter Scale which lasted for nearly 10 seconds. This was an unusually large earthquake for this part of the world.
|Population growth in
Kingston upon Hull
|Source: Vision of Britain Through Time and Hull Daily Mail|
According to the 2001 UK census, Hull had a population of 243,589 living in 104,288 households. The population density was 34.1 per hectare. Of the total number of homes 47.85% were rented compared with a national figure of 31.38% rented. The population had declined by 7.5% since the 1991 UK census, and has been officially estimated as 256,200 in July 2006.
In 2001 approximately 53,000 people were aged under 16, 174,000 were aged 16–74, and 17,000 aged 75 and over. Of the total population 97.7% were white and the largest minority ethnic group was of 749 people who considered themselves to be ethnically Chinese. There were 3% of people living in Hull who were born outside the United Kingdom. In 2006 the largest minority ethnic grouping was Iraqi Kurds who were estimated at 3,000. Most of these people were placed in the city by the Home Office while their applications for asylum were being processed. In 2001, the city was 71.7% Christian. A further 18% of the population indicated they were of no religion while 8.4% did not specify any religious affiliation. In 2001, the city had the lowest church attendance in the United Kingdom.
Also in 2001, the city had a high proportion, at 6.2%, of people of working age who were unemployed, ranking 354th out of 376 local and unitary authorities within England and Wales. The distance travelled to work was less than 3 miles (4.8 km) for 64,578 out of 95,957 employed people. A further 18,031 travelled between 5 and 10 kilometres (3.1 and 6.2 mi) to their place of employment. The number of people using public transport to get to work was 12,915 while the number travelling by car was 53,443.
The economy of Hull was built on trading and seafaring, firstly whaling and later seafishing. Merchant's houses such as Blaydes House and some warehouses survive in the Old Town, where trade was centred on the River Hull, later shifting to the Humber docks. Another major industry was oilseed crushing. Although the fishing industry declined in the 1970s, the city remains a busy port, handling 13 million tonnes of cargo per year. The port operations run by Associated British Ports and other companies in the port employ 5,000 people. A further 18,000 are employed as a direct result of the port's activities. The port area of the city has diversified to compensate for the decline in fishing by the introduction of Roll-on Roll-off ferry services to the continent of Europe. These ferries now handle over a million passengers each year. Hull has exploited the leisure industry by creating Hull Marina from the old Humber Street Dock in the centre of the city. It opened in 1983 and has 270 berths for yachts and small sailing craft.
Industry in the city is focused on the chemical and health care sectors. Several well-known British companies, including BP, Smith & Nephew and Reckitt Benckiser, have facilities in Hull. The health care sector is further enhanced by the research facilities provided by the University of Hull through the Institute of Woundcare and the Hull York Medical School partnerships. In recent years, with the decline of fishing and heavy industry, the retail sector, tourism, the arts and further and higher education sectors have played an increasingly prominent role in the process of economic regeneration and raising the profile of the city. In 2009 it was estimated that businesses in Hull deliver an annual turnover of almost £8 billion, and over 5 million annual visitors contribute almost £210 million to Hull's economy.
As the biggest settlement in the East Riding of Yorkshire and the local transport hub, Hull is a natural focus for retail shoppers. Major department stores in Hull include Debenhams, House of Fraser, and until its collapse British Home Stores (BHS). The city centre has three main shopping centres, St Stephen's, Princes Quay, and the Prospect Centre. There are also a number of "retail parks", and suburban shopping centres including St Andrews Quay retail park on the Humber bank and Kingswood retail park (Kingswood).
Hull also has many shopping streets, both inside and outside the city centre. The main non-city-centre shopping streets are Hessle Road, Holderness Road, Chanterlands Avenue, Beverley Road, Princes Avenue, and Newland Avenue. Additionally, two covered shopping arcades remain in the town centre: Hepworth Arcade, and Paragon Arcade.
The St Stephen's shopping centre development on Ferensway adjacent to Hull Paragon Interchange is a 560,000-square-foot (52,000 m2) scheme, that opened in 2007. It is anchored by a large 24-hour Tesco Extra superstore and provides many shop units, food outlets, a hotel, and a 7 screen cinema. The St Stephens development is in direct competition with the Princes Quay Shopping Centre (1991), which was built on stilts over the closed Prince's Dock, and houses a variety of chain stores and food outlets. It was originally built with four retail floors, known as "decks", with the uppermost deck housing a Vue cinema since December 2007. Since the opening of St Stephens, shopping patterns within the city centre have shifted away from the vicinity around Princes Quay, resulting in reduced footfall.
The Prospect Centre on Prospect Street is a smaller, older shopping centre which benefits from large footfall and is home to a range of chain stores, banks and fashion retailers. It contains branches of Boots, Claire's, a large Wilkos, Poundland, W H Smith, Iceland, and Hull's main post office. Outside the city centre at Bransholme, the North Point Shopping Centre (Bransholme Shopping Centre) contains a similar range of popular chain stores and budget-oriented retailers including Boyes and Heron Foods.
The city's branch of Woolworth's on King Edward Street closed in 2008, as did the branch of T J Hughes on the site of the former C&A store on Ferensway in August 2011, following the parent companies' bankruptcies.
There are a number of budget and discount retailers including four branches of Boyes, Primark, Peacocks. Hull has a selection of supermarkets, including several branches of Tesco, Sainsbury's, Morrisons, the Co-operative and budget food stores.
The electrical retailer Comet Group was founded in the city as Comet Battery Stores Limited in 1933; the company's first superstore was opened in Hull in 1968. Other retailers such as Heron Foods, and Jacksons also began their operations in Hull.
In addition to the St Stephen's retail project, a number of other commercial, office and services developments were planned or took place during the first decade of the 21st century. One high-profile project was the £165 million Humber Quays development, built near to the Humber Estuary, which gained World Trade Centre status as the World Trade Centre Hull & Humber. Phase 1 of the project includes two office buildings and 51 new apartments. A second phase is expected to include a new 200-bedroom 4-star hotel, a restaurant, and more high-quality office space. The 50-stall indoor Edwardian Trinity Market, a grade II listed building, and Hepworth's arcade were modernised and renovated in the late 2000s. The city centre railway station, and adjacent bus terminal were also redeveloped, and were official opened in 2009, as the Hull Paragon Interchange.
Several large-scale developments also planned, including a £100 million residential development on east bank of the River Hull, called the Boom, which would include over 600 luxury riverside apartments, shops, boutiques, bistro cafés, a 120-bed luxury hotel, and health and education facilities. Also planned and not built was the Quay West extension to the Princes Quay shopping centre, that was cancelled in 2010.
The late 2000s recession halted many of the building development projects. Additionally, the local development agency 'Hull Forward' lost funding in June 2010 due to governmental budgetary cuts on public spending . and the regional development agency, Yorkshire Forward was abolished.
An investment of £14.5 million by Network Rail was used to enhance the capacity of the port freight railway line, the Hull Docks branch, (completed 2008); the project was intended to increase its capacity from 10 trains per day to 22.
Development 2010 – present
In January 2011 Siemens Wind Power and Associated British Ports signed a memorandum of understanding concerning the construction of wind turbine manufacturing plant at Alexander Dock. The plan would require some modification of the dock to allow the ships, used for transporting the wind turbines, to dock and be loaded. Planning applications for the plant were submitted in December 2011, and affirmed in 2014, concerning 75-metre (246 ft) blades for the 6 MW offshore model. The creation of an enterprise zone, Humber Enterprise Zone, was announced in 2011 to encourage further industrial development in the Humber Estuary region.
A 12.5-acre (5.1 ha) site waste-to-energy centre costing in the region of £150 million is also planned to be built by the Spencer Group. Announced in mid-2011, and named 'Energy Works', the proposed plant would process up to 200,000 tonnes of organic material per year, with energy produced via a waste gasification process.
In July 2014, demolition began in the Fruit Market to allow room for the construction of the C4DI (Centre for Digital Innovation), a technology hub whose aim is to promote the tech sector in Hull and East Yorkshire. The building was completed and opened in December 2015.
A £1.6 million renovation to Trinity Market started in 2016.
Hull has several museums of national importance. The city has a theatrical tradition with some famous actors and writers having been born and lived in Hull. The city's arts and heritage have played a role in attracting visitors and encouraging tourism in recent efforts at regeneration. Hull has a diverse range of architecture and this is complemented by parks and squares and a number of statues and modern sculptures. The city has inspired author Val Wood who has set many of her best-selling novels in the city. The Wilberforce Lecture and award of the Wilberforce Medallion, which has taken place annually since 1995, celebrates the historic role of Hull and William Wilberforce in combating the abuse of human rights.
In April 2013 Hull put forward a bid to be the UK City of Culture in 2017, reaching the shortlist of four in June 2013 along with Dundee, Leicester and Swansea Bay. On 20 November 2013, Maria Miller, the Culture Secretary, announced that Hull had won the award to become the UK City of Culture 2017.
Hull's Museum Quarter, on the High Street in the heart of the Old Town, consists of Wilberforce House, the Arctic Corsair, the Hull and East Riding Museum (which contains the Hasholme Logboat – Britain's largest surviving prehistoric logboat), and the Streetlife Museum of Transport. Other museums and visitor attractions include the Ferens Art Gallery with a good range of art and regular exhibitions, the Maritime Museum in Victoria Square, the Spurn Lightship, the Yorkshire Water Museum, and The Deep, a public aquarium. The recently refurbished Seven Seas Fish Trail marks Hull's fishing heritage, leading its followers through old and new sections of the city, following a wide variety of sealife engraved in the pavement.
Visual culture and sculpture
Marine painter John Ward (1798–1849) was born, worked and died in Hull and a leading ship artist of his day. Artist and Royal Academician Professor David Remfry (born 1942) grew up in Hull and studied at the Hull College of Art (now part of Lincoln University) from 1959 to 1964. His tutor, Gerald T Harding, trained at the Royal College of Art, London and was awarded the Abbey Minor Travelling Scholarship in 1957 by the British School in Rome. Remfry has had two solo exhibitions at the Ferens Art Gallery in 1975 and 2005.
Hull has a number of historical statues such as the Wilberforce Memorial in Queen's Gardens and the gilded King William III statue on Market Place (known locally as "King Billy"). There is a statue of Hull-born Amy Johnson in Prospect Street. In recent years a number of modern art sculptures and heritage trails have been installed around Hull. These include a figure looking out to the Humber called 'Voyage' which has a twin in Iceland. In July 2011, this artwork was reported stolen. There is a shark sculpture outside The Deep and a fountain and installation called 'Tower of Light' outside Britannia House on the corner of Spring Bank.
Running along Spring Bank there is also an elephant trail, with stone pavers carved by a local artist to the designs of members of the community. This trail commemorates the Victorian Zoological Gardens and the route taken daily by the elephant as it walked from its house down Spring Bank to the zoo and back, stopping for gingerbread at a shop on the way. The animals are further represented on the Albany Street 'Home Zone' a project involving local residents and resulting in sculptures of a hippo ('Water Horse') at the bottom of Albany Street; an elephant balancing on its trunk on an island in the middle; and two bears climbing poles and reaching out to each other to form an open archway across the entrance to Albany street from Spring Bank. Other sculptural details of animals along the street represent the participation of street residents, either through workshops with artists and makers, or through independent work of their own.
In 2010 a public art event in Hull city centre entitled Larkin with Toads displayed 40 individually decorated giant toad models as the centrepiece of the Larkin 25 festival. Most of these sculptures have since been sold off for charity and transported to their new owners. Visitors to Hull's Paragon Interchange are now greeted by the new statue of Philip Larkin unveiled on 2 December 2010.
The city has two main theatres. Hull New Theatre, which opened in 1939, with a £16 million refurbishment in 2016–17, is the largest venue which features musicals, opera, ballet, drama, children's shows and pantomime. The Hull Truck Theatre is a smaller independent theatre, established in 1971, that regularly features plays, notably those written by John Godber. Since April 2009, the Hull Truck Theatre has had a new £14.5 million, 440 seat venue in the St Stephen's Hull development. This replaced the former home of the Hull Truck Theatre on Spring Street, a complex of buildings demolished in 2011. The playwright Alan Plater was brought up in Hull and was associated with Hull Truck Theatre.
Hull has produced several veteran stage and TV actors. Sir Tom Courtenay, Ian Carmichael and Maureen Lipman were born and brought up in Hull. Younger actors Reece Shearsmith, Debra Stephenson and Liam Garrigan were also born in Hull. Garrigan attended Hull's Northern Theatre Company and Wyke College.
In 1914, there were 29 cinemas in Hull but most of these have now closed. The first purpose-built cinema was the Prince's Hall in George Street which was opened in 1910 by Hull's theatre magnate, William Morton. It was subsequently renamed the Curzon.
Philip Larkin set many of his poems in Hull; these include "The Whitsun Weddings", "Toads", and "Here". Scottish-born Douglas Dunn's Terry Street, a portrait of working-class Hull life, is one of the outstanding poetry collections of the 1970s. Dunn forged close associations with such Hull poets as Peter Didsbury and Sean O'Brien; the works of some of these writers appear in the 1982 Bloodaxe anthology A Rumoured City, a work that Dunn edited. Andrew Motion, past Poet Laureate, lectured at the University of Hull between 1976 and 1981, and Roger McGough studied there. Both poets spoke at the Humber Mouth Festival in 2010. Contemporary poets associated with Hull are Maggie Hannan, David Wheatley, and Caitriona O'Reilly.
17th-century metaphysical poet and parliamentarian Andrew Marvell was born nearby, grew up and was educated in the city. There is a statue in his honour in the Market Square (Trinity Square), set against the backdrop of his alma mater Hull Grammar School.
In the field of classical music, Hull is home to Sinfonia UK Collective (formerly Hull Sinfonietta, founded in 2004), a national and international touring group that serves Hull and its surrounding regions in its role as Ensemble in Residence at University of Hull, and also the Hull Philharmonic Orchestra, one of the oldest amateur orchestras in the country. and formerly The Hull Philharmonic Youth Orchestra, established in 1952, the Hull Choral Union, the Hull Bach Choir – which specialises in the performance of 17th- and 18th-century choral music, the Hull Male Voice Choir, the Arterian Singers and two Gilbert & Sullivan Societies: the Dagger Lane Operatic Society and the Hull Savoyards are also based in Hull. There are two brass bands, the East Yorkshire Motor Services Band, who are the current North of England Area Brass Band Champions, and East Riding of Yorkshire Band who are the 2014 North of England Regional Champions within their section.
Hull City Hall annually plays host to major British and European symphony Orchestras with its 'International Masters' orchestral concert season. During the 2009–10 season visiting orchestras included the St Petersburg Symphony Orchestra and the Czech National Symphony Orchestra. Internationally renowned touring pop, rock, and comedy acts also regularly play the City Hall.
Rock, pop and folk
On the popular music scene, in the 1960s, Mick Ronson of the Hull band Rats worked closely with David Bowie and was heavily involved in production of the album The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars. Ronson later went on to record with Lou Reed, Bob Dylan, Morrissey and the Wildhearts. There is a Mick Ronson Memorial Stage in Queen's Gardens in Hull. The 1960s were also notable for the revival of English folk music, of which the Hull-based quartet, the Watersons were prominent exponents. The Who performed and recorded a concert, at the Hull City Hall, on 15 February 1970.
In the 1980s, Hull groups such as the Red Guitars, the Housemartins and Everything but the Girl found mainstream success, followed by Kingmaker in the 1990s. Paul Heaton, former member of the Housemartins went on to front the Beautiful South. Another former member of the Housemartins, Norman Cook, now performs as Fatboy Slim. In 1982, Hull-born Paul Anthony Cook, Stuart Matthewman and Paul Spencer Denman formed the group Sade. In 1984, the singer Helen Adu signed to CBS Records and the group released the album Diamond Life. The album had sales of four million copies. Vocalist and actor Roland Gift, who formed the Fine Young Cannibals, grew up in Hull.
The pioneering industrial band Throbbing Gristle formed in Hull; Genesis P-Orridge (Neil Megson) attended Hull University between 1968 and 1969, where he met Cosey Fanni Tutti (Christine Newby), who was born in the city, and first became part of the Hull performance art group COUM Transmissions in 1970.
The New Adelphi is a popular local venue for alternative live music in the city, and has achieved notability outside Hull, having hosted such bands as the Stone Roses, Radiohead, Green Day, and Oasis in its history, while the Springhead caters to a variety of bands and has been recognised nationally as a 'Live Music Pub of the Year'.
In the 2000s, Hull indie rock band The Paddingtons saw mainstream success with two UK Top 40 singles in 2005, later reforming in 2014 and performing at the Humber Street Sesh with notable bands such as Sulu Babylon and Street Parade.
The Humber Street Sesh night has released four DIY compilations featuring the cream of Hull's live music scene, and there are currently a few labels emerging in the city, including Purple Worm Records based at Hull College, with bands such as The Blackbirds showing a promising future.
Nightlife, bars and pubs
The drinking culture in Hull city centre tends towards late bars, while the wine bars and pubs around Hull University and its accommodation area are popular with students. In particular, the areas around Newland Avenue and Prince's Avenue have seen a rapid expansion in continental-style bars and cafes encouraged by the redesign of the street layout.
The Humber Mouth literature festival is an annual event and the 2012 season featured artists such as John Cooper Clarke, Kevin MacNeil and Miriam Margolyes. The annual Hull Jazz Festival takes place around the Marina area for a week at the beginning of August.
From 2008 Hull has also held its Freedom Festival, an annual free arts and live music event that celebrates freedom in all its forms. Performers have included Pixie Lott, JLS and Martha Reeves and The Vandellas, Public Service Broadcasting and The 1975 as well as featuring a torchlight procession, local bands like The Talks and Happy Endings from Fruit Trade Music label and a Ziggy Stardust photo exhibition including photos of the late-Hull-born Mick Ronson who worked with David Bowie. Former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan was awarded the Wilberforce Medallion at the 2017 festival.
The Hull Global Food Festival held its third annual event in the city's Queen Victoria Square for three days – 4–6 September 2009. According to officials, the event in 2007 attracted 125,000 visitors and brought some £5 million in revenue to the area. In 2007 the Hull Metalfest began in the Welly Club, it featured major label bands from the United States, Canada and Italy, as well as the UK. The first Hull Comedy Festival, which included performers such as Stewart Lee and Russell Howard was held in 2007.
In 2010, Hull marked the 25th anniversary of the death of the poet Philip Larkin with the Larkin 25 Festival. This included the popular Larkin with Toads public art event. The 40 Larkin toads were displayed around Hull and later sold off in a charity auction. A charity appeal raised funds to cast a life-size bronze statue of Philip Larkin, to a design by Martin Jennings, at Hull Paragon Interchange. The statue was unveiled at a ceremony attended by the Lord Mayor of Hull on 2 December 2010, the 25th anniversary of Larkin's death. It bears an inscription drawn from the first line of Larkin's poem, 'The Whitsun Weddings'.
In 2013, from 29 April to 5 May, Hull Fashion Week took place with various events happening in venues in and around Hull's City centre. It finished with a finale on 5 May at Hull Paragon Interchange, when recently reformed pop group Atomic Kitten appeared in a celebrity fashion show.
On 3 August 2013, the second Humber Street Sesh Festival took place celebrating local music talent and arts, with several stages showcasing bands and artists from the Fruit Trade Music Label, Humber Street Sesh and Purple Worm Records.
Parks and green spaces
Hull has a large number of parks and green spaces. These include East Park, Pearson Park, Pickering Park, Peter Pan Park (Costello Playing fields), and West Park. West Park is home to Hull's KCOM Stadium. Pearson Park contains a lake and a 'Victorian Conservatory' housing birds and reptiles. East Park has a large boating lake and a collection of birds and animals. East Park and Pearson Park are registered Grade II listed sites by Historic England. The city centre has the large Queen's Gardens parkland at its heart. This was originally built as formal ornamental gardens used to fill in the former Queen's Dock. It is now a more flexible grassed and landscaped area used for concerts and festivals, but retains a large ornamental flower circus and fountain at its western end.
The streets of Hull's suburban areas also lined with large numbers of trees, particularly the Avenues area around Princes Avenue and Boulevard to the west. Many of the old trees in the Avenues district have been felled in recent years with the stumps carved into a variety of 'living sculptures'. Other green areas include the University area and parts of Beverley Road to the north.
West Hull has a district known as 'Botanic'. This recalls the short-lived Botanic Garden that once existed on the site now occupied by Hymers College. Elephants once lived nearby in the former Zoological Gardens on Spring Bank and were paraded in the local streets. The land has since been redeveloped. There was also a former Botanic Garden between Hessle Road and the Anlaby Road commemorated by Linnaeus Street.
Hull's only local daily newspaper is the longstanding Hull Daily Mail, whose circulation area covers much of the East Riding of Yorkshire too. A free paper, The Hull Advertiser, used to be issued weekly by the same publisher. The city was once served by three competing daily newspapers, all operating from the Whitefriargate area Eastern Morning News, Hull News and Hull and East Yorkshire Times. On 17 April 1930 the last edition of Evening News was published after the paper was taken over by its longstanding rival the Hull Daily Mail.
Local listings and what's-on guides include Tenfoot City Magazine and Sandman Magazine (combined into single volume covering all of England, print version then made defunct in favour of online site). The BBC has its Yorkshire and Lincolnshire regional headquarters at Queen's Gardens, from which the regional news programme Look North is broadcast.
Radio services broadcasting from the city are Hull's community radio station, 106.9 West Hull FM (formerly WHCR FM) broadcasting since 2007 and the BBC's regional station BBC Radio Humberside the oldest in the area, as well as commercial stations Viking FM founded in the 1980s, KCFM founded in 2007 and Viking 2 (radio) formally Magic 1161 an oldies station, although none of its shows are now broadcast from Hull. There is the hospital radio station Kingstown Radio, founded in 1961, all of which broadcast to the wider East Riding of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire area. Capital FM Yorkshire broadcasts in the area, but is based over 60 miles away in Leeds. The Hull University Union's student radio station Jam 1575, stopped broadcasting on MW due to funding cuts, but has recently (in 2014) re-launched as JamRadio, as an online only station, aimed at students at the University.
On 24 November 2013 a RSL (Restricted Service Licence) was given to new station "Hull Community Radio" broadcasting on 87.9 FM. As of 2014, it is now broadcasting online only and is bidding for a licence from Ofcom to broadcast on FM to East Hull.
The Hull area has available a wide range of both spectator and participatory sporting clubs and organisations. There are various sports such as professional football, rugby league, golf, darts, athletics and watersports.
The city's professional football club, Hull City A.F.C. (The Tigers), play in the EFL Championship, the second tier of the English football league system, after relegation from the Premier League in the 2016–17 season.
The team play at the KCOM Stadium. There are also two non-league clubs based in the city, Hall Road Rangers, who play at Haworth Park, and Hull United, who play at KCOM Craven Park Stadium. Both teams play in the Northern Counties East Division One.
Hull is also a rugby league hub, in the Super League competition is Hull F.C., alongside the city's football club Hull City, play at the KCOM Stadium. Also in Super League are Hull Kingston Rovers, who play at KCOM Craven Park Stadium in East Hull, following promotion from the Rugby League Championship in 2017. There are also several lower league teams in the city, such as East Hull, West Hull, Hull Dockers and Hull Isberg, who all play in the National Conference League. Rugby union is catered for by Hull Ionians who play at Brantingham Park. and Hull RUFC who are based in the city.
The city has two athletics clubs based at the Costello Stadium in the west of the city – Kingston upon Hull Athletics Club and Hull Achilies Athletics Club.
Cycling wise the city is home to Hull Cycle Speedway Club situated at the Hessle raceway near the Humber bridge. The side race in the sports Northern league and won both the league titles in 2008. Other cycling clubs also operate throughout the city including Hull Thursday, the areas road racing group.
The city also has Hull Arena, a large ice rink and concert venue, which was home to the Hull Pirates ice hockey team who played in the English Premier League. It is also home to the Kingston Kestrels ice sledge hockey team. In August 2010, Hull Daily Mail reported that Hull Stingrays was facing closure, following a financial crisis. The club was subsequently saved from closure following a takeover by Coventry Blaze. But on 24 June 2015, the club announced on its official website that it has been placed into liquidation.
The Hull Hornets American Football existed from 2005 until 2011. The club, which acquired full member status in the British American Football League on 5 November 2006, played in the BAFL Division 2 Central league for 5 years. The Humber Warhawks formed in 2013 are now Hull's American football team. Greyhound racing returned to the city on 25 October 2007 when The Boulevard stadium re-opened as a venue for the sport. In mid-2006 Hull was home to the professional wrestling company One Pro Wrestling, which held the Devils Due event on 27 July in the Gemtec Arena. From 16 May 2008, Hull gained its own homegrown wrestling company based at the Eastmount Recreation Centre—New Generation Wrestling—that have featured the likes of El Ligero, Kris Travis, Martin Kirby and Alex Shane.
Hull Lacrosse Club was formed in 2008 and currently plays in the Premier 3 division of the North of England Men's Lacrosse Association.
The city played host to the Clipper Round the World Yacht Race, a tough 35,000 miles (56,000 km) race around the globe, for the 2009–10 race which started on 13 September 2009 and finished on 17 July 2010. The locally named yacht, Hull and Humber, captained by Danny Watson, achieved second place in the 2007–2008 race.
The main road into and out of Hull is the M62 motorway/A63 road, one of the main east–west routes in Northern England. It provides a link to the cities of Leeds, Manchester and Liverpool, as well as the rest of the country via the UK motorway network. The motorway itself ends some distance from the city; the rest of the route is along the A63 dual carriageway. This east–west route forms a small part of the European road route E20.
Hull is close to the Humber Bridge, which provides road links to destinations south of the Humber. It was built between 1972 and 1981, and at the time was the longest single-span suspension bridge in the world. It is now eighth on the list.
Bus services are provided by East Yorkshire Motor Services (EYMS) and Stagecoach in Hull which cover the city's central, suburban and industrial areas. To provide greater travel flexibility, bus users can obtain a 'Hull Card' which can be used on services run by either operator. 
Hull Paragon Interchange, opened on 16 September 2007, is the city's transport hub, combining the main bus and rail termini in an integrated complex. It is expected to have 24,000 people passing through the complex each day. There are services that run to certain other parts of the UK. These include through expresses to London, up to seven per day provided by Hull Trains and one a day (the Hull Executive) by Virgin Trains East Coast. Other long-distance rail services are provided by TransPennine Express serving Leeds and Manchester. The nearest access to fast East Coast Main Line services northwards to Teesside, Tyneside and Scotland is via either York or Doncaster, in either case requiring a connecting journey by local train from Hull. Hull also has no through trains to the West Midlands and beyond. Northern operates regular local stopping trains to Beverley, Brough and Goole, and the coastal towns of Bridlington and Scarborough, along with services to Selby, York, Doncaster and Sheffield.
P&O Ferries provide daily overnight ferry services from King George Dock in Hull to Zeebrugge and Rotterdam. Services to Rotterdam are worked by ferries MS Pride of Rotterdam and MS Pride of Hull. Services to Zeebrugge are worked by ferries MS Pride of Bruges and MS Pride of York (previously named MS Norsea). Both Pride of Rotterdam and Pride of Hull are too wide to pass through the lock at Hull. Associated British Ports built a new terminal at Hull to accommodate the passengers using these two ferries. The Rotterdam Terminal at the Port of Hull, was built at a cost of £14,300,000.
The nearest airport is Humberside Airport, 20 miles (32 km) away in Lincolnshire, which provides a few charter flights but also has high-frequency flights to Amsterdam with KLM and Aberdeen with Eastern Airways each day. Robin Hood Airport in South Yorkshire is 48 miles (77 km) from Hull city centre and provides a wider choice of charter flights as well as a number of low-cost flights to certain European destinations. The nearest airport with intercontinental flights is Leeds Bradford International Airport (70 miles).
Road transport in Hull suffers from delays caused both by the many bridges over the navigable River Hull, which bisects the city and which can cause disruption at busy times, and from the remaining three railway level crossings in the city. The level-crossing problem was greatly relieved during the 1960s by the closure of the Hornsea and Withernsea branch lines, by the transfer of all goods traffic to the high-level line that circles the city, and by the construction of two major road bridges on Hessle Road (1962) and Anlaby Road (1964).
According to the 2001 census data cycling in the city is well above the national average of 2%, with a 12% share of the travel to work traffic. A report by the University of East London in 2011 ranked Hull as the fourth-best cycling city in the United Kingdom.
Hull is the only city in the UK with its own independent telephone network company, KCOM, formerly KC and Kingston Communications, a subsidiary of KCOM Group. Its distinctive cream telephone boxes can be seen across the city. KCOM produces its own 'White Pages' telephone directory for Hull and the wider KC area. Colour Pages is KCOM's business directory, the counterpart to Yellow Pages. The company was formed in 1902 as a municipal department by the City Council and is an early example of municipal enterprise. It remains the only locally operated telephone company in the UK, although it is now privatised. KCOM's Internet brands are Karoo Broadband (ISP serving Hull) and Eclipse (national ISP). Initially Hull City Council retained a 44.9 per cent interest in the company and used the proceeds from the sale of shares to fund the city's sports venue, the KCOM Stadium, among other things. On 24 May 2007 it sold its remaining stake in the company for over £107 million.
KCOM (Kingston Communications) was one of the first telecoms operators in Europe to offer ADSL to business users, and the first in the world to run an interactive television service using ADSL, known as Kingston Interactive TV (KiT), which has since been discontinued due to financial problems. In the last decade, the KCOM Group has expanded beyond Hull and diversified its service portfolio to become a nationwide provider of telephone, television, and Internet access services, having close to 180,000 customers projected for 2007. After its ambitious programme of expansion, KCOM has struggled in recent years and now has partnerships with other telecommunications firms such as BT who are contracted to manage its national infrastructure. Telephone House, on Carr Lane, the firm's 1960s-built headquarters, in stark modernist style, is a local landmark.
The first public hydraulic power network, supplying many companies, was constructed in Hull. The Hull Hydraulic Power Company began operation in 1877, with Edward B. Ellington as its engineer and the main pumping station (now a Grade II listed building) in Catherine Street. Ellington was involved in most British networks, including those in London, Liverpool, Birmingham, Manchester and Glasgow, but the advent of electrical power combined with wartime damage meant the Hull company was wound up in 1947.
Policing in Kingston upon Hull is provided by Humberside Police. In October 2006 the force was named (jointly with Northamptonshire Police) as the worst-performing police force in the United Kingdom, based on data released from the Home Office. However, after a year of "major improvements", the Home Office list released in October 2007 shows the force rising several places (although still among the bottom six of 43 forces rated). Humberside Police received ratings of "good" or "fair" in most categories.
Statutory emergency fire and rescue service is provided by the Humberside Fire and Rescue Service, which has its headquarters near Hessle and five fire stations in Hull. This service was formed in 1974 following local government reorganisation from the amalgamation of the East Riding of Yorkshire County Fire Service, Grimsby Borough Fire and Rescue Service, Kingston Upon Hull City Fire Brigade and part of the Lincoln (Lindsey) Fire Brigade and a small part of the West Riding of Yorkshire County Fire and Rescue Service.
Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust provides healthcare from three sites, Hull Royal Infirmary, Castle Hill Hospital and, until 2010, Princess Royal Hospital and there are several private hospitals including ones run by BUPA and Nuffield Hospitals. The Yorkshire Ambulance Service provides emergency patient transport. NHS primary health care services are commissioned by the Hull Clinical Commissioning Group and are provided at several smaller clinics and general practitioner surgeries across the city. NHS Mental health services in Hull are provided by Humber NHS Foundation Trust. It runs a memory clinic in Coltman Street, west Hull designed to help older people with early onset dementia.
Waste management is co-ordinated by the local authority. The Waste Recycling Group is a company which works in partnership with the Hull City and East Riding of Yorkshire councils to deal with the waste produced by residents. The company plans to build an energy from waste plant at Salt End to deal with 240,000 tonnes of rubbish and put waste to a productive use by providing power for the equivalent of 20,000 houses. Hull's Distribution Network Operator for electricity is CE Electric UK (YEDL); there are no power stations in the city. Yorkshire Water manages Hull's drinking and waste water. Drinking water is provided by boreholes and aquifers in the East Riding of Yorkshire, and it is abstracted from the River Hull at Tophill Low, near Hutton Cranswick. Should either supply experience difficulty meeting demand, water abstracted from the River Derwent at both Elvington and Loftsome Bridge can be moved to Hull via the Yorkshire water grid. There are many reservoirs in the area for storage of potable and non-potable water. Waste water and sewage has to be transported in a wholly pumped system because of the flat nature of the terrain to a sewage treatment works at Salt End. The treatment works is partly powered by both a wind turbine and a biogas CHP engine.
University of Hull
Kingston upon Hull is home to the University of Hull, which was founded in 1927 and received its Royal Charter in 1954. It now has a total student population of around 20,000 across its main campuses in Hull and Scarborough. The main University campus is in North Hull, on Cottingham Road. Notable alumni include former Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott, the poet Philip Larkin, social scientist Lord Anthony Giddens, Woman's Hour presenter and writer Jenni Murray, and the dramatist Anthony Minghella. The University of Hull is a partner in the new University Centre of the Grimsby Institute of Further and Higher Education (GIFE) being built in Grimsby, North Lincolnshire.
Hull York Medical School
Hull York Medical School is a joint venture between the University of Hull and the University of York. It first admitted students in 2003 as a part of the British government's attempts to train more doctors.
University of Lincoln
The University of Lincoln grew out of the University of Humberside, a former polytechnic based in Hull. In the 1990s the focus of the institution moved to nearby Lincoln and the administrative headquarters and management moved in 2001. The University of Lincoln has retained a campus in George Street in Hull city centre whilst Hull University purchased the adjacent University of Lincoln campus site on Cottingham Road. Following government cuts to Higher Education funding, the George Street campus is due to close in 2013 with courses transferred to Lincoln.
The Northern Academy of Performing Arts and Northern Theatre School both provide education in musical theatre, performance and dance.
Schools and colleges
Hull has over 100 local schools; of these, Hull City Council supports 14 secondary and 71 primary schools. The highest achieving state school in Hull is Malet Lambert School, Schools which are independent of the City Council include Hymers College and Hull Collegiate School. The latter, which is run by the United Church Schools Trust, was formed by the merging of Hull Grammar School and Hull High School. There is a further education college, Hull College, and two large sixth form colleges, Wyke College and Wilberforce College. East Riding College operates a small adult education campus in the city, and Endeavour Learning and Skills Centre is an adult education provision operated by HCC Training. Hull Trinity House Academy has been offering pre-sea training to prospective mariners since 1787. There are only two single-sex schools in Hull: Trinity House Academy, which teaches only boys, and Newland School for Girls.
The city has had a poor examination success rate for many years and is often at the bottom of government GCSE league tables. In 2007 the city moved off the bottom of these tables for pupils who achieve five A* to C grades, including English and Maths, at General Certificate of Secondary Education by just one place when it came 149th out of 150 local education authorities. However, the improvement rate of 4.1 per cent, from 25.9 per cent in 2006 to 30 per cent in summer 2007, was among the best in the country. They returned to the bottom of the table in 2008 when 29.3 per cent achieved five A* to C grades which is well below the national average of 47.2 per cent. There are insufficient places in referral units for school children with special needs or challenging behaviour due to squeezed budgets and cuts to children's services.
Dialect and accent
The local accent is quite distinctive and noticeably different from the rest of the East Riding; however it is still categorised among Yorkshire accents. The most notable feature of the accent is the strong I-mutation in words like goat, which is [ˈɡəʊt] in standard English and [ˈɡoːt] across most of Yorkshire, becomes [ˈɡɵːʔt̚ ] ("gert") in and around parts of Hull (cf. similar refined pronunciations in Leeds/York), although there is variation across areas and generations. In common with much of England (outside of the far north), another feature is dropping the H from the start of words, for example Hull is more often pronounced 'Ull in the city. The vowel in "Hull" is pronounced the same way as in northern English, however, and not as the very short /ʊ/ that exists in Lincolnshire. Though the rhythm of the accent is more like that of northern Lincolnshire than that of the rural East Riding, which is perhaps due to migration from Lincolnshire to the city during its industrial growth, one feature that it does share with the surrounding rural area is that an /aɪ/ sound in the middle of a word often becomes an /ɑː/: for example, "five" may sound like "fahve", "time" like "tahme".
The SQUARE~NURSE merger is a feature of Hull's dialect. The vowel sound in words such as burnt, nurse, first is pronounced with an /ɛ/ sound, as is also heard in Middlesbrough and in areas of Liverpool yet this sound is very uncommon in most of Yorkshire. The word pairs spur/spare and fur/fair illustrate this. The generational and/or geographic variation can be heard in word pairs like pork/poke or cork/coke, or hall/hole, which some people pronounce almost identically, sounding to non-locals like they are using the second of the two variations - while others make more of a vocal distinction; anyone called "Paul" (for example) soon becomes aware of this (pall/pole).
- Most of the notable people associated with the city can be found in the People from Kingston upon Hull and People associated with the University of Hull categories.
People from Hull are called "Hullensians" and the city has been the birthplace and home to many notable people. Amongst those of historic significance with a connection to Hull are former city MP William Wilberforce who was instrumental in the abolition of slavery and Amy Johnson, aviator who was the first woman to fly solo from England to Australia.
Entertainers from the city include; Dorothy Mackaill, 1950s singer David Whitfield, sports commentator Tony Green, actors Sir Tom Courtenay, Ian Carmichael, John Alderton and more recently Reece Shearsmith. and actress Maureen Lipman. Playwrights Richard Bean, John Godber and Alan Plater have close connections with Hull.
Musicians include: Paul Heaton of The Housemartins and The Beautiful South, and guitarists Mick Ronson and Trevor Bolder, who worked with David Bowie and more recently 2000s indie band The Paddingtons. The astrophysicist Edward Arthur Milne and logician John Venn both hailed from Hull. The poet Philip Larkin lived in Hull for 30 years and wrote much of his mature work in the city. Artist David Remfry RA studied at Hull College of Art before moving to London and New York.
Chemist Professor George Gray, who had a 45-year career at the university, developed the first stable liquid crystals that became an immediate success for the screens of all sorts of electronic gadgets. Notable sportspeople include Clive Sullivan, rugby league player, who played for both of Hull's professional rugby league teams and was the first black Briton to captain any national representative team. The main A63 road into the city from the Humber Bridge is named after him (Clive Sullivan Way). Nick Barmby played for Tottenham Hotspur, Middlesbrough, Everton, Liverpool, and Leeds United before returning to play for his hometown club Hull City. He also won 23 England caps and played in the famous 5-1 victory over Germany in 2001. Another footballer is Dean Windass, who had two spells with Hull City. On accepting a peerage, Welsh-born Baron Prescott of Kingston-upon-Hull (former MP and Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott) took his title from his adopted home city of Hull.
The following cities are named directly after Hull:
- Grade I listed churches in the East Riding of Yorkshire
- Trams in Kingston upon Hull
- Trolleybuses in Kingston upon Hull
- a There was no census in 1941: figures are from National Register. United Kingdom and Isle of Man. Statistics of Population on 29 September 1939 by Sex, Age and Marital Condition.
- b The Hull Daily Mail article indicates the 1991 population was 254,117.
- c There is a discrepancy of 6 between Office for National Statistics figures (quoted before) and those on the Vision of Britain website (quoted here).
- d The Hull Daily Mail article indicates the 2001 population was 246,355.
- UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Kingston upon Hull, City of Local Authority (1946157109)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
- "Kingston upon Hull". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Retrieved 8 July 2008.
- Lambert, Tim. "A Brief History of Kingston upon Hull". Retrieved 1 March 2013.
- "Brief history of Hedon". Hedon Town Council: Working for You. Hedon Town Council. 2007. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- "History of Hull". Hull City Council. 2007. Retrieved 22 September 2007.
- Allison, K.J., ed. (1969). A History of the County of York East Riding: Volume 1 – The City of Kingston upon Hull. Victoria County History. Oxford University Press. OCLC 504890087. Retrieved 2 July 2008.
- "Slavery: unfinished business". Wilberforce 2007: Hull. 2007. Archived from the original on 21 September 2007. Retrieved 23 September 2007.
- Parkinson, Michael; Champion, Tony; Evans, Richard; Simmie, James; Turok, Ivan; Crookston, Martin; Katz, Bruce; Park, Alison; Berube, Alan; Coombes, Mike; Dorling, Danny; Glass, Norman; Hutchins, Mary; Kearns, Ade; Martin, Ron; Wood, Peter (March 2006). State of the English Cities: Volume 1 (PDF). London: Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. p. 112. ISBN 1-85112-845-X. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 5 March 2009.
- "Turner Prize a 'honeypot' for Hull". BBC News. BBC. 28 May 2015. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
- "Wetland Heritage of the Hull Valley". Wetland Archaeology and Environments Research Centre, Dept. of Geography, University of Hull. 16 February 2006. Retrieved 16 February 2008.
- 'Medieval Hull', A History of the County of York East Riding: Volume 1: The City of Kingston upon Hull. British History Online. University of London & History of Parliament Trust. 1969. pp. 11–85. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- Frost, Charles (1827). "II. Of the name and state of the Town antecedently to the period of its supposed foundation in the year 1296". Notices relative to the early history of the town and port of Hull. J.B. Nichols. pp. 5–28.
- Craggs, John (1817). Craggs's guide to Hull. A description, historical and topographical, of the town, county, and vicinity of the town of Kingston-upon-Hull. Hull: Thomas Wilson and Sons. p. 1. OCLC 557289691.
- Allison, K.J., ed. (1969). A History of the County of York East Riding: Volume 1: The City of Kingston upon Hull. Victoria County History. Retrieved 16 February 2008.
- "Hull's docks and trade" (PDF). Hull City Council. 5 October 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- "Point 4: River Hull Walkway". BBC Humber. 5 October 2005. Retrieved 22 September 2007.
- Keys, David (24 July 2000). "English syphilis epidemic pre-dated European outbreaks by 150 years". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 10 November 2011. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- Evans, Nicholas J. (1999). "Migration from Northern Europe to America via the Port of Hull, 1848–1914". WISE (Wilberforce Institute for the study of Slavery and Emancipation), University of Hull. Retrieved 28 January 2010.
- "Archives and Special Collections: Subject guides – Business Records". Archives and Special Collections, Brynmor Jones Library, University of Hull. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
- "Listed status for bombed cinema". BBC News. 2 February 2007. Retrieved 2 February 2007.
- "Hull Bombing Map". Rob & Val Haywood. Retrieved 13 May 2010.
- Geraghty, T. (1989). A North East Coast Town. Mr Pye Books. p. 7. ISBN 0-946289-45-X.
- Stokes, Paul (16 January 2006). "Risk to builders from wartime bombs". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 29 April 2009.
- "BBC Inside Out". BBC. Retrieved 29 April 2009.
- "A History of Kingston on Hull from Bulmer's Gazetteer (1892)". GENUKI UK & Ireland Genealogy. Archived from the original on 20 January 2009. Retrieved 4 July 2008.
- "Contact us". Hull City Council. Retrieved 16 September 2007.
- "Council is worst in the country". BBC News. 16 December 2004. Retrieved 9 November 2006.
- "Audit Commission Comprehensive Performance Assessment – Two stars for Hull". Hull City Council. 22 February 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2007.
- "CPA 2007 – Hull on the move again, as Council now judged to be "improving well"". Hull City Council. 7 February 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
- "Two Stars For City Council". Hull Daily Mail. 7 February 2008.
- "New star brings a twinkle to the City Council". Hull City Council. 5 March 2009. Retrieved 6 March 2009.
- "Lib Dems take Hull with big swing". BBC News. 4 May 2007. Retrieved 4 May 2007.
- "Local Elections 2008 – Kingston Upon Hull City Council". BBC Humber. 2 May 2008. Retrieved 8 May 2008.
- "Election results at a glance". Hull City Council. May 2010. Archived from the original on 4 October 2011. Retrieved 13 May 2010.
- "Kingston-upon-Hull seats at a glance". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- "Kingston upon Hull". Vote 2012. BBC. 4 May 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- "Local election results 2014". Hull City Council. 23 May 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- "Local election results 2015". Hull City Council. 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- "Hull West & Hessle Parliamentary constituency". Election 2017. BBC. 9 June 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- "Hull North Parliamentary constituency". Election 2015. BBC. 9 June 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- "Hull East Parliamentary constituency". Election 2015. BBC. 9 June 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- "William Wilberforce". Wilberforce 2007. 2007. Archived from the original on 9 November 2007. Retrieved 16 April 2008.
- "William Wilberforce (1759–1833)". A Web of English History. 21 August 2007. Archived from the original on 16 April 2008. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
- "European Election 2014: Yorkshire and The Humber". BBC News. May 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
- "A rural strategy for the Hull and Humber Ports City Region". Humber Rural Partnership. June 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 September 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- "Hull City Plan. Written Statement" (PDF). Hull City Council. May 2000. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
- Allison, K.J., ed. (1969). 'Outlying villages: Introduction', A History of the County of York East Riding: Volume 1: The City of Kingston upon Hull (1969). Victoria County History. p. 459. Retrieved 27 April 2008.
- "Hull Bed and Breakfast: Local Information". BedandBreakfastMap.co.uk. 2009. Archived from the original on 20 December 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
- "Hull Tidal Surge Barrier – Facts and Figures". Environment Agency. Archived from the original on 4 August 2006. Retrieved 9 November 2006.
- "Yorkshire's grim future: Fires, floods and drought". Yorkshire Post. Leeds. 10 December 2005. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
- Coulthard, Tom. "Hull Floods, June 2007". coulthard.org.uk. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- Drinkwater, Andy; Orman, Nick; Wood, John (18 January 2008). "Hull Flooding June 2007: Expert Opinion" (PDF). Water Services Regulation Authority (OFWAT): 3.
- Zong, Y.; Tooley, M.J. (2003). "A historical record of coastal floods in Britain : frequencies and associated storm tracks" (PDF). Natural hazards. Durham Research Online, Durham University. 29 (1): 13–36. doi:10.1023/A:1022942801531.
- "Flooding, Hull". House of Commons sittings, Orders of the Day. Hansard. 639. cc1087-98. 1 May 1961.
- "About Holy Trinity". Holy Trinity Church. Archived from the original on 14 December 2007. Retrieved 28 November 2007.
- "Hull Minster: Holy Trinity Church re-dedicated". BBC News. BBC. 13 May 2017. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
- "Alison White appointed Bishop of Hull". Diocese of Newcastle. 25 March 2015. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
- "Parishes". Middlesbrough Diocese. 2007. Retrieved 8 July 2008.
- "The Church of St Charles Borromeo". Saint Charles Borromeo Church. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- "Ports Worldwide: Hull". The Mission to Seafarers. 2007. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 28 October 2007.
- "Local Congregations: Danish Services". Lutheran Council of Great Britain. 2006. Retrieved 28 October 2007.
- "July average maximum map". Archived from the original on 9 April 2011. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
- "1990 Maximum". Retrieved 1 March 2011.
- "Annual average highest maximum". Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- "annual >25c days". Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- "1982 minimum". Retrieved 1 March 2011.
- "Climate Normals 1981-2010". Met Office. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- "Climate Normals 1971–2000". KNMI. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
- "Earthquake felt across much of UK". BBC News. BBC. 27 February 2008. Retrieved 27 February 2008.
- "Kingston upon Hull UA/City: Total Population". A Vision of Britain Through Time. Great Britain Historical GIS Project. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
- "Census: Hull's population reaches 20-year high". Hull Daily Mail. 12 December 2012. Archived from the original on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "City of Kingston upon Hull profile of 2001 census". National Statistics Online. Office for National Statistics. 2003. Retrieved 4 November 2007.
- "Tenure – Households (UV63)". Retrieved 5 July 2008.
- "Quinary age groups and sex for local authorities in the United Kingdom; estimated resident population; Mid-2006 Population Estimates". National Statistics Online. Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 13 February 2008. Retrieved 24 April 2008.
- "Ethnicity profiles: Yorkshire and The Humber – Hull". Commission for Racial Equality. Archived from the original on 14 August 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2009.
- "Kurds in Hull". The Guardian. London. 23 January 2006. Retrieved 4 April 2009.
- Martin, Wroe (November–December 2001). "Empty pews full agendas". Sojourners Magazine. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
- "The Humber Ports". Hull Maritime Alliance. Retrieved 5 March 2009.
- "Ports & Logistics". Hull.co.uk. 2008. Retrieved 8 June 2008.
- "hull port". P&O Ferries. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
- "Hull Developing Our Economy". Hull.co.uk. 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2008.
- "Healthcare Technologies". Hull.co.uk. 2008. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
- "Hull: the facts and figures". Yorkshire Forward. Archived from the original on 23 April 2009. Retrieved 15 May 2009.
- "Vue to open first all digital cinema in Hull" (Press release). Vue Corporate. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
- "Welcome to the hive of high street names at the Prospect Shopping Centre!". Prospect Shopping Centre. Retrieved 10 June 2010.
- "Date of Woolworths closures announced". Hull Daily Mail. 23 December 2008. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
- "TJ Hughes to close on August 14". Hull Daily Mail. 4 August 2011. Archived from the original on 16 June 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
- "Company History". Comet Group. Archived from the original on 8 November 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
- "The Humber – Global gateway – World Trade Centre". Government Office for Yorkshire and the Humber. August 2006. p. 12. Archived from the original on 27 August 2009. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- "Humber Quays". Hull Forward. 2007. Retrieved 25 April 2008.
- "Humber Quays Phase Two". Hull Forward. 2007. Retrieved 25 April 2008.
- Historic England. "Details from image database (387688)". Images of England. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "Hull in print". Hull City Council. Retrieved 15 May 2009.
- "Pure Urban Outlines £88m Spectacular Waterside Development" (Press release). Hull Forward. 29 July 2005. Retrieved 25 April 2008.
- "About Quay West". Princes Quay Shopping Centre. Retrieved 4 July 2008.
- "Princes Quay blow for shoppers as £200 million extension cancelled". Hull Daily Mail. 30 October 2010. Archived from the original on 1 November 2010. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
- "Recession keeping plans on the drawing board". This is Hull and East Riding. 5 July 2012. Archived from the original on 21 April 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- "Hull Forward development company to close after cuts". BBC News. 9 June 2010. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
- "Fears city will struggle to attract major investment as axe falls on Hull Forward". Hull Daily Mail. 9 June 2010. Archived from the original on 10 June 2010. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
- "Coalition government axes £2bn of projects". BBC News. 17 June 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
- "Yorkshire Forward agency axed in budget". BBC News. 22 June 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2010.
- "'Iconic' bridge plans submitted". BBC News. 21 August 2007. Retrieved 30 April 2008.
- "Bridging gap in city's economy". Hull Daily Mail. 1 September 2009. p. 4.
- "Hull's new pedestrian bridge is formally opened". BBC News. 28 June 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- "Network Rail unveils plans for Humber ports". The Railway Herald (76). 16 March 2007. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- "Hull Dock Rail Improvements – Work Begins". Rail Technology Magazine. Cognitive Publishing Ltd. 1 November 2007. Archived from the original on 19 February 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- Bounds, Andrew (20 January 2011). "Hull for wind turbine plant". Financial Times. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- "Siemens selects ABP as preferred bidder for UK wind turbine factory" (Press release). Siemens. 20 January 2011. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- Webb, Tim (20 January 2011). "Siemens chooses Hull for wind turbine plant generating 700 jobs". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- "Hull wind turbine factory plans submitted". BBC News. BBC. 13 December 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- "Siemens to construct factory for offshore wind power in Great Britain" (PDF). SWP PR. 25 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
- "Siemens confirm Green Port Hull wind turbine factory to be built". BBC News. BBC. 25 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
- "On the map: Hull's green energy jobs windfall 'by 2015'". This is Hull and East Riding. 16 June 2011. Archived from the original on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
- "Humber Enterprise Zone bid successful". Hull Chamber of Commerce. 17 August 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
- "Energy Works - Hull". Spencer Group. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- "£150m 'green' waste power station plan for Hull". This is Hull and East Riding. 14 June 2011. Archived from the original on 10 August 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
- "Developers claim plant will put Hull at forefront of UK's renewables industry". Hull Daily Mail. 14 June 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2013.[permanent dead link]
- "Spencer Group ready to build renewables plant". Yorkshire Post. 29 July 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
- "Work starts on Fruit Market site of new £15m digital complex in Hull". Hull Daily Mail. 3 July 2014. Archived from the original on 13 July 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- "'Unique' C4DI digital hub open for business in Hull". Hull Daily Mail. 17 December 2015. Archived from the original on 21 December 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
- "Hull's indoor market to undergo £1.6m refurbishment". BBC News. BBC. 6 April 2016. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- "Coventry and Hull among 10 'historic action zones'". BBC News. BBC. 20 March 2017. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
- "Celebrating trail launch at library". This is Hull and East Riding. 10 July 2012. Retrieved 4 July 2013.[permanent dead link]
- "Wilberforce Lecture Trust". Wilberforce Lecture Trust. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
- "Kofi Annan gets Wilberforce honour at Freedom Festival". BBC. 2 September 2017. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
- "Deadline passes for UK City of Culture 2017 bids". BBC News. BBC. 30 April 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
- "UK City of Culture 2017 shortlist of four announced". BBC News. BBC. 19 June 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
- "Hull named UK City of Culture 2017". BBC News. BBC. 20 November 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- "Conservation work must continue on ancient boat". Yorkshire Post. Leeds. 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- "Streetlife Museum". Hull City Council. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- "The Spurn Lightship". Hull City Council. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- "East Yorkshire – Museums and Art Galleries". Traveller's World. Centrepoint Management Services Ltd. 1995–2007. Retrieved 4 November 2007.
- "Welcome". The Deep: The World's Only Submarium. EMIH Limited. 2007. Retrieved 4 November 2007.
- "Take a stroll". Hull City Council. Retrieved 8 July 2008.
- "Oil painting may have been stolen from museum to order". Yorkshire Post. 8 July 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
- Mount, Harry (6 December 2005). "In the studio: David Remfry". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- "Amy Johnson (part 2)". Hull Museums Collections. Hull City Council. 2008. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
- "Maritime heritage". leisure & culture. Hull City Council. 2010. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
- "Who stole 300kg fishermen's statue?". Hull Daily Mail. 26 July 2011. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
- "Jumbo sized history". BBC. May 2008. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- "Larkin toads get finishing touches". Hull Daily Mail. 13 July 2010. Archived from the original on 3 May 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
- "Hull's Larkin toads make £60,000 at charity auction". BBC News. BBC. 26 September 2010. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
- "Philip Larkin statue unveiled in Hull". BBC News. BBC. 2 December 2010. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
- "History of the Hull New Theatre". Hull City Council. 2008. Retrieved 4 February 2008.
- "Hull New Theatre". Hull City Council. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- "Hull New Theatre looks incredible ahead of grand reopening". Hull Daily Mail. 15 September 2017. Retrieved 16 September 2017.
- "About Us. Our History". Hull Truck Theatre Company. 2009. Archived from the original on 10 April 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2009.
- "About Us. John Godber". Hull Truck Theatre Company. Archived from the original on 27 May 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2009.
- Hill, Charli (10 September 2008). "Keep on Truck-in'". BBC Humberside. Retrieved 25 April 2009.
- "Truck announces opening programme for Ferensway". WhatsOnStage.com. 10 March 2009. Archived from the original on 16 June 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
- "The Venue". Hull Truck Theatre Company. 2009. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
- "Hull Truck Theatre (Spring St)". The Theatres Trust. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- "91 To-Day. Mr W. Morton, Hull's Theatre Magnate". Hull Daily Mail. 24 January 1929. p. 3 – via British National Archives.
- Calvert, Hugh (1978). A history of Kingston upon Hull. Phillimore. p. 276.
- "Welcome to the Department of English". University of Hull. Archived from the original on 1 March 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- "Philip Larkin". Poets' Graves: Serious about poets and poetry. Cameron Self. 2006. Retrieved 13 January 2008.
- "The Writers – Douglas Dunn (1942– ) – Works". Writing Scotland. BBC. Retrieved 9 November 2007.
- Smith, Jules (2005). "Peter Didsbury". Contemporary writers. British Council. Archived from the original on 10 April 2007. Retrieved 13 January 2008.
- Forbes, Peter (2002). "Andrew Motion". Contemporary writers. British Council. Archived from the original on 1 October 2007. Retrieved 13 January 2008.
- "Roger McGough (1937– )". Archives: Modern English literature and drama subject guide. University of Hull. 2008. Retrieved 13 January 2008.
- "Maggie Hannan, Author". Bloodaxe Books. 2006. Archived from the original on 19 October 2007. Retrieved 13 January 2008.
- "Ups and Downs: Tim Kendall reviews Mocker by David Wheatley". Tower Poetry. 2006. Archived from the original on 8 November 2007. Retrieved 13 January 2008.
- "Caitriona O'Reilly, Author". Bloodaxe Books. 2006. Archived from the original on 19 October 2007. Retrieved 13 January 2008.
- "Marvell, Andrew (MRVL633A)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
- Kelliher, W. H. (September 2004). "Marvell, Andrew (1621–1678)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 17 January 2010.(subscription required)
- "Sinfonia UK Collective". Sinfonia UK Collective. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
- "All about us". Hull Philharmonic Orchestra. 2007. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- "A Brief History of the HPYO". Hull Philharmonic Youth Orchestra. 2006. Archived from the original on 11 April 2004. Retrieved 5 March 2009.
- "Force 28". Hull in Print. Hull City Council. 2003. Retrieved 21 February 2008.
- "The East Yorkshire Motor Services Brass Band". EYMS Brass Band. Retrieved 25 April 2008.
- "East Riding of Yorkshire Band". East Riding of Yorkshire Band. Archived from the original on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2008.
- "Hull City Hall". Hull City Council. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- "International Master series brochure 2009–2010" (PDF). Hull City Council. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- "Hull announces partnership with Royal Philharmonic Orchestra". BBC News. BBC. 23 September 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
- "Mick Ronson". NNDB. Soylent Communications. 2007. Retrieved 30 November 2007.
- "Queens Gardens". Hull City Council. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- "Gods of Rock". Where I live: Humber. BBC. August–September 2004. Archived from the original on 29 October 2006. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
- Noone, Katy (6 November 2007). "Paul Heaton Returns To Hull". BBC Humber. Retrieved 25 April 2008.
- "Norman Cook Biography (Fatboy Slim)". The Biography Channel: Music. A&E Television Networks. 2007. Archived from the original on 13 December 2009. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
- "Paul Cooke (Associate Writer)". MusicDish LLC. 2007. Retrieved 1 December 2007.
- "Roland Gift Biography". Musician Biographies. Net Industries. 2007. Retrieved 1 December 2007.
- P-Orridge, Genesis; Abrahamsson, Carl; Rushkoff, Douglas (2002). Painful but Fabulous: The life and Art of Genesis P-Orridge. Soft Skull Press. ISBN 1-887128-88-3.
- "Cosey fanni tutti". COSEY FANNI TUTTI. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
- "Cosey Fanni Tutti & Genesis P-Orridge in 1976: Media frenzy, Prostitution-style". Art Design Café. Art Design Publicity. 2009–2010. Retrieved 23 January 2010.
- "Label List". Kudos Records. 2006. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
- "Hull Vibe: Adelphi". Hull Vibe. Mail News & Media. 2008. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- "The Springhead Music Venue Achievements". The Springhead. 2007. Archived from the original on 26 July 2007. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- Roberts, David (2006). British Hit Singles & Albums (19th ed.). London: Guinness World Records Limited. p. 414. ISBN 1-904994-10-5.
- Roberts, David (2006). British Hit Singles & Albums (19th ed.). London: Guinness World Records Limited. p. 484. ISBN 1-904994-10-5.
- Dee, Michelle (23 May 2007). "Hull Local Music News – Purple Worm Records in Hull". thisisull.com. Retrieved 5 March 2009.
- "Performances". Hull City Council. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
- "Hull City Council: Jazz Festival". Hull City Council. 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
- "Freedom Festival comes to Hull". BBC Humberside. 7 September 2009. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
- "Freedom Festival: Thousands arrive ahead of The 1975 gig". Hull Daily Mail. 7 September 2013. Archived from the original on 9 September 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
- "Hull Fair, fun for all, what's it all about? – What People are Saying". The Hull Fair Project. University of Sheffield. Retrieved 29 January 2008.
- "Global Food Fest". Hull Global Food Fest. Archived from the original on 22 September 2009. Retrieved 11 September 2009.
- "Businesses sign up to Hull Food Festival". Yorkshire Forward. 24 July 2007. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- "Hull Metalfest 2007 at the Welly Club". thisisull.com. 27 April 2007. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
- "Hull Comedy Festival hailed a big success". thisisull.com. 15 November 2007. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
- "Larkin 25 – another look at Larkin". Hello from Hull and East Yorkshire. Bondholderscheme Ltd. 11 November 2009. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
- "Council go-ahead for Larkin statue". BBC News. BBC. 5 August 2010. Retrieved 6 August 2010.
- "Fashion Fest Finale". Hull BID. 2013. Archived from the original on 26 May 2013. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
- "Awesome' Humber Street Sesh: We should do it every weekend!". Hull Daily Mail. 5 August 2013. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
- "Victorian Parks & Gardens". History of Hull. Hullwebs. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
- Historic England. "East Park, Hull (1001519)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- Historic England. "Pearson Park (1001520)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- "Hull's Angel 1998–2006". Hull's Angel. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
- "Jumbo sized history". BBC Humberside. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
- "Anlaby Road: South Side Streets, Linnaeus Street". Anlaby Road.com. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
- "Queens Gardens". Panoramas. BBC Humber. 31 October 2007. Retrieved 21 February 2008.
- "Broadcasting in the Kingston Upon Hull area". Smile Local. 2007. Retrieved 21 February 2008.
- "Jam Radio Station". www.hull.ac.uk. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Sport in Hull and East Yorkshire | including football, rugby and golf". Visit Hull and East Yorkshire. Archived from the original on 10 October 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Crystal Palace 4–0 Hull City". BBC Sport. BBC. 14 May 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- "KC Stadium". Hull FC. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- "The Qualifiers: Hull Kingston Rovers 12-6 Widnes Vikings". BBC Sport. BBC. 9 September 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
- "Club Register". National Conference League. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
- "Hull Ionians RUFC". Retrieved 20 February 2008.
- "Hull RUFC". Archived from the original on 4 January 2010. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
- "Hull Arena". Hull City Council. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- "Hull to get new professional ice hockey team". BBC News. BBC. 3 July 2015. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- "Kingston Kestrels". Hull City Council. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- "'Hull Stingrays closure 'a great loss for city'". Hull Daily Mail. 12 August 2010. Archived from the original on 15 August 2010. Retrieved 12 August 2010.
- "Hull Stingrays ice hockey team back in business after takeover deal". Hull Daily Mail. 17 August 2010. Archived from the original on 20 August 2010. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
- "Elite League ice hockey club Hull Stingrays placed in liquidation". Hull Daily Mail. 24 June 2015. Archived from the original on 24 June 2015. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
- "thank you for all your support". Hull Stingrays. 24 June 2015. Archived from the original on 24 June 2015. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
- "Dogs back on track at Boulevard". BBC News. 25 October 2007. Retrieved 14 February 2008.
- "1PW Results – 1-Pro Wrestling (England)". Online World of Wrestling. Retrieved 1 February 2008.
- "New Generation Wrestling". Retrieved 22 March 2010.
- "The New Season is Here!!!". Hull Lacrosse Club. 18 September 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- "Clipper Ventures Plc". Sir Robin Knox-Johnston. Archived from the original on 21 February 2009. Retrieved 27 April 2009.
- "Crowds watch Clipper race start". BBC News. 13 September 2009. Retrieved 13 September 2009.
- "Clipper round-the-world crews return to Humber". BBC News. 17 July 2010. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
- "Hull & Humber Clipper". hullhumberclipper.com. Retrieved 30 April 2009.
- "Assem Allam brings British Open squash tournament to KC Stadium in Hull". This is Hull and East Riding. 21 July 2012. Archived from the original on 26 September 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
- "Equal prize money is a major target as Hull hosts the British Open for three more years". SquashMad. 7 February 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2017.
- Ordnance Survey Motoring Atlas Britain. Philip's. 8 July 2002. ISBN 0-540-08228-7.
- "The Humber Bridge". Retrieved 6 July 2008.
- "Hull Card". Hull City Council. 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
- "City's new interchange is open". BBC News. 16 September 2007. Retrieved 19 September 2007.
- Hull Forward Ltd. (2009). "Paragon Interchange". Retrieved 16 May 2009.
- "Hull-Rotterdam". P&O Ferries. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
- "Hull-Zeebrugge". P&O Ferries. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
- "Destinations". Robin Hood Airport. 2004. Retrieved 6 July 2008.
- "Google Maps". Google. 2004. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
- "Destinations". Leeds Bradford International Airport. 2012. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
- Suggitt, Gordon (2006). Lost Railways of North & East Yorkshire. Countryside Books. ISBN 1-85306-918-3.
- "Cycling Strategy 2003" (PDF). Hull City Council. 2003. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
- "Hull is 'fourth best cycling city'". BBC News. BBC. 7 June 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- "A History in Words, Kingston Communications – The Hull telephone people". Kingston Communications. Archived from the original on 29 August 2007. Retrieved 5 October 2007.
- "Full Circle". Hull in print. Hull City Council. 2003. Retrieved 5 December 2007.
- "Council completes telecoms sale". BBC News. 24 May 2007. Retrieved 6 June 2008.
- "Kingston Interactive Television To Cease Operations". InteractiveTV Today. 2 March 2006. Retrieved 23 July 2010.
- "Kingston Communications on target to expand its broadband base". Broadband News. Top 10 Broadband. 2 April 2007. Retrieved 5 March 2009.
- Neate, Rupert (1 June 2010). "Kcom strikes infrastructure deal with BT". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 10 June 2010.
- "Former Hull Hydraulic Power Company Premises, Hull". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- "Humberside 'worst police force'". BBC News. 24 October 2006. Retrieved 9 November 2006.
- "Police force sheds 'worst' label". BBC News. 9 October 2007. Retrieved 9 October 2007.
- "Hull Prison information". Ministry of Justice. 4 May 2012. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
- "Welcome to Humberside Fire & Rescue Service". Archived from the original on 19 April 2008. Retrieved 20 July 2008.
- "Welcome to Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust". Retrieved 20 July 2008.
- "Hospitals in Hull". Retrieved 20 July 2008.
- "Homepage YAS". Yorkshire Ambulance Service. Retrieved 20 July 2008.
- "What we do". Archived from the original on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
- "Memory clinic makeover campaign needs final push to reach £65,000 target". Hull Daily Mail. 20 August 2010. Archived from the original on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2010.
- "Target 45+ Final Joint Strategy" (PDF). Hull City Council. Retrieved 20 July 2008.
- "The Derwent Catchment". River factfiles. Environment Agency. Archived from the original on 24 January 2009. Retrieved 20 July 2008.
- "Sign of the times". The Yorkshire Post. 30 October 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
- "Facts and Figures". University of Hull. Archived from the original on 13 February 2010. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
- "University Centre". GIFHE. 2006–2008. Archived from the original on 24 April 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- "About HYMS". The Hull York Medical School. Archived from the original on 6 October 2007. Retrieved 5 October 2007.
- "History of the University". The University of Lincoln. 2007. Archived from the original on 1 February 2010. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- "Campuses". The University of Lincoln. 2007. Retrieved 7 October 2007.
- "Funding cuts blamed as University of Lincoln decides to close Hull campus". Hull Daily Mail. 11 November 2010. Archived from the original on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2010.
- "Welcome to the Hull School of Art & Design". Hull School of Art and Design. Archived from the original on 3 September 2010. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
- "Northern Theatre School". Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- "Hull City Council: Education and Learning: Schools". Hull City Council. 2007. Retrieved 7 October 2007.
- "Malet Lambert". Malet Lambert. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
- "Welcome to Hymers College: Hull's Premier School". 2007. Retrieved 7 October 2007.
- "Hull Collegiate School: Home". 2007. Retrieved 7 October 2007.
- "Welcome to the Hull College". 2006. Retrieved 7 October 2007.
- "About Us". Wyke Sixth Form College. 2009. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
- "Wilberforce Sixth Form College". 2007. Retrieved 7 October 2007.
- "East Riding College". 2010. Retrieved 10 March 2010.
- "Hull Training and Adult Education". Hull City Council. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
- "History". Hull Trinity House School. 2005. Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 7 October 2007.
- "Education – A measure of success". BBC News. 10 December 1998. Retrieved 24 October 2007.
- "City's poor school results bring renewed pressure for change". Yorkshire Post. Leeds. 1 March 2006. Retrieved 4 November 2007.
- "Results are 'step in right direction' for Hull". Yorkshire Post. Leeds. 10 January 2008. Retrieved 23 January 2008.
- "City bottom of GCSE league tables". BBC News. 16 October 2008. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
- "Hull schools at 'breaking point' over special educational needs". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
- A Spectrographic Analysis Of Vowel Fronting In Bradford English, Dominic Watt And Jennifer Tillotson, (Microsoft Word Document). Retrieved 9 November 2006.
- "The Voices Recordings". BBC. Retrieved 23 April 2008.
- Williams, Ann; Kerswill, Paul (1999). "Dialect Levelling:Continuity VS. Change in Milton Keynes, Reading and Hull" (PDF). Urban Voices. Accent Studies in the British Isles. London. Arnold. Department of Linguistic Science, University of Reading. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
- Williams, A.; Kerswill, P. (2014). "Dialect levelling: change and continuity in Milton Keynes, Reading and Hull". In Foulkes, P.; Docherty, G. Urban Voices: Accent Studies in the British Isles. London: Routledge. p. 146.
- Beal, J. (2008). "English dialects in the North of England: phonology". In Kortmann, B.; Upton, C. Varieties of English 1: The British Isles. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. p. 135.
- Kerswill, Paul (19 January 2001). "Student projects on accent and dialect change". Archived from the original on 5 May 2008. Retrieved 23 April 2008.
- Bilton, L (1982). "A Note on Hull Intonation". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 12 (1): 30–35. doi:10.1017/S0025100300002383.
- "City of Hull". lovemytown.co.uk. Retrieved 23 February 2009.
- "Amy Johnson pioneering aviator" (PDF). Hull Local Studies Library. July 2005. Retrieved 16 April 2008.
- "Alderton, John". Who's Who 2008. A&C Black. 2008. ISBN 978-0-7136-8555-8.
Education: Kingston High Sch., Hull
- "Maureen Lipman Biography (1946–)". Film Reference. 2007. Retrieved 16 April 2008.
- "Richard Bean – Hot New Playwright". The British Theatre Guide. 2001. Retrieved 10 May 2008.
- "Plater, Alan (1935–)". Screenonline. British Film Institute. Retrieved 16 April 2008.
- "Mick Ronson". NNDB. Retrieved 16 April 2008.
- "Clive Sullivan". 100 Great Black Britons. Every Generation. Retrieved 16 April 2008.
- Taylor, Louise (24 May 2008). "From Birds Eye and building to a shot at the top". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 22 February 2010.
- "Lord Prescott takes his place in the House of Lords". BBC News. 8 August 2010. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
- "Christmas around the world". Hull in print. Hull City Council. December 2006.
- "Guide to Hull Humberside and general Hull information". city-visitor.com. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- "Kontakty partnerskie Miasta Szczecin". Urząd Miasta Szczecin (in Polish). Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- "Hull, Massachusetts". ePodunk. ePodunk Inc. 2007. Retrieved 30 September 2007.
- "Hull, Quebec". ePodunk Canada. ePodunk Inc. 2007. Retrieved 30 September 2007.
- Dennis, Mick (3 December 2013). "Let's stop this identity theft". Daily Express. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
- Foster, Dom David (1 December 2000). Unity Out of Diversity: The Origins and Development of the University of Humberside. A&C. Black. ISBN 9781847140739.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kingston upon Hull.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Kingston upon Hull.|