List of wars involving Spain

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This is a list of wars fought by the Kingdom of Spain or on Spanish territory.

Ancient[edit]

Medieval[edit]

Imperial[edit]

Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Results
Ottoman invasion of Otranto
(1480–1481)
Royal Banner of Aragón.svg Crown of Aragon

Flag of Hungary (15th century, rectangular).svg Kingdom of Hungary

 Ottoman Empire Victory
  • Ottoman forces seize the city
  • Christian forces recapture the city
Italian War of 1494–98
(1494–98)
League of Venice:

 Papal States
 Republic of Venice
 Kingdom of Naples
Kingdoms of Spain
Duchy of Milan
 Holy Roman Empire
 Republic of Florence
Duchy of Mantua
 Kingdom of England (from 1496)

 Kingdom of France Victory
  • Forced French retreat
Conquest of Melilla
(1497)
Castile and Aragon Marinid emblem of Morocco.svg Morocco Victory
Second Ottoman–Venetian War
(1499–1503)
 Republic of Venice
Castile and Aragon
 Ottoman Empire Defeat
Italian War of 1499–1504
(1499–1504)
Victory
War of the League of Cambrai
(1508–16)
1508–10:
 Venice
1510–11:
 Papal States
 Venice
1511–13:
Holy League:
 Papal States
 Venice
Arms of Ferdinand II of Aragon (1513-1516).svg Spain
 Holy Roman Empire
 England
Old Swiss Confederacy Swiss mercenaries
1513–16:
 Papal States
Arms of Ferdinand II of Aragon (1513-1516).svg Spain
 Holy Roman Empire
 England
Flag of the Duchy of Milan (1450).svg Duchy of Milan
Old Swiss Confederacy Swiss mercenaries
1508–10:
League of Cambrai:
 Papal States
 France
 Holy Roman Empire
Arms of Ferdinand II of Aragon (1513-1516).svg Spain
Coat of arms of the House of Este (1471).svg Duchy of Ferrara
1510–11:
 France
Coat of arms of the House of Este (1471).svg Duchy of Ferrara
1511–13:
 France
Coat of arms of the House of Este (1471).svg Duchy of Ferrara
1513–16:
 Venice
 France
 Scotland
Coat of arms of the House of Este (1471).svg Duchy of Ferrara
Defeat
Taíno rebellion of 1511
(1511–13)
 Crown of Castile Taínos Victory
Spanish conquest of Iberian Navarre
(1512)
 Crown of Castile
Royal Banner of Aragón.svg Crown of Aragon
Bandera de Reino de Navarra.svg Kingdom of Navarre Victory
  • Navarre south of the Pyrenees annexed to Castile
Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
(1519–21)
Spain Spanish conquistadores
Tlaxcala
 Aztec Empire Victory
  • Aztec empire is annexed to Spanish Empire
Italian War of 1521–26
(1521–26)
Spain Spain

 Holy Roman Empire
 England
 Papal States

 France

 Republic of Venice

Victory
Spanish conquest of Chiapas
(1523–1695)
 Spain Zoque people

Chiapaneca people Independent Maya, including:

Victory
War of the League of Cognac
(1526–30)
Spain Spain

 Holy Roman Empire
 Republic of Genoa

 France

 Papal States
 Republic of Venice
FlorenceCoA.svg Republic of Florence
 Kingdom of England
Flag of the Duchy of Milan (1450).svg Duchy of Milan

Victory
Little War in Hungary
(1530–c.1552)
 Holy Roman Empire

Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg Royal Hungary

 Spain
 Papal States

 Ottoman Empire
 Moldavia
Coa Hungary Country History John I of Hungary (Szapolyai) (1526-1540).svg John Szapolyai's Hungarian kingdom
 Wallachia
Serbian Despotate
 France[1][2][3]
Indecisive
  • John Szapolyai recognized as King of Hungary
  • Ferdinand I's lands in Hungary guaranteed
Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire
(1531–72)
Spain Spanish conquistadores
Indian auxiliaries
 Inca Empire
 Neo-Inca State
Victory
Conquest of Tunis
(1535)
 Spain
 Holy Roman Empire
 Ottoman Empire Victory
Italian War of 1536–38
(1536–38)
 Holy Roman Empire
 Spain
 Kingdom of France
 Ottoman Empire
Indecisive
Arauco War
(1536–1825)
Spain Spanish Empire Mapuche, Huilliche Pehuenche and Picunche warriors Defeat
Third Ottoman–Venetian War
(1537–40)
Holy League:
 Republic of Venice
 Spain
 Republic of Genoa
 Papal States
 Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Sicily Kingdom of Sicily
Sovereign Military Order of Malta Knights of Malta
 Ottoman Empire
 France (until 1538)
Defeat
Mixtón War
(1540–42)
 Spain Caxcanes Victory
Tiguex War
(1540–41)
 Spain Tiwa Indians Victory
Italian War of 1542–46
(1542–46)
Spain Spain

 Holy Roman Empire

 Kingdom of England

 France

 Ottoman Empire
Armoiries Guillaume de Clèves.png Jülich-Cleves-Berg

Inconclusive
Schmalkaldic War
(1546–47)
Charles V Arms-personal.svg Empire of Charles V:

 Duchy of Saxony
Coat of arms of Hungary.svg Kingdom of Hungary
Small coat of arms of the Czech Republic.svg Kingdom of Bohemia and other Lands of the Bohemian Crown

Schmalkaldic League:

 Electorate of Saxony
Hesse Hesse
Electorate of the Palatinate
Bremen Wappen(Mittel).svg Bremen
Wappen Lübeck.svg Lübeck
Brunswick-Lüneburg Arms.svg Brunswick-Lüneburg
Other German territories

Victory
Chichimeca War
(1550–90)
 Spain
  • Indian allies
Chichimeca (Zacateco, Guachichil, Guamare, Pame) Defeat
Capture of Mahdiye
(1550)
 Spain  Ottoman Empire Victory
Italian War of 1551–59
(1551–59)
 Kingdom of France

Republic of Siena
 Ottoman Empire

Victory
Siege of Oran
(1556)
 Spain  Ottoman Empire Victory
French Wars of Religion
(1562–98)
Catholics:
Emblem of the Papacy SE.svg Catholic League
Spain Spain
 Duchy of Savoy
Protestants:
Croix huguenote.svg Huguenots
 England
Inconclusive
  • Uneasy truce
  • The Edict of Nantes granted the Huguenots substantial rights in certain areas
  • Paris and other defined territories were declared to be permanently Catholic
  • Failure of France's enemies to weaken France and to gain territories
Sieges of Oran and Mers El Kébir
(1563)
 Spain  Ottoman Empire
 France
Victory
Great Siege of Malta
(1565)
 Spain
Sovereign Military Order of Malta Order of Saint John
Sovereign Military Order of Malta Maltese Militia
 Ottoman Empire Victory
Philippine revolts against Spain
(1567–1872)
 Spain Flag of Bohol Province, Philippines.svg Dagohoy rebel group
other Filipino rebel groups
 British supporters
Victory
  • Most revolts failed
Eighty Years' War
(1568–1648)
Spain Spanish Empire
 Holy Roman Empire
 United Provinces
 England
Arms of Nassau.svg Nassau
 France
Inconclusive
Fourth Ottoman–Venetian War
(1570–73)
Holy League:
 Republic of Venice
Spain Spain
 Papal States
 Kingdom of Naples
 Republic of Genoa
Bandiera del Regno di Sicilia 4.svg Kingdom of Sicily
Tuscany Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Coat of arms of Federico and Guidobaldo da Montefeltro.svg Duchy of Urbino
 Duchy of Savoy
Sovereign Military Order of Malta Knights of Malta
 Ottoman Empire Defeat
  • Cyprus under Ottoman rule
Second Desmond Rebellion
(1579–83)
St Patrick's saltire.svg FitzGeralds of Desmond
 Spain
 Papal States
allied Irish clans
 Kingdom of England
 Kingdom of Ireland
allied Irish clans
Defeat
War of the Portuguese Succession
(1580–1583)
Spain Spain
Portugal Portugal loyal to Philip of Spain
Portugal Portugal loyal to Prior of Crato
 France
 England
 United Provinces
Victory
Castilian War Spanish Empire
Bruneians who defected to Spain
Bruneian Empire Status quo ante bellum
Cologne War
(1583–88)
Black cross on a white background Ernst of Bavaria Prince-Elector, Cologne, 1583–1612
House of Wittelsbach
Free Imperial City of Cologne
Philip of Spain, and for him:
House of Farnese
House of Isenburg-Grenzau
House of Mansfeld (main line)
House of Berlaymont-Flyon
and others
Black cross on white background Gebhard, Truchsess von Waldburg, Prince-Elector, Cologne 1578–1588
House of Neuenahr-Alpen
House of Waldburg
House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken

House of Nassau
House of Solms-Braunfels and others

Victory
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) Spain Spanish Empire

French Catholic League
O'Neill Clan.png Irish alliance

 Kingdom of England
 United Provinces
Kingdom of France Kingdom of France
Portugal Portuguese loyal to Prior of Crato
French Huguenot forces
Indecisive
Cambodian–Spanish War Spanish Empire Ancient flag of Cambodia.png Cambodia, Muslim Malay merchants and Muslim Cham merchants Defeat
Spanish–Moro conflict Spanish Empire Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Maguindanao
Confederation of sultanates in Lanao
Failure to conquer the Moros
Irish Nine Years' War
(1594–1603)
O'Neill Clan.png Alliance of Irish clans
Spain Spain
Scottish Gaelic mercenaries
 Kingdom of England
 Kingdom of Ireland
Defeat
Acoma War
(1598–99)
 Crown of Castile Acoma Victory
Dutch–Portuguese War
(1602–63)
Portugal Kingdom of Portugal
Supported by:
 Crown of Castile
(until 1640)
 Kingdom of Cochin
Potiguara Tupis
 Dutch Republic
Supported by:
 Kingdom of England
(until 1640)
Johor Johor Sultanate
Kingdom of Kandy
Kingdom of Kongo
Kingdom of Ndongo
Rio Grande Tupis
Nhandui Tarairiu Tribe
Victory
War of the Jülich Succession
(1609–1614)
1610:
Supporting Emperor Rudolf:
 Holy Roman Empire
Straatsburg-Bistum.PNG Principality of Strasbourg
Prince-Bishopric of Liège

1613–1614:
Supporting Wolfgang William:
Spain Spain
Wappen-neuburg.jpg Palatinate-Neuburg
Catholic League (Germany).svg Catholic League

1610:
Opposed to Emperor Rudolph:
Margraviate of Brandenburg
Wappen-neuburg.jpg Palatinate-Neuburg
 United Provinces
 Kingdom of France
 England
Protestant Union

1613–1614:
Supporting John Sigismund:
Margraviate of Brandenburg
 United Provinces
 England
Protestant Union

Victory
Thirty Years' War
(1618–48)
Roman Catholic states and allies

 Holy Roman Empire

Spain Spanish Empire
Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg Hungary[7]
 Kingdom of Croatia[8]
Denmark Denmark–Norway (1643–45)[9]

Protestant states and allies

Sweden Sweden (from 1630)
 France (from 1635)
Denmark Denmark–Norway (1625–29)
Bohemia Bohemia (1618–20)
 United Provinces
 Saxony
Electorate of the Palatinate (until 1623)
Brandenburg-Prussia
Coat of Arms of Brunswick-Lüneburg.svg Brunswick-Lüneburg
 England (1625–30)[10]
Transylvania
Hungarian Anti-Habsburg Rebels[11]

Defeat
Spanish conquest of Petén
(1618–1697)
 Spain Independent Maya, including: Victory
First Genoese–Savoyard War
(1625)
 Spain
 Republic of Genoa
 Kingdom of France
 Duchy of Savoy
Victory
Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30) Spain Spain  England
 United Provinces
Victory
Spanish expedition to Formosa
(1626)
Spain Spanish East Indies Kingdom of Middag Victory
  • Spanish establishment in Formosa
War of the Mantuan Succession
(1628–31)
Supporting the Duke of Guastalla:
 Holy Roman Empire
Spain Spain
 Duchy of Savoy
Supporting the Duke of Nevers:
 France
Victory
  • Peace of Regensburg (1630)
  • Treaty of Cherasco (1631)
Franco-Spanish War (1635–59)  Spain
Royal Standard of Great Britain (1603-1649).svg Royalists of the British Isles (from 1657) [16]
 France
 Commonwealth of England (from 1657)
Defeat
Catalan Revolt
(1640–59)
 Spain  Principality of Catalonia
 France
Victory
Portuguese Restoration War
(1640–68)
Spain Castile and Aragon Portugal Kingdom of Portugal
Supported by:
 France
(1641–59)[17]
 Kingdom of England
(after 1662)
Defeat
Neapolitan Revolt
(1647–48)
 Spain Neapolitan Republic
 France
Victory
  • Revolt crushed
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)  Spain
Royal Standard of Great Britain (1603-1649).svg Royalists of the British Isles[16]
 Commonwealth of England
 France (1657–59)
Defeat
War of Devolution
(1667–68)
Spain Spanish Empire

Triple Alliance:
 Dutch Republic
 Kingdom of England
Sweden Swedish Empire
 France Indecisive
Franco-Dutch War
(1672–78)
 Dutch Republic
 Holy Roman Empire
 Spain
Denmark Denmark–Norway
Wappen Mark Brandenburg.png Electorate of Brandenburg
 France
 England
 Sweden
Flag of the Prince-Bishopric of Münster.svg Bishopric of Münster
Black St George's Cross.svg Archbishopric of Cologne
Indecisive
Second Genoese–Savoyard War
(1672–73)
 Republic of Genoa
Supported by:
 Spain
 Duchy of Savoy Victory
War of the Reunions
(1683–1684)
Spain Spanish Empire
 Holy Roman Empire
 Republic of Genoa
 France Defeat
Nine Years' War
(1688–97)
Grand Alliance:
 Dutch Republic
 England
 Holy Roman Empire
 Spain
 Piedmont-Savoy
 Sweden (until 1691)
 Scotland
 France
Jacobite Standard.jpg Irish and Scottish Jacobites
Indecisive
War of the Spanish Succession
(1701–14)
 Holy Roman Empire: Political victory for Spain loyal to Philip
Military victory for Spain loyal to Charles
Queen Anne's War
(1702–1713)
 France

Spain Spain

 Wabanaki Confederacy
 Caughnawaga Mohawk
 Choctaw
 Timucua
 Apalachee
 Natchez

 England (before 1707)[20]

 Great Britain (after 1707)[20]

 Muscogee (Creek)
 Chickasaw
 Yamasee Iroquois Confederacy

Defeat
Huilliche rebellion
(1712)
Spain Spanish Empire Huilliches of Chiloé Victory
  • Key encomenderos killed
  • Suppression of the rebellion
  • Encomienda mildened
Seventh Ottoman–Venetian War
(1714–18)
 Republic of Venice
Habsburg Monarchy Austria (from 1716)
 Portugal
 Order of Malta
 Papal States
 Spain[21]
Flag of Himara.JPG Himariotes
 Ottoman Empire Defeat
War of the Quadruple Alliance
(1718–20)
 Spain

Jacobites

 Great Britain
 France
 Holy Roman Empire
 Dutch Republic
 Savoy
Defeat
Anglo-Spanish War (1727–29)  Spain  Great Britain Indecisive
War of the Polish Succession
(1733–38)
Poland loyal to Stanisław I

 France
 Spain
 Kingdom of Sardinia
 Duchy of Parma

Poland loyal to Augustus III

 Russian Empire
 Habsburg Empire of Austria
 Saxony
 Kingdom of Prussia

Victory
Spanish–Portuguese War (1735–37) Spain Spanish Empire Portugal Portuguese Empire
Flag Princes of Brazil.svg Brazilian colonial forces
Defeat
War of Jenkins' Ear
(1739–48)
Spain Spanish Empire  Great Britain Victory
War of the Austrian Succession
(1740–48)
 France
 Prussia
Spain Spain
Bavaria Bavaria (1741–45)
 Saxony (1741–42)
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Sicily and Naples
 Republic of Genoa (1745–48)
Sweden Sweden (1741–43)
 Kingdom of Sardinia (1741–42)
 Habsburg Monarchy
 Great Britain
Province of Hanover Hanover
 Dutch Republic
 Saxony (1743–45)
 Kingdom of Sardinia (1742–48)
 Russia (1741–43, 1748)
Victory
Seven Years' War
(1756–63)
Defeat
Anglo-Spanish War (1762–63) Spain Spain
 France
 Great Britain
Portugal
Filipino rebels
Defeat
Spanish–Portuguese War (1776–77) Spain Spanish Empire Portugal Portuguese Empire Victory
American Revolutionary War
(1775–83)
 United States
Kingdom of France France (1778–83)
Spain Spain (1779–83)

Co-belligerents:
 Netherlands (1780–83)
Mysore (1779–84)
Vermont (1777–83)
Oneida
Tuscarora
Watauga Association
Catawba
Lenape

 Great Britain

Co-belligerents:
Onondaga
Mohawk
Cayuga
Seneca
Cherokee

Victory
  • Peace of Paris
  • American independence
  • End of the First British Empire
  • Britain loses area east of Mississippi River and south of Great Lakes & St. Lawrence River to independent United States & to Spain
  • Spain gains East Florida, West Florida and Minorca
  • Britain cedes Tobago and Senegal to France.
  • Dutch Republic cedes Negapatnam to Britain.
War of the Pyrenees
(1793–95)
 Spain
 Portugal
Kingdom of France French Émigrés
 France Defeat
Anglo-Spanish War (1796–1808)  Spain  Great Britain Inconclusive
War of the Oranges
(1801)
 France
 Spain
 Portugal Victory
War of the Third Coalition
(1803–06)
France French Empire

 Spain
 Electorate of Bavaria
Württemberg

Third Coalition:

 Holy Roman Empire
 Russian Empire
 United Kingdom
 Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Kingdom of Sicily
 Sweden
Kingdom of France French counter-revolutionaries
Kingdom of France French royalists

Victory
British invasions of the River Plate
(1806-07)
Spain Spain
 United Kingdom Decisive Spanish victory
Invasion of Portugal (1807) France French Empire
 Spain
 Portugal Victory
Peninsular War
(1808–14)
Spain Spain
 United Kingdom
 Portugal
France French Empire
Spain Napoleonic Spain
Victory
Spanish American wars of independence
(1808–33)
 Spain Independentists Defeat
Spanish reconquest of Santo Domingo
(1808–09)
Spain Spain

 United Kingdom

France French Empire Victory
War of the Sixth Coalition
(1813–1814)
 Russia
 Prussia
 Austria
 United Kingdom
 Sweden
Spain Spain
Portugal
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Sicily
 Sardinia
France First French Empire

French client states

Victory
War of the Seventh Coalition
(1815)
Seventh Coalition:

 United Kingdom
 Prussia
 Austrian Empire
 Russian Empire
Province of Hanover Hanover
Nassau
Brunswick
 Sweden
 Netherlands
 Spain
 Portugal
 Sardinia
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Sicily
Tuscany Tuscany
Switzerland
Kingdom of France French Kingdom

France French Empire
 Kingdom of Naples
Victory
Spanish reconquest of New Granada
(1815–16)
Spain Kingdom of Spain Flag of New Granada (1811-1814).svg United Provinces of New Granada Victory
  • Reconquest of New Granada by the Spanish monarchy

Modern[edit]

Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Results
French invasion of Spain
(1823)
Pavillon royal de France.svg Kingdom of France

Spain Armée de la Foi

Spain Partisans of the Cortes Royalist victory
Portuguese Civil War
(1828–34)
Liberal Forces of Queen Maria II
Spain Spain (Since 1834)
United Kingdom United Kingdom

France France (Since 1830)

Absolutist Forces of King Miguel

Spain Spain (Until 1833)

Liberal victory

Constitutional monarchy is restored Dom Miguel renounces all his claims to the throne and goes into exile.

First Carlist War
(1833–1839)
Spain Forces of Queen Isabella II
United Kingdom United Kingdom
France French Kingdom

Portugal Forces of Queen Maria II

Carlists: Liberal victory
Second Carlist War
(1846–49)
Spain Spain Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Carlist insurgents Liberal victory
Cochinchina Campaign
(1858–62)
Spain Spain

France Second French Empire

Early Nguyen Dynasty Flag.svg Dai Nam (Nguyễn dynasty) Victory

Cochinchina becomes a French colony.

Hispano-Moroccan War (1859–60)  Spain Flag of Morocco 1666 1915.svg Morocco Victory
  • Treaty of Wad-Ras:

Morocco recognises Spanish sovereignty over Sidi Ifni and Western Sahara.

Dominican Restoration War
(1863–65)
 Spain Dominican Republic Dominican rebels Defeat
  • Restoration of Dominican sovereignty
Chincha Islands War
(1864–66)
 Spain  Peru
 Chile
Joined in 1866:
 Ecuador

 Bolivia

Indecisive, both sides claimed victory
  • Peace treaties between Spain and Perú (1879), Bolivia (1879), Chile (1883) and Ecuador (1885).
Cry of Lares
(1868)
 Spain LARESFLAG2.jpg Puerto Rican rebels Victory
  • Rebellion suppressed
Ten Years' War
(1868–78)
 Spain Cuba Cuban rebels Victory
Third Carlist War
(1872–76)
Spain Kingdom of Spain/(1872–73) Spain I Republic(1873–74)

Spain Kingdom of Spain (1875–76)

Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Carlist insurgents Royal Victory
Little War
(1879–1880)
 Spain Cuba Cuban rebels Victory
First Melillan campaign
(1893–1894)
 Spain   Rif tribes

Flag of Morocco 1666 1915.svg Morocco

Victory
  • Treaty of Fez:

Morocco pays war reparations of 20 million pesetas and pledges to pacify northern provinces. Melilla hinterlands ceded to Spain.

Philippine Revolution
(1896–1898)
 Spain First Philippine Republic Filipino Insurgents
United States United States
Defeat
Spanish–American War
(1898)
Spain Spain United States United States Defeat

Spain loses sovereignty over Cuba and cedes the Philippine Islands, Puerto Rico, and Guam to the United States for the sum of $20 million.

Second Melillan campaign
(1909–1910)
Spain Spain   Rif tribes Victory
  • Melilla territory extended to Cape Three Forks and the Bḥar Ameẓẓyan lagoon
Rif War
(1920–1926)
Spain Spain

France France

Flag of the Republic of the Rif.svg Republic of the Rif Victory
Spanish Civil War
(1936–39)
Second Spanish Republic Republican
Foreign volunteers
Spain Nationalist
Kingdom of Italy Italy
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany

Foreign volunteers

Nationalist victory
Operation Polyarnaya Zvezda
(1943)
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany
 Spain
 Soviet Union Axis victory
Ifni War
(1957–1958)
 Spain
 Morocco Victory
  • Treaty of Angra de Cintra:

Morocco recognizes Spanish sovereignty over Ceuta and Melilla and pays war reparations.

Basque conflict
(1959–2011)
Spain Francoist Spain (1959–1975)
Spain Spain (1975–2011)
France France
Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque National Liberation Movement Victory
  • ETA declares definitive cessation of its armed activity.
Sahara secret War
(1973–75)
 Spain
Polisario Inconclusive
Gulf War
(1991)
 Kuwait
 United States
 Saudi Arabia
 France
 Egypt
 Syria
 United Kingdom

Other Allies

Iraq Victory
  • Kuwait regains its independence
Somali Civil War
(1992–1995)
 United States
 United Kingdom
 Spain
 Saudi Arabia
 Malaysia
 Pakistan
 Italy
 India
 Greece
 Germany
 France
 Canada
 Botswana
 Belgium
 Australia
Somalia Somalia Victory
  • UN humanitarian mandate fulfilled.
  • About 100,000 lives were saved by outside resistance.
  • Civil war is ongoing.
Bosnian intervention
(1992–1996)
 NATO  Yugoslavia Victory

Siege of Sarajevo lifted. Bosnian Serbs return to negotiations.

War in Afghanistan

(2001–)
 Afghanistan
ISAF-Logo.svg ISAF
Afghanistan Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan Ongoing
  • Fall of Taliban régime
  • Osama bin Laden killed
  • Ongoing Taliban insurgency
Iraq War
(2003–04)
Multi-National Force – Iraq
 Iraq after the fall of Saddam Hussein

 Iraqi Kurdistan

 Iraq under Saddam Hussein

Various insurgents

Coalition victory
  • Fall of Ba'athist rule in Iraq
  • Deployment in Najaf
  • Spanish withdrawal in 2004, escalation of sectarian insurgency after U.S. withdrawal in 2011
Libyan intervention
(2011)
Many NATO NATO members acting under United Nations UN mandate and
Libya Anti-Gaddafi forces
Arab League several Arab League states

Sweden Sweden

Libya Pro-Gaddafi forces Victory

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b The Ottoman Empire and early modern Europe by Daniel Goffman, p.111 [1] Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "books.google.com" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  2. ^ Firearms of the Islamic world, p.38
  3. ^ The Cambridge History of Islam, p.328
  4. ^ Hiram Morgan, ‘Teaching the Armada: An Introduction to the Anglo-Spanish War, 1585-1604’, History Ireland, Vol. 14, No. 5 (Sep. - Oct., 2006), p. 43.
  5. ^ a b Hayden p.22
  6. ^ The Spanish army under Spinola refused to give up the key fortress of Wesel. Hayden p.22
  7. ^ Ervin Liptai: Military history of Hungary, Zrínyi Military Publisher, 1985. ISBN 9633263379
  8. ^ Hussar (Huszár) hu.wikipedia
  9. ^ Denmark fought Sweden and the Dutch Republic in the Torstenson War
  10. ^ At war with Spain 1625–30 (and France 1627–29).
  11. ^ "into line with army of Gabriel Bethlen in 1620." Ágnes Várkonyi: Age of the Reforms, Magyar Könyvklub publisher, 1999. ISBN 963-547-070-3
  12. ^ Helmolt, Hans Ferdinand (1903). The World's History: Western Europe to 1800. W. Heinemann. p. 573. ISBN 0-217-96566-0. 
  13. ^ Parker p.146
  14. ^ Thion p.18
  15. ^ Kirk p.100
  16. ^ a b Lord Wentworth's Regiment served as part of the Spanish Army.
  17. ^ Treaty of alliance between France and Portugal concluded at Paris, June 1, 1641. Davenport, Frances Gardiner: European Treaties Bearing on the History of the United States and Its Dependencies to 1648. Clark, New Jersey: The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd., 2012. ISBN 9781584774228, pp. 324-328
  18. ^ Birmingham, p.51
  19. ^ The Acts of Union of 1707 united the crowns of England and Scotland, forming the Kingdom of Great Britain. For much of the war, Scottish units were under Dutch pay and operated as part of the army of the Dutch Republic.
  20. ^ a b In 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were unified as the Kingdom of Great Britain, sharing a single Parliament at Westminster under the Act of Union 1707. After this, Scottish troops joined their English counterparts in all colonial wars.
  21. ^ Cesáreo Fernández Duro, Armada española desde la unión de los reinos de Castilla y de León, Est. tipográfico Sucesores de Rivadeneyra, Madrid, 1902, Vol. VI, p. 118