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This article is about the year 1691.
|Centuries:||16th century – 17th century – 18th century|
|Decades:||1660s 1670s 1680s – 1690s – 1700s 1710s 1720s|
|Years:||1688 1689 1690 – 1691 – 1692 1693 1694|
|1691 by topic:|
|Arts and Science|
|Architecture - Art - Literature - Music - Science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial governors - State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births - Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments - Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2444|
|Bahá'í calendar||−153 – −152|
|English Regnal year||3 Will. & Mar. – 4 Will. & Mar.|
|Chinese calendar||庚午年 (Metal Horse)
4387 or 4327
— to —
辛未年 (Metal Goat)
4388 or 4328
|- Vikram Samvat||1747–1748|
|- Shaka Samvat||1613–1614|
|- Kali Yuga||4792–4793|
|Japanese calendar||Genroku 4
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||221 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2234|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1691.|
- March 5 – Nine Years' War: French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons.
- March 20 – Leisler's Rebellion: A new governor arrives in New York – Jacob Leisler surrenders after a standoff of several hours.
- March 29 – The Siege of Mons ends in the city’s surrender.
- April 9 – A fire at the Palace of Whitehall in London destroys its Stone Gallery.
- May 6 – The Spanish inquisition condemns and forcibly baptizes 219 xuetas in Palma, Majorca. When 37 try to escape the island, they are burned alive at the stake.
- May 16 – Jacob Leisler is hanged for treason.
- June 23 – Ahmed II (1691–1695) succeeds Suleiman II (1687–1691) as emperor of the Ottoman Empire.
- July 12
- September 18 – Battle of Leuze: English and Dutch forces defeated by the French in the War of the Grand Alliance.
- October 3 – The Treaty of Limerick, ending the Williamite War in Ireland and guaranteeing civil rights to Roman Catholics, is signed. (It was broken "before the ink was dry") The Flight of the Wild Geese — the departure of the Jacobite army — follows.
- Michel Rolle invents Rolle's theorem, an essential theorem of mathematics.
- In New England the two separate colonies of Massachusetts Bay Colony and Plymouth Colony are united into a single entity by an act of the King and Queen of England.
- The Khalkha submit to the Manchu invaders, bringing most of modern-day Mongolia under the rule of the Qing dynasty.
- February 27 – Edward Cave, English editor and publisher (d. 1754)
- April 5 – Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (d. 1768)
- April 9 – Johann Matthias Gesner, German classical scholar (d. 1761)
- June 17 – Giovanni Paolo Pannini, Italian painter and architect (d. 1765)
- August 25 – Alessandro Galilei, architect and mathematician (d. 1736)
- September 29 – Richard Challoner, English Catholic prelate (d. 1781)
- October 1 – Arthur Onslow, English politician (d 1768)
- October 28 – Peder Tordenskjold, Norwegian naval hero (d. 1720)
- January 13 – George Fox, English founder of the Society of Friends (b. 1624)
- January 17 – Richard Lower, English physician (b. 1631)
- February 1 – Pope Alexander VIII (b. 1610)
- April 3 – Jean Petitot, Swiss enamel painter (b. 1607)
- May 11 – Colonel John Birch, English soldier (b. 1615)
- May 16 – Jacob Leisler, German-born American colonist (b. 1640)
- May 23 – Adrien Auzout, French astronomer (b. 1622)
- May 29 – Cornelis Tromp, Dutch admiral (b. 1629)
- June 23 – Suleiman II, Sultan, Ottoman Empire (b. 1642)
- July 12 – Marquis de St Ruth (killed at the Battle of Aughrim)
- July 16 – François-Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois, French war minister (b. 1641)
- July 30 – Daniel Georg Morhof, German writer and scholar (b. 1639)
- August 14 – Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnel, Irish rebel (b. 1630)
- September 12 – John George III, Elector of Saxony (b. 1647)
- October 9 – William Sacheverell, English statesman (b. 1638)
- October 10 – Isaac de Benserade, French poet (b. 1613)
- November 14 – Tosa Mitsuoki, Japanese painter (b. 1617)
- November 15 – Aelbert Cuyp, Dutch painter (b. 1620)
- December 8 – Richard Baxter, English clergyman (b. 1615)
- December 31 – Robert Boyle, English chemist who formulated Boyle's Law, which states that under conditions of constant temperature, the pressure and volume of a gas are inversely proportional (b. 1627)
- probable – Elizabeth Polwheele, English playwright (b. c. 1651)
This is one of the only numbers that can be read upside down, and displays the same number.