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This article is about the year 1843.
|Centuries:||18th century – 19th century – 20th century|
|Decades:||1810s 1820s 1830s – 1840s – 1850s 1860s 1870s|
|Years:||1840 1841 1842 – 1843 – 1844 1845 1846|
|1843 in topic:|
|Archaeology – Architecture – Art – Literature – Music|
|Australia – Brazil - Canada – France – Germany – Mexico – Philippines – South Africa – US – UK|
|Rail Transport – Science – Sports|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial Governors – State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2596|
|Bahá'í calendar||−1 – 0|
|British Regnal year||6 Vict. 1 – 7 Vict. 1|
|Chinese calendar||壬寅年 (Water Tiger)
4539 or 4479
— to —
癸卯年 (Water Rabbit)
4540 or 4480
|- Vikram Samvat||1899–1900|
|- Shaka Samvat||1765–1766|
|- Kali Yuga||4944–4945|
|Japanese calendar||Tenpō 14
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||69 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2386|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1843.|
- January 3 – Publication in China of Illustrated Treatise on the Maritime Kingdoms (海國圖志, Hǎiguó Túzhì) compiled by Wei Yuan and others, the first significant Chinese work on the West.
- January 6 – Antarctic explorer James Clark Ross discovers Snow Hill Island.
- January 20 – Honório Hermeto Carneiro Leão, Marquis of Paraná, becomes de facto first prime minister of the Empire of Brazil.
- February 3 – Argentina supports Rosas of Uruguay and begins a siege of Montevideo.
- February 6 – The Virginia Minstrels perform the first minstrel show, at the Bowery Amphitheatre in New York City.
- February 11 – Giuseppe Verdi's opera I Lombardi alla prima crociata premieres at La Scala in Milan.
- February 14 – The event that inspired the Beatles song "Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite!" is held in England.
- February 25 – Provisional Cession of the Hawaiian or Sandwich Islands established by Lord George Paulet.
- March 8 – The Danish government re-establishes the Althing in Iceland as an advisory body, by royal decree.
- March 13 – Catawba County, North Carolina, is created and its first court held in Mathias Barringer Jr.'s house.
- March 15 – Victoria, British Columbia, is founded by the Hudson's Bay Company as a trading post and fort.
- March 16 – The city of Petrópolis is founded by the government of Brazil.
- March 21 – The world does not end, contrary to the first prediction by American preacher William Miller.
- March 24 – Battle of Hyderabad: The Bombay Army led by Major General Sir Charles Napier defeats the Talpur Emirs, securing Sindh as a Province of British India.
- March 25 – Marc Isambard Brunel's Thames Tunnel, the first tunnel under the River Thames and the world's first bored underwater tunnel, is opened in London.
- April – Eta Carinae is temporarily the second-brightest star in the night sky.
- May 4 – Natal is proclaimed a British colony.
- May 18 – The Disruption in Edinburgh of the Free Church of Scotland from the Church of Scotland.
- May 22 – The first major wagon train headed for the American Northwest sets out with one thousand pioneers from Elm Grove, Missouri on the Oregon Trail.
- May 23 – Chile takes possession of the Strait of Magellan.
- June 6 – In Barbados, Samuel Jackman Prescod is the first non-white person elected to the House of Assembly.
- June 17 – Wairau Affray in the South Island of New Zealand: An armed posse of British settlers sent to arrest Māori chief Te Rauparaha clash with members of his Ngāti Toa tribe, resulting in 26 deaths
- June 21 – Edgar Allan Poe's short story "The Gold-Bug" begins serialization in American newspapers.
- July 1 – Graduation from a class of 39 at the United States Military Academy, West Point, of Ulysses S. Grant (21st) and John J. Peck (8th).
- July 19 – Isambard Kingdom Brunel's SS Great Britain is launched from Bristol; it will be the first iron-hulled, propeller-driven ship to cross the Atlantic Ocean.
- July 25 - Père Antoine Désiré Mégret, a Capuchin missionary, purchases for $900 the land that will become Abbeville, Louisiana, a town founded by descendants of Acadians from Nova Scotia.
- August 1 – Brazil becomes the second country, after Great Britain, to issue nationally valid postage stamps with the release of its "Bull's Eye" series.
- August 15 – Tivoli Gardens, one of the oldest still intact amusement parks in the world, opens in Copenhagen, Denmark.
- September –The Economist newspaper is first published in London.
- September 3 – Popular uprising in Athens, Greece, including citizens and military captains, to require from King Otto the issue of a liberal Constitution to the state, which has been governed since independence (1830) by various domestic and foreign business interests.
- September 4 – The Emperor Dom Pedro II of Brazil marries Dona Teresa Cristina of the Two Sicilies in a state ceremony in Rio de Janeiro Cathedral.
- October 16
- December 9 – Bishop's University is founded as Bishop's College by Bishop George Jehoshaphat Mountain in Lennoxville, Quebec, for the education of members of the Church of England.
- December 13 – Basutoland becomes a British protectorate.
- December 17 – Charles Dickens' novella A Christmas Carol is first published, in London. Released on December 19 it sells out by Christmas Eve.
- December 21 – The first total solar eclipse of Saros 139 occurs over southern Asia.
- December – The world's first Christmas cards, commissioned by Sir Henry Cole in London from the artist John Callcott Horsley, are sent.
- James Joule experimentally finds the mechanical equivalent of heat.
- Ada Lovelace translates and expands Menabrea's notes on Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine, including an algorithm for calculating a sequence of Bernoulli numbers, regarded as the world's first computer program.
- The steam powered rotary printing press is invented by Richard March Hoe in the United States.
- The Friend, a Quaker weekly, is first published in London.
- Saint Louis University School of Law becomes the first law school west of the Mississippi River.
- Germans from the Black Forest region of Southern Baden migrate to Venezuela.
- January 8 – John H. Moffitt, American politician (d. 1926)
- January 10 – Frank James, American outlaw (d. 1915)
- January 29 – William McKinley, 25th President of the United States (d. 1901)
- February 6 – Frederic W. H. Myers, British poet (d. 1901)
- February 19 – Adelina Patti, Spanish opera singer (d. 1919)
- February 22 – Rudolf Montecuccoli, Austro-Hungarian admiral (d. 1922)
- March 17 – Henry Ware Lawton, American general (d. 1899)
- April 4 – William Jackson, photographer (d. 1942)
- April 15 – Henry James, American writer (d. 1916)
- April 25 – Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, third child of Queen Victoria (d. 1878)
- May 20 – Itō Sukeyuki, Japanese admiral (d. 1914)
- May 21 – Charles Albert Gobat, Swiss politician, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1914)
- June 3 – King Frederick VIII of Denmark (d. 1912)
- June 9 – Bertha von Suttner, Austrian writer and pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1914)
- June 15 – Edvard Grieg, Norwegian composer (d. 1907)
- June 30 – Sir Ernest Satow, British diplomat and scholar (d. 1928)
- July 7 – Camillo Golgi, Italian physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1926)
- July 29 – Johannes Schmidt, German linguist (d. 1901)
- August 1 – Robert Todd Lincoln, American statesman and businessman (d. 1926)
- August 20 – Christina Nilsson, Swedish operatic soprano (d. 1921)
- August 31 – Georg von Hertling, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1919)
- September 4 – Ján Levoslav Bella, Slovak composer (d. 1936)
- September 29 – Mikhail Skobelev, Russian general (d. 1882)
- November 25 – Henry Ware Eliot, American industrialist, philanthropist and the father of T. S. Eliot (d. 1919)
- November 27 – Cornelius Vanderbilt II, American railway magnate (d. 1899)
- November 29 – Gertrude Jekyll, British garden designer, writer and artist (d. 1932)
- December 11 – Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch, German physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1910)
- December 28 – Colonel Prentiss Ingraham, American author of dime fiction (d. 1904)
- Edmund William Berridge, British medical doctor (d. 1923)
- Annetta Seabury Dresser, American writer (d. 1935)
- Owon, Korean painter (d. 1897)
- January 11
- March 3 – David Porter, American naval officer (b. 1780)
- March 21
- March 25 – Robert Murray M'Cheyne, Scottish clergyman (b. 1813)
- March 27 – Karl Salomo Zachariae von Lingenthal, German jurist (b. 1769)
- April 17 – Samuel Morey, American inventor (b. 1762)
- May 28 – Noah Webster, lexicographer (b. 1758)
- June 1 – William Abbot, English actor (b. 1798)
- June 6 – Friedrich Hölderlin, German writer (b. 1770)
- July or August – Sequoyah, creator of the Cherokee syllabary (b. c. 1767)
- July 7 – John Holmes, American politician (b. 1773)
- July 14 – Miguel de Álava, Spanish soldier and statesman (b. 1770)
- September 4 – Léopoldine Hugo, daughter of Victor Hugo (b. 1824)
- September 11 – Joseph Nicollet, geographer (b. 1786)
- September 16 – Ezekiel Hart, Canadian entrepreneur & politician (b. 1770 or 1767)
- November 28 – József Ficzkó, Burgenland Croatian writer (b. 1772)
- December 12 – King William I of the Netherlands (b. 1772)
- December 18 – Thomas Graham, Lord Lynedoch, British Governor-General of India (b. 1748)
- Hao, Yen-p'ing; Wang, Erh-min (1980). Fairbank, John King; Twitchett, Denis Crispin, eds. The Cambridge History of China: Late Ch'ing 1800-1911. Cambridge History of China 11. Cambridge University Press. p. 148. ISBN 978-0521-2202-93.
- Leonard, Jane Kate (1984). Wei Yuan and China's Rediscovery of the Maritime World. Harvard East Asian Monographs. Cambridge, Mass.: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University. ISBN 978-0674-9485-56.
- "Emperor Street". World Digital Library. 1860–1870. Retrieved 2013-08-24.
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- "Royal Visit". The Bristol Mirror. 20 July 1843. pp. 1–2.
- "William Rowan Hamilton Plaque". Geograph. 2007. Retrieved 2011-03-08.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 266–267. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- Dickens, Charles (2006). Douglas-Fairhurst, Robert, ed. A Christmas Carol and other Christmas Books. Oxford world's classics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280694-9.
- Buday, György (1992). "The history of the Christmas card". Omnigraphics: 8.
- Joule, J. P. (1843). "On the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat". Abstracts of the Papers Communicated to the Royal Society of London 5: 839. doi:10.1098/rspl.1843.0196. Retrieved 2012-01-27.
- Fuegi, John; Francis, Jo (October–December 2003). "Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'". IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 25 (4): 16–26. doi:10.1109/MAHC.2003.1253887.
- "Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace". Archived from the original on 21 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-11.
- Menabrea, L. F. (1843). "Sketch of the Analytical Engine Invented by Charles Babbage". Scientific Memoirs 3. Archived from the original on 13 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-01.
- Meggs, Philip B. (1998). A History of Graphic Design (3rd ed.). Wiley. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-471-29198-5. It receives U.S. Patent 5,199 in 1847 and is placed in commercial use the same year.