|Deoghar (Hindi: देवघर)|
|• Total||2,479 km2 (957 sq mi)|
|Elevation||254 m (833 ft)|
|• Rank||5th in Jharkhand|
|• Density||602/km2 (1,560/sq mi)|
|• Official||Hindi, Santali|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Sex ratio||921 ♂/♀|
Deoghar (Hindi: देवघर)is the main city of the Deoghar District (Hindi: देवघर जिला) in the Santhal Parganas division of the state of Jharkhand, India. It is an important Hindu pilgrimage centre with the Baidyanath Temple being one of the twelve Shiva Jyothirlingams in India and one of the 51 Shakti Peethas in India.
Origin of name
Deoghar is a Hindi word and the literal meaning of 'Deoghar' is abode ('ghar') of the Gods and Goddesses ('dev'). Deoghar is also known as "Baidyanath Dham", "Baba Dham", "B. Deoghar". The origin of Baidyanathdham is lost in antiquity. It has been referred to as Haritakivan or Ketakivan in Sanskrit Texts. The name Deoghar seems to be of recent origin and probably dates from the erection of the great temple of Lord Baidyanath. Although the name of the builder of the temple is not traceable, certain parts of the front portion of the temple are said to have been built by Puran Mal, an ancestor of the Maharaja of Giddhour, in 1596.
Deoghar is located at  It has an average elevation of 254 metres (833 feet)..
Deoghar is set in an attractive, undulating landscape, with water courses and small hills. To the north of the town there is a wood called Baba Jungle, named after a fakir; to the north-west is a low wooded hill called Nandan Pahar; and to the east about 10 miles away there is a low range of hills known as Trikuti or Trikutaparvata. There are a number of small hills to the south-east, south and southwest. Two rivulets, Yamunajor and Dharua, run near the town.
The climate is dry and Deoghar is considered a health resort in spite of congestion due to the temple of Baidyanath (also spelled Vaidyanath), as well as being the site of criminal and civil courts and a large number of Government establishments.
The nearest railway station is Baidyanathdham. Jasidih Junction is about 7 km from Baidyanathdham railway station, which is on the main line of the Howrah-Delhi route of the Indian railway. It is about 229 km from Patna (capital of Bihar), 322 km from Ranchi (capital of Jharkhand), and about 315 km from Kolkata (capital of West Bengal).
There is a nearby city called Rohini that is well known for its independence struggle.
Major educational institutes in Deoghar include Deovalley High School, S.K.P Vidya Vihar, BIT Deoghar, extension centre of BIT Mesra, Deoghar Utkarsh College,St. Francis School Jasidih, Deoghar College, A S College, Ramakrishna Mission Vidyapith, St. Francis School, Modern Public School, R. Mitra High School, established in 1914, D A V Public School and Dev Sangha National School, R.L Shroff High School, Red Rose School, Superb Scholar School, S.J Academy, St. Xaviers School, Blue Bells School, R M B P J High School, and many more educational institutes. It has one of prominent teachers training institute in Jharkhand "DIPSER".
As of 2011[update] India census, Deoghar has a population of 203,116 and 17.62% of the population is under 6 years of age. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Deoghar has an average literacy rate of 66.34%, lower than the national average of 74.4%. Male literacy rate is 79.13% and female 52.39%.
Railways: Deoghar Town is located 7 km from Jasidih junction. There are trains linking Deoghar Town to Jasidih every hour in morning and evening and every few hours during day time.
Deoghar Town has two railway stations, Baidyanathdham (BDME) and Deoghar (DGHR). Deoghar is linked to Dumka while Baidyanathdham is linked only to Jasidih, though several trains originate from here to cities like Ranchi, Varanasi, Asansol. 
Airways: Deoghar International Airport is presently under Construction. At present reaching Deoghar via Flight is limited to Patna (PAT), Kolkata (CCU) or Ranchi (IXR). The nearest Airport is Patna from where you can take a Train Journey or hire a Taxi.
Deoghar, also known as Baidyanath Dham, is an important Hindu pilgrimage site. It is one of the twelve jyotirlingam and also one of the 51 shaktipeeths, and is famous for the mela of Shrawan, 4th month according to the Hindu calendar system. It is, along with Shrisailam, one of the few places in India where the jyotirlinga and the shaktipeeth are together, lying sided beside each other. Each year between July and August (on the eve of the month of Shrawana) in Deoghar Yatra about 7 to 8 million devotees come from various part of India bringing holy water from various areas of Ganges at Sultanganj, which is almost 108 km from Deoghar, in order to offer it to Shiva. During that month, a line of people in saffron-dyed clothes stretches over the full 108 km. It is the longest Mela of the Asia.
The temple of Baidyanath or Shiva is the most important of all the temples in the courtyard. The temple faces the east and is a plain stone structure with a pyramidal tower, 72 feet tall. The top contains three ascending shaped gold vessels that are compactly set, and were donated by the Maharaja of Giddhaur. Besides these pitcher shaped vessels, there is a Punchsula (five knives in a tridenta shape), which is rare. In the inner top there is an eight-petaled lotus jewel called Chandrakanta Mani.
The lingam inside is of cylindrical form, about 5 inches in diameter and projecting about 4 inches from the centre of a large slab of basalt. The top is broken, with an uneven surface, and it is not possible to tell how much of the lingam is buried within the basalt.
There are a number of different porches in the temple. One porch leads to the cell where the lingam is fixed. A second porch is in front with a row of pillars spanned by blocks of basalt. On the right side there is a sandstone image of Nandi.
There are bells fixed to the ceiling and pilgrims are supposed to pull the bell ropes to announce their approach to the divinity.
To the east of the northern verandah of the temple there is a large masonry vat into which flows the water and milk offered to the lingam. The liquid in it is essentially a mix of milk, sandal paste and floral extracts, giving a fragrant smell, and is treated as highly sacred.
Places of interest in and around Deoghar
- Nandan Pahar: It is a small hill located on the eastern side of Deoghar. It is a medium sized beautiful Hill Park and one of the major hangout places in Deoghar. It has several temples apart from a ghost house, a boot house, a mirror house and a restaurant.
- Basukinath (in Dumka District): It is famous for its Shiva Temple, and the pilgrimage to Babadham is considered incomplete without paying homage at Basukinath. It is situated 43 km from Deoghar near the village of Jarmundi and connected by road. It is an indigenous temple decorated with local art. Basukinath is one of the most ancient temples. There are many other small temples of different Gods and Goddesses nearby.
- Naulakha Mandir: It is situated 1.5 km away from the Baba Baidyanath Temple. This temple is similar in appearance to the temple of Ramakrishna in Belur. Inside there are idols of Radha-Krishna. It is 146 feet high and its construction cost around Rs. 900,000 (9 lakhs) and hence it became known as the Naulakha Temple. It was constructed by Queen Charushila of Pathuria Ghat King’s family from Kolkata.
- Ramakrishna Mission Vidyapith: It is a senior Secondary School run by Ramakrishna Mission Kolkata. Its campus is full of greenery and is a major sightseeing place. It was established in 1922 with the objective of imparting modern education combined with the values of ancient culture along the lines of the ancient Gurukula.
- Satsanga Ashram: It is a holy place for devotees of Sree Sree Thakur Anukulchandra, in the south-west of Deoghar, established by himself in 1946. On 24 September 2012, twelve people died and fifty people were injured in the Satsanga Deoghar disaster.
- Tapovana: It is situated 10 km from Deoghar and has a temple of Shiva, called Taponath Mahadeva, which attracts pilgrims. A number of caves are found in this hill. In one of the caves, a Shiva lingam is installed. It is said that Sage Valmiki came here for penance and Sri Sri Balananda Brahmachari obtained Siddhi (success through penance) here.
- Rikhia Ashram: It is an extension of Bihar School of Yoga (Sri Sri Panch Dashanam Paramhansa Alakhbarah) and was established by Swami Satyananda Saraswati. Thousand of devotees from different corners of the world participate in an annual festival which is held in late November to early December. Foreigner visitors are often seen in the town, especially between November and February. This ashram is considered a sacred place.
- Shivganga: It is a pool of water situated just 200 meters away from the Baidyanath Temple. It is claimed that when Ravana was taking the lingam to Lanka, he needed to urinate. Afterwards, wanting to wash his hands before holding the lingam but unable to find a water source nearby, he struck the earth with his fist. Water came out and formed a pond. This pond is now known as Shivaganga.
- Harila Jori: It is situated on the northern side of Deoghar, 8 km away from the Baidyanath temple and 5 km away from the Tower chowk. During ancient times, the area was full of Haritaki (Myrobalan) trees. It is claimed that this is the place where Ravana handed over the lingam to lord Visnu disguised as a Brahmin, and went to urinate. A stream flows here and is known as Ravana Jori.
- Trikut Pahar: It is a hill situated 13 km away from Deoghar, on the way to Dumka, with three main peaks from which it gets its name, Trikutachal. The hill is 1,350 feet (400 m) high. There is also a temple of Shiva here, known as the Trikutachal Mahadeva Temple, and an altar of the goddess of Trishuli. It is the site of Jharkhand's first ropeway, built by Damodar Ropeway and Construction Company, Kolkata, which is the only vertical ropeway in the state of Jharkhand. The ride from the base camp to the summit takes about seven minutes. Today the place has a large population of gray langur monkeys.
- Trikutachal Ashram: It is located at the height of 1000 ft. on the Trikut Hill and founded by Sri Sri Swami Sampadananda Gurumaharaj (also known as Yadav Chandra Chakravorty) who lived from 1899 to 1987. Born in Roshan Giri, Bangladesh, Yadav became a disciple of Thakur Dayananda and, in 1924, came to Trikuth Parvat to live in a small cave on the hill, where he meditated for 50 years. Villagers come to see the Yogi to get his blessing. The Trikut Ashram was gradually constructed, initially with small living rooms for disciples to stay in night. Mother Bhakti Prava Devi came with her parents in 1952 and met Swami Sampadananda at the Trikut Ashram. In 1977, she moved into the Trikut Ashram permanently and became a nun. Sri Chandan Swami was initiated in 1987, becoming Sannyasi (a monk) and now managing the Ashram's day to day activities.
- Koiridih: It is a historical place near the river with an English rest house and a teak wood forest, the Dighariya forest. This village produced a famous Gandhian freedom fighter, called Ayodhya Prasad Singh. One of his colleague Bhubneshwar Prasad Roy a reputed social worker lives 1 km away from Koiridih in BasantPur Village surrounded by ponds, forest and Ajay River with natural beauty.He was senior leader of BJP Deoghar District and a retired school Principal,known for his loyalty and social work.
- Prabhu Jagadbandhu Ashram: It is situated 4 km away from Deoghar on the way to Tapovan, near the Charki Pahari crossing. The ashram houses the stone-temple of Prabhu Jagadbandhu, a religious preacher born in a hamlet called Dahapara of Murshidabad, Bengal.
- J.A.P 05 Camp (Dahijor Camp): It was established in 1975 and is situated 9 km away from Deoghar on the way to Dumka on the Bhagalpur road. There is a beautiful Shiv temple (Shakti Nath Mandir) in front of J.A.P 05 main gate and plenty of sports facilities, such as football, basketball, handball, hockey, kabaddi and volleyball.
- Ram Nivas Ashram: It is where Sri Sri Balananda Brahmachari Maharaj, a great yogi and guru, used to stay and meditate. His disciple, and the 2nd Mohanta (Head) of the ashram, Mohanananda Brahmachari, also stayed here. The ashram is surrounded by trees and gardens, and has the temples of Tripura Sundari, Radha-Krishna, and Bhagbati Devi. A memorial temple marks the place where the ashes of Sri Mohanananda Brahmachari were put to rest.
- Jalsar Children's Park: This park has fun rides for children, including a see-saw and toy train.
- Maa Kali Shaktipeeth is in the Karnibagh area and is also known as Maa Kali Nagar. The deity, Maa, is in the form of pindi (a vertical mass) and is popular in the area. 
- Central Plaza - A fully integrated air conditioned mall situated at Netaji Subhas Road housing stores like Big Bazaar, Peter England, Allen Soley, Duke, Liberty, Cantabil, Reebok, Killer, Lee, Numero Uno, Samsung Cafe, Hoffmen and many more. There is also a multiplex name Eylex and Food Court to savour the taste buds.
If we discuss regarding Deoghar and name of Late Pandit Shivraam Jha is not discussed it should be unjustified. Late Shivram Jha was the person who has founded lots of Education institution in Deoghar his milestone was Hindi Vidyapith to spread Hindi Education and uplift the society. The first president of India Late Dr. Rajendra Prasad had called him as Malveey of Santhal Pragana. His one more mile stone was Mantri Mandir School for the education of the Girls of Deoghar which was revolutionary idea at that point of time. His contribution was not limited to Educational field but also to the reform of the Society of Deoghar.
If we don't remember the contribution of Late Pandit. Binaodanand Jha (EX-chief Minister of Bihar) then it will be highly injustice with him. His contribution was beyond Deoghar and limited to Nation the person who had given the thought of Panchaytee Raj to Nation. It was started in Santhal pargana District of Bihar.
Late Pandit Ram Raj Jejware was also one of the renowned political figure of this region. He was the Only member of Deoghar who represented the region in the Parliament. He also assisted Dr. Rajendra Prasad and Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar in making the constitution of India.He was the member of Sambidhan Sabha.
last but not the least Late Surnath Jha, who had founded R.L.Shroff High School (Rameshwar Lal Shroff High School) Deoghar in the year of 1951, was the only Taecher of this region(the then Santhal pragan District of Bihar State) who got the prestigious Award for outstanding performance in the field of Education by the then President of India Late Sarwpalli Radhakrishnan.
The renowned and famous fibre expert in British India Government, Mr. Jeevan Sarkar. After several years of his death, The Jhosagarhi - kalirakha road has been renamed as Jeevan Sarkar Path on his honour by Government of Bihar in year 1968.
The Former Foreign Secretary of India, Mr. Muchkund Dubey and Veteran TV Journalist Kishore Kumar Malviya and print Journalist Nilkamal Sundram come from Deoghar.
The Principal District Judge of many districts of Jharkhand, Mr Ram Rudra Prasad Deo is from Deoghar. He retired from this position on October 2012, after serving the Indian judiciary for 30 years. Judge Deo by virtue of his hard work and honesty .
- Sacred Complexes of Deoghar and Rajgir - Sachindra Narayan (b. 1974 )
- Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Deoghar
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
- "How to reach Baidyanathdham Deoghar ?". Explore Bihar. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- "Nandan Pahar and Entertainment Park, Deoghar". Explore Bihar. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- "Basukinath Temple Deoghar & Dumka". Explore Bihar. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- "Naulakha Mandir Deoghar". Explore Bihar. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- "Ramakrishna Mission Vidyapith Deoghar". Explore Bihar. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- "Tapovan Deoghar". Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- "Rikhia Yoga Ashram Deoghar". Explore Bihar. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- "Shivganga Kund Deoghar". Explore Bihar. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- "Trikut Pahar Deoghar". Explore Bihar. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- "Maa Kali Temple Karnibagh Deoghar". Explore Bihar. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Deoghar.|
- Deoghar travel guide and maps
- Babadham Deoghar
- Baidyanath dham
- Bihar Government Tourism
- Deoghar travel guide from Wikivoyage