Deoghar

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This article is about the municipality in India. For its namesake district, see Deoghar district.
Deoghar (Hindi: देवघर)
city
Deoghar (Hindi: देवघर) is located in Jharkhand
Deoghar (Hindi: देवघर)
Deoghar (Hindi: देवघर)
Coordinates: 24°29′N 86°42′E / 24.48°N 86.7°E / 24.48; 86.7Coordinates: 24°29′N 86°42′E / 24.48°N 86.7°E / 24.48; 86.7
Country India
State Jharkhand
District Deoghar
Area
 • Total 2,479 km2 (957 sq mi)
Elevation 254 m (833 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 203,116
 • Rank 5th in Jharkhand
 • Density 602/km2 (1,560/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official HindiSantali
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 814112
Telephone code 00916432
Vehicle registration JH-15
Sex ratio 921 /

Deoghar is the main city of the Deoghar District (Hindi: देवघर जिला) in the Santhal Parganas division of the state of Jharkhand, India. It is an important Hindu pilgrimage centre with the Vaidyanath Temple being one of the twelve Shiva Jyothirlingams in India and one of the 51 Shakti Peethas in India. It is situated 150 km from regions largest city Bhagalpur. Deoghar was earlier part of dumka district. It is the 5th largest city of Jharkhand.

Origin of name[edit]

Deoghar is a Hindi word and the literal meaning of 'Deoghar' is abode ('ghar') of the Gods and Goddesses ('dev'). Deoghar is also known as "Baidyanath Dham", "Baba Dham", "B. Deoghar". The origin[1] of Baidyanathdham is lost in antiquity. It has been referred to as Haritakivan or Ketakivan in Sanskrit Texts. The name Deoghar seems to be of recent origin and probably dates from the erection of the great temple of Lord Baidyanath. Although the name of the builder of the temple is not traceable, certain parts of the front portion of the temple are said to have been built by Puran Mal, an ancestor of the Maharaja of Giddhour, in 1596. Deoghar is a place of worship for Lord shiva, in the month of sawan many devotee takes ganga jal sultanganj to deoghar for worship and they get the desire wish of their life.

Geography[edit]

Deoghar is located at 24°29′N 86°42′E / 24.48°N 86.7°E / 24.48; 86.7.[2] It has an average elevation of 254 metres (833 feet).

Deoghar is set in an attractive, undulating landscape, with water courses and small hills. To the north of the town there is a wood called Baba Jungle, named after a fakir; to the north-west is a low wooded hill called Nandan Pahar; and to the east about 10 miles away there is a low range of hills known as Trikuti or Trikutaparvata. There are a number of small hills to the south-east, south and southwest. Two rivulets, Yamunajor and Dharua, run near the town.

The climate is dry and Deoghar is considered a health resort in spite of congestion due to the temple of Baidyanath (also spelled Vaidyanath), as well as being the site of criminal and civil courts and a large number of Government establishments.

The nearest railway station is Baidyanathdham. Jasidih Junction is about 7 km from Baidyanathdham railway station, which is on the main line of the Howrah-Delhi route of the Indian railway. It is about 229 km from Patna (capital of Bihar), 322 km from Ranchi (capital of Jharkhand), and about 315 km from Kolkata (capital of West Bengal)and 150 km from bhagalpur.

There is a nearby city called Rohini that is well known for its independence struggle.[citation needed]

Education[edit]

Major educational institutes in Deoghar include Indira Gandhi National Open University Regional Centre, Deoghar , Deovalley High School, S.K.P Vidya Vihar, BIT Deoghar, extension centre of BIT Mesra, St. Francis School Jasidih, Deoghar College, A S College, Ramakrishna Mission Vidyapith, St. Francis School, Modern Public School, urmila college of education, Neo Consultancy, R. Mitra High School,established in 1914, D A V Public School and Dev Sangha National School, R.L Shroff High School, Red Rose School, Superb Scholar School, S.J Academy, St. Xaviers School, Blue Bells School, R M B P J High School, Deoghar Utkarsh College and many more educational institutes. It has one of prominent teachers training institute in Jharkhand "DIPSER", Indian Scholar School,Nation's Pride School.

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 India census,[3] Deoghar has a population of 203,116 and 17.62% of the population is under 6 years of age. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Deoghar has an average literacy rate of 66.34%, lower than the national average of 74.4%. Male literacy rate is 79.13% and female 52.39%.

Transport[edit]

Roadways: Deoghar is connected to Ranchi, Patna, Calcutta, Bhagalpur, Munger and all nearby major cities by road.[4]

Railways: Deoghar Town is located 7 km from Jasidih junction. There are trains linking Deoghar Town to Jasidih every hour in morning and evening and every few hours during day time.

Deoghar Town has two railway stations, Baidyanathdham (BDME) and Deoghar (DGHR). Deoghar is linked to Dumka while Baidyanathdham is linked only to Jasidih, though several trains originate from here to cities like Ranchi, Varanasi, Asansol.[4]

Deoghar (DGHR) is connected to Dumka and the rail route is being further extended to Rampurhat. Another route from Deoghar would ultimately connect Sultanganj. It is operative till Chandan.

Airways: Deoghar International Airport is under construction. Reaching Deoghar via flight is limited to Patna (PAT), Kolkata (CCU) or Ranchi (IXR). The nearest airport is Patna from where you can take a train journey or hire a taxi.[4]

Religious significance[edit]

Baba Baidyanath Temple in Deoghar

Deoghar, also known as Baidyanath Dham, is an important Hindu pilgrimage site. It is one of the twelve jyotirlingam and also one of the 51 shaktipeeths, and is famous for the mela of Shrawan, 4th month according to the Hindu calendar system. It is, along with Shrisailam, one of the few places in India where the jyotirlinga and the shaktipeeth are together, lying sided beside each other. Each year between July and August (on the eve of the month of Shrawana) in Deoghar Yatra about 7 to 8 million devotees come from various part of India bringing holy water from various areas of Ganges at Sultanganj, which is almost 108 km from Deoghar, in order to offer it to Shiva. During that month, a line of people in saffron-dyed clothes stretches over the full 108 km. It is the longest Mela of the Asia.

The temple[5] of Baidyanath or Shiva is the most important of all the temples in the courtyard. The temple faces the east and is a plain stone structure with a pyramidal tower, 72 feet tall. The top contains three ascending shaped gold vessels that are compactly set, and were donated by the Maharaja of Giddhaur. Besides these pitcher shaped vessels, there is a Punchsula (five knives in a tridenta shape), which is rare. In the inner top there is an eight-petaled lotus jewel called Chandrakanta Mani.

The lingam inside is of cylindrical form, about 5 inches in diameter and projecting about 4 inches from the centre of a large slab of basalt. The top is broken, with an uneven surface, and it is not possible to tell how much of the lingam is buried within the basalt.

There are a number of different porches in the temple. One porch leads to the cell where the lingam is fixed. A second porch is in front with a row of pillars spanned by blocks of basalt. On the right side there is a sandstone image of Nandi.

There are bells fixed to the ceiling and pilgrims are supposed to pull the bell ropes to announce their approach to the divinity.

To the east of the northern verandah of the temple there is a large masonry vat into which flows the water and milk offered to the lingam. The liquid in it is essentially a mix of milk, sandal paste and floral extracts, giving a fragrant smell, and is treated as highly sacred.

Places of interest in and around Deoghar[edit]

Naulakha Temple in Deoghar
  • Rikhia Ashram: It is an extension of Bihar School of Yoga (Sri Sri Panch Dashanam Paramhansa Alakhbarah) and was established by Paramahamsa Swami Satyananda Saraswati. Thousand of devotees from different corners of the world participate in an annual festival which is held in late November to early December. Foreigner visitors are often seen in the town, especially between November and February. This ashram is considered a sacred place. The ashram has been working on the yoga of Serve,Love and Give to uplift the lives of the once deprived people of the several villages of Rikhia neighbourhood.[6]
  • Nandan Pahar: It is a small hill located on the eastern side of Deoghar. It is a medium sized beautiful Hill Park and one of the major hangout places in Deoghar. It has several temples apart from a ghost house, a boot house, a mirror house and a restaurant.[7][8]
  • Basukinath (in Dumka District): It is famous for its Shiva Temple, and the pilgrimage to Babadham is considered incomplete without paying homage at Basukinath. It is situated 43 km from Deoghar near the village of Jarmundi and connected by road. It is an indigenous temple decorated with local art. Basukinath is one of the most ancient temples. There are many other small temples of different Gods and Goddesses nearby.[9]
  • Naulakha Mandir: It is situated 1.5 km away from the Baba Baidyanath Temple. This temple is similar in appearance to the temple of Ramakrishna in Belur. Inside there are idols of Radha-Krishna. It is 146 feet high and its construction cost around Rs. 900,000 (9 lakhs) and hence it became known as the Naulakha Temple. It was constructed by Queen Charushila of Pathuria Ghat King’s family from Kolkata.[10]
  • Ramakrishna Mission Vidyapith: It is a senior Secondary School run by Ramakrishna Mission Kolkata. Its campus is full of greenery and is a major sightseeing place. It was established in 1922 with the objective of imparting modern education combined with the values of ancient culture along the lines of the ancient Gurukula.[11]
  • Satsanga Ashram: It is a holy place for devotees of Sree Sree Thakur Anukulchandra, in the south-west of Deoghar, established by himself in 1946. On 24 September 2012, twelve people died and fifty people were injured in the Satsanga Deoghar disaster.[12][13]
  • Tapovana: It is situated 10 km from Deoghar and has a temple of Shiva, called Taponath Mahadeva, which attracts pilgrims. A number of caves are found in this hill. In one of the caves, a Shiva lingam is installed. It is said that Sage Valmiki came here for penance and Sri Sri Balananda Brahmachari obtained Siddhi (success through penance) here.[14]


Deoghar talab known as Shivganga
  • Shivganga: It is a pool of water situated just 200 meters away from the Baidyanath Temple. It is claimed that when Ravana was taking the lingam to Lanka, he needed to urinate. Afterwards, wanting to wash his hands before holding the lingam but unable to find a water source nearby, he struck the earth with his fist. Water came out and formed a pond. This pond is now known as Shivaganga.[15]
  • Harila Jori: It is situated on the northern side of Deoghar, 8 km away from the Baidyanath temple and 5 km away from the Tower chowk. During ancient times, the area was full of Haritaki (Myrobalan) trees. It is claimed that this is the place where Ravana handed over the lingam to lord Visnu disguised as a Brahmin, and went to urinate. A stream flows here and is known as Ravana Jori.
  • Trikut Pahar: It is a hill situated 13 km away from Deoghar, on the way to Dumka, with three main peaks from which it gets its name, Trikutachal. The hill is 1,350 feet (400 m) high. There is also a temple of Shiva here, known as the Trikutachal Mahadeva Temple, and an altar of the goddess of Trishuli. It is the site of Jharkhand's first ropeway, built by Damodar Ropeway and Construction Company, Kolkata, which is the only vertical ropeway in the state of Jharkhand. The ride from the base camp to the summit takes about seven minutes. Today the place has a large population of gray langur monkeys.[16]
  • Trikutachal Ashram: It is located at the height of 1000 ft. on the Trikut Hill and founded by Sri Sri Swami Sampadananda Gurumaharaj (also known as Yadav Chandra Chakravorty) who lived from 1899 to 1987. Born in Roshan Giri, Bangladesh, Yadav became a disciple of Thakur Dayananda and, in 1924, came to Trikuth Parvat to live in a small cave on the hill, where he meditated for 50 years. Villagers come to see the Yogi to get his blessing. The Trikut Ashram was gradually constructed, initially with small living rooms for disciples to stay in night. Mother Bhakti Prava Devi came with her parents in 1952 and met Swami Sampadananda at the Trikut Ashram. In 1977, she moved into the Trikut Ashram permanently and became a nun. Sri Chandan Swami was initiated in 1987, becoming Sannyasi (a monk) and now managing the Ashram's day-to-day activities.
  • Koiridih: It is a historical place near the river with an English rest house and a teak wood forest, the Dighariya forest. This village produced a famous Gandhian freedom fighter, called Ayodhya Prasad Singh. One of his colleague Bhubneshwar Prasad Roy a reputed social worker lives 1 km away from Koiridih in BasantPur Village surrounded by ponds, forest and Ajay River with natural beauty. He was senior leader of BJP Deoghar District and a retired school Principal, known for his loyalty and social work.
  • Prabhu Jagadbandhu Ashram: It is situated 4 km away from Deoghar on the way to Tapovan, near the Charki Pahari crossing. The ashram houses the stone-temple of Prabhu Jagadbandhu, a religious preacher born in a hamlet called Dahapara of Murshidabad, Bengal.
  • J.A.P 05 Camp (Dahijor Camp): It was established in 1975 and is situated 9 km away from Deoghar on the way to Dumka on the Bhagalpur road. There is a beautiful Shiv temple (Shakti Nath Mandir) in front of J.A.P 05 main gate and plenty of sports facilities, such as football, basketball, handball, hockey, kabaddi and volleyball.
  • Ram Nivas Ashram: It is where Sri Sri Balananda Brahmachari Maharaj, a great yogi and guru, used to stay and meditate. His disciple, and the 2nd Mohanta (Head) of the ashram, Mohanananda Brahmachari, also stayed here. The ashram is surrounded by trees and gardens, and has the temples of Tripura Sundari, Radha-Krishna, and Bhagbati Devi. A memorial temple marks the place where the ashes of Sri Mohanananda Brahmachari were put to rest.[17]
  • Jalsar Children's Park: This park has fun rides for children, including a see-saw and toy train.
  • Maa Kali Shaktipeeth is in the Karnibagh area and is also known as Maa Kali Nagar. The deity, Maa, is in the form of pindi (a vertical mass) and is popular in the area.[18][19]
  • Central Plaza - A fully integrated air conditioned mall situated at Netaji Subhas Road housing stores like Big Bazaar, Peter England, Allen Soley, Duke, Liberty, Cantabil, Reebok, Killer, Lee, Numero Uno, Samsung Cafe, Hoffmen and many more. There is also a multiplex name Eylex and Food Court to savour the taste buds.There is also play station.

Notable people[edit]

Pandit Binodanand Jha[edit]

Pandit Binodanand Jha was a historic and dynamic figure in the gallery of political leaders of then Bihar state who hailed from Deoghar/Baidyanath Dham. Born on 17 April 1900 in the esteemed sardar panda family, he grew with a humble beginning. Later, his university education in Calcutta (1916-20) caused a stalking change. He attended the annual session of the Indian National Congress in Calcutta in 1919. There, at the age of 20, in response to the clarion call of Gandhi, Pandit Jha plunged headlong into diverse phases of the freedom struggle, prominently led the Non Cooperation, Civil Disobedience and Quit India Movements in the Santal Pargana region and was sent to the British jails five times from 1922 to 1942. During the days of freedom struggle, his great effort for freedom was synergised by the efforts of many other young revolutionaries in the region of that time, the prominent ones were Shashi Bhushan Rai, Pt.Shivram Jha, Gauri Shankar Dalmia, R.L.Sharoff, Buddhinath Jha ‘Kairav’, Maheshwar Prasad Jha and many others. As he frontally led the freedom struggle in this region, he was often been treated as Gandhi of Santal Pargana.

Pandit Binodanand Jha commenced his parliamentary career as a parliamentary Secretary in Sri Krishna Sinha’s ministry in 1937. Later, he graced the Ministerial offices of Health, Revenue, Local Self Government in the various Congress ministries headed by Dr. Sri Krishna Sinha. After the demise of Dr. Sinha in January 1961, Pandit Binodanand Jha was made the Chief Minister of Bihar. He ruled over Bihar as its Chief Minister till October 1963, when the Kamraj Plan propounded by Pandit Nehru was announced and in consequence he relinquished his seat of Chief Minister. Pt. Jha was also a member of the Constituent Assembly and later he once joined the parliament as Member of Parliament from Darbhanga in 1971.

As a political administrator, he is remembered for his contribution of Bihar Panchayati Raj Act of 1947, which realised the dream of Gram Swaraj of Gandhi by commencing three tier Panchayati Raj system for the first time in Bihar which was later extended to the whole of India by the recommendations of Balwant Rai Mehta Report. He was also responsible for Santal Pargana Tenancy Act, owing which the rackless transfer of tribal land ownership was made non transferable and the people of this area (Santal Pargana) were saved from segregated exploitation.

He was an educationist from his core. He facilitated for the opening of many educational institutions in Bihar which included Sainik School Tillaiya, Kameshwar Singh Sanskrit College Darbhanga, Hindi Vidyapith, Deoghar, Deoghar College, Deoghar and many other such institutions. For the welfare of Santals and Paharias, he along with Gaui Shankar Dalmiya founded Santal Paharia Seva Mandal. As an icon of Modern Bihar, he initiated/mooted for building Heavy Machine Tool Plant at Hatia (Ranchi). Under his leadership, preliminary steps were taken for the construction of Bokaro Steel Plant at Bokaro.

In the international realm, Pandit Jha attended International Congress against Imperialism in 1927 at Brussels and pleaded for complete Swaraj for India. In 1940, he went to Paris as part of Indian delegation for the International Labour Organisation meet and later he visited Geneva as the Leader of Indian Delegation for the ILO meet in the year 1950.

Pandit Binodanand Jha, popularly known as Binoda Babu, was a thorough nationalist. During the Chinese incursion of 1962, he made gigantic efforts to garner resources for the nation in crisis at the behest of Pandit Nehru. His better half (Late Pramila Jha), maintaining the same spirit readily donated her own belongings, ear rings, bangles etc at the call of the nation. Eminent nationalists like Bidhan Chandra Roy, Tushar Kanti Ghosh, P.C.Sen and many others of his time were quite close to Pandit Jha.

Binoda Babu, on 9 August 1971, succumbed to his illness and died in Kerala while undergoing his treatment. In his obituary reference at Lok Sabha on 9 August 1971, Mrs. Indira Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India condoled and stated:

“I rise with deep sorrow and a sense of shock. Death has snatched away from us a great patriot and scholar, a veteran colleague, whom we held in high respect for his integrity and dedication…Sri Binodanand Jha was a father figure in Bihar. His record of service to that State as legislator and Chief Minister and to the entire country as a statesman of vision is well known…His wisdom and stratified loyalty to high principles guided his own life and action and he left a deep impression on all those who worked with him. His loss will be greatly felt by our party not only in Bihar but all over the country.”

Sri Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the then Leader of Opposition in the Lower House expressed and condoled in the House as: “Vinoda Babu Ko Maine Anek Sthanon Par Dekha. Unka Sneh, Snigdh Vyavhaar, Unka Madhur Vyaktitva, Sabhi Ko Saath Lekar Chalne Ka Prayas, Jahan Baithte The, Ek Aatmiyata Ka Maano Mandal Kayam Kar Dete The… Rajnitik Matbhed Hote Hue Bhi Kabhi Pratipaksha Ki Pramanikta Par Unhone Sandeh Nahin Kiya… Ham Unke Prati Sacchi Shradhanjali Arpit Karte Hain Aur Sachhi Shrandhajali To Yahi Ho Sakti Hai Ki Bhagwaan Humko Bhi Jeevan Ke Aakhiri Kshna Tak Unki Tarah Se Karmarat Rahne Ka Bal De.”

Pandit Shivram Jha[edit]

Pandit Shivram Jha founded lots of educational institutions in Deoghar. His milestone was Hindi Vidyapith to spread Hindi Education and uplift the society. For his intent for education in the region, he was treated as 'Malviya of Santhal Pargana'. He was a true social worker. His epic milestone was Mantri Mandir School for the education of the Girls of Santhal Pargana which was revolutionary idea at that point of time. His contribution was not limited to Educational field but also to the reform of the Society of Deoghar. He was also a freedom fighter. Pandit Shivram Jha was also the founder President of the Panda Dharmarakshini Sabha. He was also famous for his Shivrami Dhoti in Santhal Pargana.

Anantanad Jha[edit]

Anantanad Jha was the first graduate of the town who was appointed as the headmaster/teacher of Shiksha Sabha School by Pandit Shivram Jha. Pandit ShivRam Jha and Maheshwar Prasad Jha ' founded Shiksha Sabha Middle Schhol Anantanand Jha was the founder principal of The school.

Pandit Maheshwar Prasad Jha[edit]

A social worker and a freedom fighter, Pandit Maheshwar Prasad Jha got Rai Bahadur's post from the then British Govt. By profession he was prominent Advocate in the District court.

Pandit Ram Raj Jejware[edit]

A political figure of this region, he was the only member of Deoghar who represented the region in the Parliament in the first Lok Sabha. He also assisted Dr. Rajendra Prasad and Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar in making the Constitution of India.

Pandit Surnatath Jha[edit]

He was great English teacher of that time and his English speaking and command over English was nonparallel at that time. He was the only teacher, of the then Santhal Pargana District of Bihar State, to receive the prestigious President's Award by the hand of the Great philosopher and the then President of India, Dr. Sarwpalli Radha Krishnan' in the year 1962. He founded R.L. Shroff School for Deoghar in the year of 1951. Kashinath Shroff and the then Nagar Seth also famous as Gillu Seth of Deoghar had assisted him financially for opening the school. This school is a recognised Government school of the city. The renowned and famous fibre exporter in the British India days,

Jeevan Sarkar[edit]

Several years after his death, the Jhosagarhi-Kalirakha road in the city was renamed as Jeevan Sarkar Path in his honour by Government of Bihar in year 1968.

Others[edit]

  • Freedom fighter and journalist Mr. Anil Sarkar of Anandbazar Patrika and Searchlight Magazine (a Bangla daily and English magazine respectively)
  • The former Foreign Secretary of India, Mr. Muchkund Dubey
  • TV journalist Kishore Kumar Malviya
  • Kavi Guru Rabindrnath Tagore
  • Poet Sharat Chandra
  • Ram Rudra Prasad Deo, who served as Principal District Judge in many district of Jharkhand.
  • Dr. Shaileshwar Nath, an educationist and one of the founder professors of Deoghar Collge, Deoghar. He retired from the same as the Principal in 1992.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sacred Complexes of Deoghar and Rajgir - Sachindra Narayan (b. 1974 )
  2. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Deoghar
  3. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  4. ^ a b c "How to reach Baidyanathdham Deoghar ?". Explore Bihar. Retrieved 7 December 2013. 
  5. ^ http://www.babadham.org
  6. ^ "Rikhia Yoga Ashram Deoghar". Explore Bihar. Retrieved 7 December 2013. 
  7. ^ http://deogharyatra.com/deoghar-darshan/nandan-pahar/
  8. ^ "Nandan Pahar and Entertainment Park, Deoghar". Explore Bihar. Retrieved 7 December 2013. 
  9. ^ "Basukinath Temple Deoghar & Dumka". Explore Bihar. Retrieved 7 December 2013. 
  10. ^ "Naulakha Mandir Deoghar". Explore Bihar. Retrieved 7 December 2013. 
  11. ^ "Ramakrishna Mission Vidyapith Deoghar". Explore Bihar. Retrieved 7 December 2013. 
  12. ^ [1]
  13. ^ [2]
  14. ^ "Tapovan Deoghar". Retrieved 7 December 2013. 
  15. ^ "Shivganga Kund Deoghar". Explore Bihar. Retrieved 7 December 2013. 
  16. ^ "Trikut Pahar Deoghar". Explore Bihar. Retrieved 7 December 2013. 
  17. ^ http://www.travellingindians.com/2009/07/deoghar-tryst-with-mythology.html
  18. ^ "Maa Kali Temple Karnibagh Deoghar". Explore Bihar. Retrieved 7 December 2013. 
  19. ^ http://wikimapia.org/#lat=24.4791322&lon=86.5924466&z=17&l=0&m=a&v=2

Hridoy Kunda in Deoghar is sacred pond. It is believed that the sacred heart of Mata Sati has fallen in the Sacred pond, from which the name Hridoy Kund has been derived.

External links[edit]