Ray Bradbury

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For the author's 1975 story collection, see Ray Bradbury (collection).
Ray Bradbury
Ray Bradbury in 1975
Bradbury in 1975
Born Ray Douglas Bradbury
(1920-08-22)August 22, 1920
Waukegan, Illinois, United States
Died June 5, 2012(2012-06-05) (aged 91)
Los Angeles, California, US
Resting place Westwood Memorial Park, Los Angeles
Occupation Writer
Nationality American
Period 1938–2012[1]
Genre Fantasy, social commentary, science fiction, horror fiction, mystery fiction
Notable works
Notable awards American Academy of Arts and Letters (1954); Daytime Emmy Award (1994); National Medal of Arts (2004); Pulitzer Prize (2007)
Spouse Marguerite McClure
(m. 1947–2003; her death)
Children 4 daughters

Signature
Website
www.raybradbury.com

Ray Douglas Bradbury (August 22, 1920 – June 5, 2012) was an American fantasy, science fiction, horror and mystery fiction writer. Best known for his dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451 (1953) and for the science fiction and horror stories gathered together as The Martian Chronicles (1950) and The Illustrated Man (1951), Bradbury was one of the most celebrated 20th-century American writers. He wrote and consulted on many screenplays and television scripts,[2] most notably It Came from Outer Space, and many of his works have been adapted into comic books, television shows, and films.

Early life[edit]

Bradbury as a senior in high school, 1938

Bradbury was born on August 22, 1920[3][4] in Waukegan, Illinois,[5] to Esther (née Moberg) Bradbury, a Swedish immigrant, and Leonard Spaulding Bradbury,[6] a power and telephone lineman of English descent.[7] He was given the middle name "Douglas," after the actor Douglas Fairbanks.

Hometown[edit]

Ray Bradbury was surrounded by a loving extended family during his early childhood and formative years in Waukegan. This period provided foundations for both the author and his stories. In Bradbury's works of fiction, 1920s Waukegan becomes "Green Town," Illinois. In his stories, Green Town is a symbol of safety and home, which is often juxtaposed as a contrasting backdrop to tales of fantasy or menace. It serves as the setting of his modern classics Dandelion Wine, Something Wicked This Way Comes, and Farewell Summer. In Green Town, Bradbury's favorite uncle sprouts wings, traveling carnivals conceal supernatural powers, and his grandparents provide room and board to Charles Dickens.[8] Perhaps the most definitive usage of the pseudonym for his hometown, in Summer Morning, Summer Night, a collection of short stories and vignettes exclusively about Green Town, Bradbury returns to the signature locale as a look back at the rapidly disappearing small-town world of the American heartland, which was the foundation of his roots.

Between 1926 and 1933, the Bradbury family moved back and forth between Waukegan and Tucson, Arizona. In 1931, at age eleven, young Ray began writing his own stories. The country was going through the Great Depression, and sometimes Bradbury wrote on butcher paper.

The Bradbury family moved to Los Angeles, California, in 1934.

Bradbury was related to the American Shakespeare scholar Douglas Spaulding.[9] He was also descended from Mary Bradbury, who was tried at one of the Salem witch trials in 1692.[10]

Influences, process and background[edit]

Hollywood[edit]

The Bradbury family lived in Tucson, Arizona, in 1926–1927 and 1932–1933 as the father pursued employment, each time returning to Waukegan, but eventually settled in Los Angeles in 1934, when Bradbury was 14. The family arrived with only 40 dollars, which paid for rent and food until his father finally found a job making wire at a cable company for $14 a week. This meant they could stay and Bradbury, who was in love with Hollywood, was ecstatic.

The family lived about four blocks from the Uptown Theater on Western Avenue in Los Angeles, the flagship theater for MGM and Fox. There, Bradbury learned how to sneak in and watched previews almost every week. He roller-skated there as well as all over town, as he put it "hell-bent on getting autographs from glamorous stars. It was glorious." Among stars the young Bradbury was thrilled to encounter were Norma Shearer, Laurel and Hardy, and Ronald Colman. Sometimes he would spend all day in front of Paramount Pictures or Columbia Pictures and then skate to the Brown Derby to watch the stars who came and went for meals. He recounted seeing Cary Grant, Marlene Dietrich and Mae West, who he would learn made a regular appearance every Friday night, bodyguard in tow.[11]

Literature[edit]

Bradbury was a reader and writer throughout his youth.[12] He knew as a young boy that he was "going into one of the arts."

In 1932, one of Bradbury's earliest influences was Edgar Allan Poe. At age twelve, Bradbury began writing traditional horror stories and said he tried to imitate Poe until he was about eighteen. At the time, his favorites were also Edgar Rice Burroughs and Burroughs' John Carter of Mars series, as well as comic books. He listened to the radio show Chandu the Magician, and when the show went off the air every night he would sit and write the entire script from memory.

In his youth, he spent much time in the Carnegie library in Waukegan, reading such authors as H. G. Wells, Jules Verne, and Edgar Rice Burroughs, creator of Tarzan of the Apes.[13] He loved Burroughs' The Warlord of Mars so much that at the age of 12 he wrote his own sequel.[14] The young Bradbury was also a cartoonist and loved to illustrate. He wrote about Tarzan and drew his own Sunday panels.

When he was seventeen, Bradbury read stories published in Astounding Science Fiction, and said he read everything by Robert A. Heinlein, Arthur C. Clarke, and the early writings of Theodore Sturgeon and A. E. van Vogt, but cited H. G. Wells and Jules Verne as his big science fiction influences. Bradbury identified with Verne, saying, "He believes the human being is in a strange situation in a very strange world, and he believes that we can triumph by behaving morally." [15]

Bradbury admitted he stopped reading genre books in his twenties and embraced a broad field of literature that included Alexander Pope and poet John Donne.[11]

An aunt read him short stories when he was a child.[16] He used this library as a setting for much of his novel Something Wicked This Way Comes, and depicted Waukegan as "Green Town" in some of his other semi-autobiographical novels – Dandelion Wine and Farewell Summer – as well as in many of his short stories.[17]

He attributed to two incidents his lifelong habit of writing every day. The first of these, occurring when he was three years old, was his mother's taking him to see Lon Chaney's performance in The Hunchback of Notre Dame.[18] The second incident occurred in 1932, when a carnival entertainer, one Mr. Electrico,[19] touched the young man on the nose with an electrified sword, made his hair stand on end, and shouted, "Live forever!" Bradbury remarked, "I felt that something strange and wonderful had happened to me because of my encounter with Mr. Electrico...[he] gave me a future...I began to write, full-time. I have written every single day of my life since that day 69 years ago."[20] It was at that age that Bradbury first started to do magic, which was his first great love. If he had not discovered writing, he would have become a magician.[21]

Bradbury claimed a wide variety of influences, and described discussions he might have with his favorite poets and writers Robert Frost, William Shakespeare, John Steinbeck, Aldous Huxley, and Thomas Wolfe. From Steinbeck, he said he learned "how to write objectively and yet insert all of the insights without too much extra comment." He studied Eudora Welty for her "remarkable ability to give you atmosphere, character, and motion in a single line." Bradbury's favorite writers growing up included Katherine Anne Porter, who wrote about the American South, Edith Wharton, and Jessamyn West.[22] He often said he was a fantasy writer, not a science fiction writer, and numerous times is quoted stating "The only science fiction I've written is Fahrenheit 451", elucidating "science fiction is the art of the possible." Bradbury recounted when he came into his own as a writer, the afternoon he wrote a short story about his first encounter with death. When he was a boy, he met a young girl at the beach and she went out into the water and never came back. Years later, as he wrote about it, tears flowed from him. He recognized he had taken the leap from emulating the many writers he admired to connecting with his voice as a writer.[23][24]

When later asked about the lyrical power of his prose, Bradbury replied, "From reading so much poetry every day of my life. My favorite writers have been those who’ve said things well." He is quoted, "If you're reluctant to weep, you won't live a full and complete life."[25]

In high school, Ray Bradbury was active in both the Poetry Club and the Drama club, continuing plans to become an actor but becoming serious about his writing as his high school years progressed. Bradbury graduated from Los Angeles High School, where he took poetry classes with Snow Longley Housh, and short story writing courses taught by Jeannet Johnson.[26] The teachers recognized his talent and furthered his interest in writing,[27] but he did not attend college. Instead, he sold newspapers at the corner of South Norton Avenue and Olympic Boulevard. In regard to his education, Bradbury said:

Libraries raised me. I don't believe in colleges and universities. I believe in libraries because most students don't have any money. When I graduated from high school, it was during the Depression and we had no money. I couldn't go to college, so I went to the library three days a week for 10 years.[28][29]

He told The Paris Review, "You can't learn to write in college. It's a very bad place for writers because the teachers always think they know more than you do – and they don’t."[30]

It was in UCLA's Powell Library, in a study room with typewriters for rent, that Bradbury wrote his classic story of a book-burning future, The Fireman, which was about 25,000 words long. It was later published at about 50,000 words under the name Fahrenheit 451, for a total cost of $9.80, due to the library's typewriter-rental fees of ten cents per half-hour.[31]

Career[edit]

When the Bradbury family moved to Los Angeles, California in 1934, Bradbury attended Los Angeles High School and was active in the drama club. Bradbury often roller-skated through Hollywood in hopes of meeting celebrities. Among the creative and talented people Bradbury met this way were special effects pioneer Ray Harryhausen and radio star George Burns. Bradbury's first pay as a writer was at the age of fourteen, when Burns hired him to write for the Burns and Allen show.[32][33]

In 1936, at a secondhand bookstore in Hollywood, Ray Bradbury discovered a handbill promoting meetings of the Los Angeles Science Fiction Society.[34] Thrilled to find there were others with his interests, at the age of sixteen Bradbury joined a weekly Thursday-night conclave.[35]

Bradbury began submitting his short stories for publication. After a rejection notice from the pulp magazine Weird Tales, Bradbury submitted to magazines. At Mademoiselle magazine, a young editorial assistant named Truman Capote spotted one of Bradbury's short stories, "Homecoming'". Capote picked the Bradbury manuscript from a slush pile, which led to it getting published in the magazine. Homecoming won a place in The O. Henry Prize Stories of 1947.[36]

Bradbury had just graduated from high school when he met Robert Heinlein, then 31 years old. Bradbury recalled, "He was well known, and he wrote humanistic science fiction, which influenced me to dare to be human instead of mechanical."[11]

His first published story was "Hollerbochen's Dilemma", which appeared in the January 1938 number of Forrest J. Ackerman's fanzine Imagination!.[1] In July 1939, Ackerman gave nineteen-year-old Ray Bradbury the money to head to New York for the First World Science Fiction Convention in New York City, and funded Ray Bradbury's fanzine, titled Futuria Fantasia.[37] Bradbury wrote most of its four issues, each limited to under 100 copies.[citation needed]Between 1940 and 1947, he was a contributor to Rob Wagner's film magazine, Script.[38]

Ray Bradbury was free to start a career in writing when, owing to his bad eyesight, he was rejected admission into the military during World War II. Having been inspired by science fiction heroes like Flash Gordon and Buck Rogers, Bradbury began to publish science fiction stories in fanzines in 1938.[39] Bradbury was invited by Forrest J. Ackerman[citation needed] to attend the Los Angeles Science Fiction Society, which at the time met at Clifton's Cafeteria in downtown Los Angeles. This was where he met the writers Robert A. Heinlein, Emil Petaja, Fredric Brown, Henry Kuttner, Leigh Brackett, and Jack Williamson.[citation needed]

In 1939, Bradbury joined Laraine Day's Wilshire Players Guild where for two years he wrote and acted in several plays. They were, as Bradbury later described, "so incredibly bad" that he gave up playwriting for two decades.[40] Bradbury's first paid piece, "Pendulum," written with Henry Hasse, was published in the pulp magazine Super Science Stories in November 1941, for which he earned $15.[41]

Bradbury sold his first story, "The Lake", for $13.75 at the age of twenty-two.[11] He became a full-time writer by the end of 1942. His first collection of short stories, Dark Carnival, was published in 1947 by Arkham House, a small press in Sauk City, Wisconsin, owned by writer August Derleth. Reviewing Dark Carnival for the New York Herald Tribune, Will Cuppy proclaimed Bradbury "suitable for general consumption" and predicted that he would become a writer of the caliber of British fantasy author John Collier.[42]

A chance encounter in a Los Angeles bookstore with the British expatriate writer Christopher Isherwood gave Bradbury the opportunity to put The Martian Chronicles into the hands of a respected critic. Isherwood's glowing review[43] followed.

Bradbury relates the following meeting with Sergei Bondarchuk, director of Soviet epic film series War and Peace, at a Hollywood award ceremony in Bondarchuk's honor: "They formed a long queue and as Bondarchuk was walking along it he recognized several people:

"Oh Mr. Ford, I like your film." He recognized the director, Greta Garbo, and someone else. I was standing at the very end of the queue and silently watched this. Bondarchuk shouted to me; "Ray Bradbury, is that you?" He rushed up to me, embraced me, dragged me inside, grabbed a bottle of Stolichnaya, sat down at his table where his closest friends were sitting. All the famous Hollywood directors in the queue were bewildered. They stared at me and asked each other "who is this Bradbury?" And, swearing, they left, leaving me alone with Bondarchuk…[44]

Bradbury was once described as a "Midwest surrealist" and is often labeled a science fiction writer. Bradbury resisted that categorization, however:

First of all, I don't write science fiction. I've only done one science fiction book and that's Fahrenheit 451, based on reality. It was named so to represent the temperature at which paper ignites. Science fiction is a depiction of the real. Fantasy is a depiction of the unreal. So Martian Chronicles is not science fiction, it's fantasy. It couldn't happen, you see? That's the reason it's going to be around a long time – because it's a Greek myth, and myths have staying power.[45]

On another occasion, Bradbury observed that the novel touches on the alienation of people by media:

In writing the short novel Fahrenheit 451 I thought I was describing a world that might evolve in four or five decades. But only a few weeks ago, in Beverly Hills one night, a husband and wife passed me, walking their dog. I stood staring after them, absolutely stunned. The woman held in one hand a small cigarette-package-sized radio, its antenna quivering. From this sprang tiny copper wires which ended in a dainty cone plugged into her right ear. There she was, oblivious to man and dog, listening to far winds and whispers and soap opera cries, sleep walking, helped up and down curbs by a husband who might just as well not have been there. This was not fiction.[46]

Besides his fiction work, Bradbury wrote many short essays on the arts and culture, attracting the attention of critics in this field. Bradbury also hosted "The Ray Bradbury Theater" which was based on his short stories. Bradbury was a consultant for the American Pavilion at the 1964 New York World's Fair[47] and the original exhibit housed in Epcot's Spaceship Earth geosphere at Walt Disney World.[48][49][50] In the 1980s, Bradbury concentrated on detective fiction.[51]

Several comic book writers have adapted Bradbury's stories. Particularly noted among these were EC Comics' line of horror and science-fiction comics. Initially, the writers plagiarized his stories, but a diplomatic letter from Bradbury about it led to the company paying him and negotiating properly licensed adaptations of his work. The comics featuring Bradbury's stories included Tales from the Crypt, Weird Science, Weird Fantasy, Crime Suspenstories, Haunt of Fear and others.

Bradbury remained an enthusiastic playwright all his life, leaving a rich theatrical legacy as well as literary. Bradbury headed the Pandemonium Theatre Company in Los Angeles for many years and had a five-year relationship with the Fremont Centre Theatre in South Pasadena.[52]

Bradbury is featured prominently in two documentaries related to his classic 1950s-'60s era: Jason V Brock's Charles Beaumont: The Life of Twilight Zone's Magic Man,[53] which details his troubles with Rod Serling, and his friendships with writers Charles Beaumont, George Clayton Johnson, and most especially his dear friend William F. Nolan, as well as Brock's The AckerMonster Chronicles!, which delves into the life of former Bradbury agent, close friend, mega-fan, and Famous Monsters of Filmland editor Forrest J Ackerman.

On May 24, 1956, Ray Bradbury appeared on the popular quiz show, You Bet Your Life starring Groucho Marx (Season 6 Episode 35). [54]

Personal life[edit]

Bradbury in December 2009.

Ray Bradbury was married to Marguerite McClure (January 16, 1922 – November 24, 2003) from 1947 until her death; they had four daughters:[55] Susan, Ramona, Bettina and Alexandra.[56] Though he lived in Los Angeles, Bradbury never obtained a driver's license but relied on public transportation or his bicycle.[57] He lived at home until he was twenty-seven and married. His wife of fifty-six years, Maggie, as she was affectionately called, was the only woman Bradbury ever dated.[11]

Bradbury was a close friend of Charles Addams, and Addams illustrated the first of Bradbury's stories about the Elliotts, a family that would resemble Addams' own Addams Family placed in rural Illinois. Bradbury's first story about them was "Homecoming," published in the 1946 Halloween issue of Mademoiselle, with Addams illustrations. He and Addams planned a larger collaborative work that would tell the family's complete history, but it never materialized, and according to a 2001 interview, they went their separate ways.[58] In October 2001, Bradbury published all the Family stories he had written in one book with a connecting narrative, From the Dust Returned, featuring a wraparound Addams cover of the original "Homecoming" illustration.[59]

Another close friend was animator Ray Harryhausen, who was best man at Bradbury's wedding.[60] During a BAFTA 2010 awards tribute in honor of Ray Harryhausen's 90th birthday, Bradbury spoke of his first meeting Harryhausen at Forrest J Ackerman's house when they were both 18 years old. Their shared love for science fiction, King Kong, and the King Vidor-directed film The Fountainhead, written by Ayn Rand, was the beginning of a lifelong friendship. These early influences inspired the pair to believe in themselves and affirm their career choices. Since their first meeting, they kept in touch at least once a month, spanning over 70 years of friendship.[61]

In later years, Bradbury retained his dedication and passion despite what he described as the "devastation of illnesses and deaths of many good friends." Among the losses that deeply grieved Bradbury was the death of Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry, who was an intimate friend for many years. They remained close friends for nearly three decades after Roddenberry asked him to write for Star Trek, which Bradbury never did, stating he "never had the ability to adapt other people's ideas into any sensible form."[11]

Bradbury suffered a stroke in 1999[62] that left him partially dependent on a wheelchair for mobility.[63] Despite this he continued to write, and had even written an essay on his inspiration for writing for The New Yorker published only a week prior to his death.[64] Bradbury made regular appearances at science fiction conventions until 2009, when he retired from the circuit.

Ray Bradbury's headstone in May 2012 prior to his death

Bradbury was a strong supporter of public library systems, and helped to raise money to prevent the closure of several in California due to budgetary cuts. He iterated from his past that "libraries raised me", and shunned colleges and universities, comparing his own lack of funds during the Depression with poor contemporary students.[65] His opinion varied on modern technology. In 1985 Bradbury wrote, "I see nothing but good coming from computers. When they first appeared on the scene, people were saying, 'Oh my God, I'm so afraid.' I hate people like that – I call them the neo-Luddites", and "In a sense [computers] are simply books. Books are all over the place, and computers will be too".[66] He resisted the conversion of his work into e-books, stating in 2010 "We have too many cellphones. We've got too many internets. We have got to get rid of those machines. We have too many machines now".[67] When the publishing rights for Fahrenheit 451 came up for renewal in December 2011, Bradbury permitted its publication in electronic form provided that the publisher, Simon & Schuster, allowed the e-book to be digitally downloaded by any library patron. The title remains the only book in the Simon & Schuster catalog where this is possible.[68] Bradbury chose a burial place at Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery in Los Angeles with a headstone that reads "Author of Fahrenheit 451".[69][70][71]

Death[edit]

Bradbury died in Los Angeles, California, on June 5, 2012, at the age of 91, after a lengthy illness.[72]

The New York Times '​ obituary stated that Bradbury was "the writer most responsible for bringing modern science fiction into the literary mainstream."[73] The Los Angeles Times credited Bradbury with the ability "to write lyrically and evocatively of lands an imagination away, worlds he anchored in the here and now with a sense of visual clarity and small-town familiarity".[74] Bradbury's grandson, Danny Karapetian, stated that Bradbury's works had "influenced so many artists, writers, teachers, scientists, and it's always really touching and comforting to hear their stories".[56] The Washington Post hallmarked several modern day technologies that Bradbury had envisioned much earlier in his writing, such as the idea of banking ATMs and earbuds and Bluetooth headsets from Fahrenheit 451, and the concepts of artificial intelligence within I Sing the Body Electric.[75]

On June 6, 2012, in an official public statement from the White House Press Office, President Barack Obama said:

"For many Americans, the news of Ray Bradbury's death immediately brought to mind images from his work, imprinted in our minds, often from a young age. His gift for storytelling reshaped our culture and expanded our world. But Ray also understood that our imaginations could be used as a tool for better understanding, a vehicle for change, and an expression of our most cherished values. There is no doubt that Ray will continue to inspire many more generations with his writing, and our thoughts and prayers are with his family and friends."[76]

Bradbury's personal library was willed to the Waukegan Public Library, where he had many of his formative reading experiences.[77]

Several celebrity fans of Bradbury paid tribute to the author by stating the influence of his works on their own careers and creations.[78][79] Filmmaker Steven Spielberg stated that Bradbury was "[his] muse for the better part of [his] sci-fi career.... On the world of science fiction and fantasy and imagination he is immortal".[80] Writer Neil Gaiman felt that "the landscape of the world we live in would have been diminished if we had not had him in our world".[79] Author Stephen King released a statement on his website saying, "Ray Bradbury wrote three great novels and three hundred great stories. One of the latter was called 'A Sound of Thunder.' The sound I hear today is the thunder of a giant's footsteps fading away. But the novels and stories remain, in all their resonance and strange beauty."[81] Bradbury's influence well exceeded the field of literature. Progressive house music producer and performer, Joel Thomas Zimmerman, who is most commonly known by his stage name Deadmau5, composed a song named after one of Bradbury's short stories "The Veldt" which was originally published in the Saturday Evening Post.[82] The EP of "The Veldt" was released days after Bradbury's death and is dedicated to the memory of the author.[83]

Bibliography[edit]

Bradbury is credited with writing 27 novels and over 600 short stories.[74] More than eight million copies of his works, published in over 36 languages, have been sold around the world.[73]

First novel[edit]

In 1949, Bradbury and his wife were expecting their first child. He took a Greyhound bus to New York and checked into a room at the YMCA for fifty cents a night. He took his short stories to a dozen publishers and no one wanted them. Just before getting ready to go home, Bradbury had dinner with an editor at Doubleday. When Bradbury recounted that everyone wanted a novel and he didn't have one, the editor, coincidentally named Walter Bradbury, asked if the short stories might be tied together into a book length collection. The title was the editor's idea; he suggested, "You could call it "The Martian Chronicles." Bradbury liked the idea and recalled making notes in 1944 to do a book set on Mars. That evening, he stayed up all night at the YMCA and typed out an outline. He took it to the Doubleday editor the next morning, who read it and wrote Bradbury a check for ten thousand dollars. When Bradbury returned to Los Angeles, he connected all the short stories and that became The Martian Chronicles.[22]

Intended first novel[edit]

What was later issued as a collection of stories and vignettes, Summer Morning, Summer Night, started out to be Ray Bradbury's first true novel. The core of the work was Bradbury's witnessing of the American small-town and life in the American heartland.

In the winter of 1955–56, after a consultation with his Doubleday editor, Bradbury deferred publication of a novel based on Green Town, the pseudonym for his hometown. Instead, he extracted seventeen stories and, with three other Green Town tales, bridged them into his 1957 book Dandelion Wine. Later, in 2006, Bradbury published the original novel remaining after the extraction, and retitled it Farewell Summer. These two titles show what stories and episodes Bradbury decided to retain as he created the two books out of one.

The most significant of the remaining unpublished stories, scenes and fragments were published under the originally intended name for the novel, Summer Morning, Summer Night, in 2007.[84]

Adaptations to other media[edit]

Bradbury in 1959, when some of his short stories were adapted for television shows like Alfred Hitchcock Presents

From 1951 to 1954, 27 of Bradbury's stories were adapted by Al Feldstein for EC Comics, and 16 of these were collected in the paperbacks, The Autumn People (1965) and Tomorrow Midnight (1966), both published by Ballantine Books with cover illustrations by Frank Frazetta.

Also in the early 1950s, adaptations of Bradbury's stories were televised in several anthology shows, including Tales of Tomorrow, Lights Out, Out There, Suspense, CBS Television Workshop, Jane Wyman's Fireside Theatre, Star Tonight, Windows and Alfred Hitchcock Presents. "The Merry-Go-Round," a half-hour film adaptation of Bradbury's "The Black Ferris," praised by Variety, was shown on Starlight Summer Theater in 1954 and NBC's Sneak Preview in 1956. During that same period, several stories were adapted for radio drama, notably on the science fiction anthologies Dimension X and its successor X Minus One.

Producer William Alland first brought Bradbury to movie theaters in 1953 with It Came from Outer Space, a Harry Essex screenplay developed from Bradbury's screen treatment "Atomic Monster". Three weeks later came the release of Eugène Lourié's The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms (1953), which featured one scene based on Bradbury's "The Fog Horn", about a sea monster mistaking the sound of a fog horn for the mating cry of a female. Bradbury's close friend Ray Harryhausen produced the stop-motion animation of the creature. Bradbury would later return the favor by writing a short story, "Tyrannosaurus Rex", about a stop-motion animator who strongly resembled Harryhausen. Over the next 50 years, more than 35 features, shorts, and TV movies were based on Bradbury's stories or screenplays.

Bradbury was hired in 1953 by director John Huston to work on the screenplay for his film version of Melville's Moby Dick (1956), which stars Gregory Peck as Captain Ahab, Richard Basehart as Ishmael, and Orson Welles as Father Mapple. A significant result of the film was Bradbury's book Green Shadows, White Whale, a semi-fictionalized account of the making of the film, including Bradbury's dealings with Huston and his time in Ireland, where exterior scenes that were set in New Bedford, Massachusetts, were filmed.

Bradbury's short story I Sing the Body Electric (from the book of the same name) was adapted for the 100th episode of The Twilight Zone. The episode was first aired on May 18, 1962.

In 1965, three of Ray Bradbury's stories were adapted for the stage. These included "The Wonderful Ice Cream Suit", "The Day It Rained Forever" and "Device Out Of Time". The latter was adapted from his 1957 novel Dandelion Wine. The plays debuted at the Coronet Theater in Hollywood and featured Booth Coleman, Joby Baker, Fredric Villani, Arnold Lessing, Eddie Sallia, Keith Taylor, Richard Bull, Gene Otis Shane, Henry T. Delgado, F. Murray Abraham, Anne Loos and Len Lesser. The director was Charles Rome Smith and the production company was Pandemonium Productions.

Oskar Werner and Julie Christie starred in Fahrenheit 451 (1966), an adaptation of Bradbury's novel directed by François Truffaut.

In 1966, Bradbury helped Lynn Garrison create AVIAN, a specialist aviation magazine. For the first issue Bradbury wrote a poem – Planes that land on grass.

In 1969, The Illustrated Man was brought to the big screen, starring Rod Steiger, Claire Bloom and Robert Drivas. Containing the prologue and three short stories from the book, the film received mediocre reviews.

Ray Bradbury takes part in a symposium at Caltech with Arthur C. Clarke, journalist Walter Sullivan, and scientists Carl Sagan and Bruce Murray. In this excerpt, Bradbury reads his poem 'If Only We Had Taller Been' (poem begins at 2:20, full text[85]). Video released by NASA in honor of the naming of Bradbury Landing in 2012.[86]

In 1972 The Screaming Woman was adapted as an ABC Movie-of-the-Week starring Olivia de Havilland.

The Martian Chronicles became a three-part TV miniseries starring Rock Hudson which was first broadcast by NBC in 1980. Bradbury found the miniseries "just boring".[87]

The 1982 television movie, The Electric Grandmother, was based on Bradbury's short story "I Sing the Body Electric."

The 1983 horror film Something Wicked This Way Comes, starring Jason Robards and Jonathan Pryce, is based on the Bradbury novel of the same name.

In 1984, Michael McDonough of Brigham Young University produced "Bradbury 13," a series of 13 audio adaptations of famous Ray Bradbury stories, in conjunction with National Public Radio. The full-cast dramatizations featured adaptations of "The Ravine," "Night Call, Collect," "The Veldt", "There Was an Old Woman," "Kaleidoscope," "Dark They Were, and Golden-Eyed", "The Screaming Woman," "A Sound of Thunder," "The Man," "The Wind," "The Fox and the Forest," "Here There Be Tygers" and "The Happiness Machine". Voiceover actor Paul Frees provided narration, while Bradbury himself was responsible for the opening voiceover; Greg Hansen and Roger Hoffman scored the episodes. The series won a Peabody Award as well as two Gold Cindy awards and was released on CD on May 1, 2010. The series began airing on BBC Radio 4 Extra on June 12, 2011.

From 1985 to 1992 Bradbury hosted a syndicated anthology television series, The Ray Bradbury Theater, for which he adapted 65 of his stories. Each episode would begin with a shot of Bradbury in his office, gazing over mementoes of his life, which he states (in narrative) are used to spark ideas for stories. During the first two seasons, Bradbury also provided additional voiceover narration specific to the featured story and appeared on screen.

Deeply respected in the USSR, Bradbury's fictions has been adapted into five episodes of the Soviet science fiction TV series This Fantastic World adapted Ray Bradbury's stories I Sing The Body Electric, Fahrenheit 451, A Piece of Wood, To the Chicago Abyss, and Forever and the Earth.[88] In 1984 a cartoon adaptation of There Will Come Soft Rains («Будет ласковый дождь») came out by Uzbek director Nazim Tyuhladziev.[89] He made a film adaptation of The Veldt ("Вельд") in 1987.[90] In 1989 came out a cartoon adaptation of Here There Be Tygers («Здесь могут водиться тигры») by director Vladimir Samsonov.[91]

Bradbury wrote and narrated the 1993 animated television version of The Halloween Tree, based on his 1972 novel.

The 1998 film The Wonderful Ice Cream Suit, released by Touchstone Pictures, was written by Ray Bradbury. It was based on his story "The Magic White Suit" originally published in The Saturday Evening Post in 1957. The story had also previously been adapted as a play, a musical, and a 1958 television version.

In 2002, Bradbury's own Pandemonium Theatre Company production of Fahrenheit 451 at Burbank's Falcon Theatre combined live acting with projected digital animation by the Pixel Pups. In 1984, Telarium released a game for Commodore 64 based on Fahrenheit 451.[92] Bradbury and director Charles Rome Smith co-founded Pandemonium in 1964, staging the New York production of The World of Ray Bradbury (1964), adaptations of "The Pedestrian", "The Veldt", and "To the Chicago Abyss."

In 2005, the film A Sound of Thunder was released, loosely based upon the short story of the same name. The film The Butterfly Effect revolves around the same theory as A Sound of Thunder and contains many references to its inspiration. Short film adaptations of A Piece of Wood and The Small Assassin were released in 2005 and 2007 respectively.

In 2005, it was reported that Bradbury was upset with filmmaker Michael Moore for using the title Fahrenheit 9/11, which is an allusion to Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451, for his documentary about the George W. Bush administration. Bradbury expressed displeasure with Moore's use of the title but stated that his resentment was not politically motivated, even though Bradbury was conservative-leaning politically.[93] Bradbury asserted that he did not want any of the money made by the movie, nor did he believe that he deserved it. He pressured Moore to change the name, but to no avail. Moore called Bradbury two weeks before the film's release to apologize, saying that the film's marketing had been set in motion a long time ago and it was too late to change the title.[94]

In 2008, the film Ray Bradbury's Chrysalis was produced by Roger Lay Jr. for Urban Archipelago Films, based upon the short story of the same name. The film won the best feature award at the International Horror and Sci-Fi Film Festival in Phoenix. The film has international distribution by Arsenal Pictures and domestic distribution by Lightning Entertainment.

In 2010, The Martian Chronicles was adapted for radio by Colonial Radio Theatre on the Air.

In 2012, EDM artist deadmau5, along with guest vocalist Chris James, crafted a song called "The Veldt" inspired by Bradbury's short story of the same title. The lyrics featured various references to the short story.

Bradbury's works and approach to writing are documented in Terry Sanders' film Ray Bradbury: Story of a Writer (1963).

Bradbury's poem "Groon" was voiced as a tribute in 2012: http://vimeo.com/49873749

Awards and honors[edit]

Bradbury receiving the National Medal of Arts in 2004 with President George W. Bush and his wife Laura Bush.

The Ray Bradbury Award for excellency in screenwriting was occasionally presented by the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America – presented to six people on four occasions from 1992 to 2009.[95] Beginning 2010, the Ray Bradbury Award for Outstanding Dramatic Presentation is presented annually according to Nebula Awards rules and procedures, although it is not a Nebula Award.[96] The revamped Bradbury Award replaced the Nebula Award for Best Script.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Ray Bradbury at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database (ISFDB). Retrieved April 22, 2013. Select a title to see its linked publication history and general information. Select a particular edition (title) for more data at that level, such as a front cover image or linked contents.
  2. ^ Internet Movie Database: Ray Bradbury
  3. ^ Society for the Study of Midwestern Literature (2001). Greasley, Philip A., ed. Dictionary of Midwestern Literature. 1, The Authors. Indiana University Press. p. 77. ISBN 9780253336095. Retrieved 5 March 2014. 
  4. ^ "Ray Bradbury – Information, Facts, and Links died". Enotes.com. Retrieved September 30, 2011. 
  5. ^ p.141 Bloom, Harold Ray Bradbury 2010 Infobase Publishing
  6. ^ Touponce, William F. "Ray (Douglas) Bradbury." American Writers: A Collection of Literary Biographies, Supplement 4. Ed. A Walton Litz and Molly Weigel. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1996. Literature Resources from Gale. November 16, 2010.
  7. ^ Certificate of Birth, Ray Douglas Bradbury, August 22, 1920, Lake County Clerk's Record #4750. Although he was named after Rae Williams, a cousin on his father's side, Ray Bradbury's birth certificate spells his first name as "Ray."
  8. ^ Summer Morning, Summer Night[dead link], by Ray Bradbury; Synopsis, Subterranean Press
  9. ^ The Spaulding Family Memorial, 1899
  10. ^ Eller, Jonathan (2011). Becoming Ray Bradbury. University of Illinois Press. p. 202. ISBN 0252036298. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f Ken Kelley (1996). "About Ray Bradbury Interview". Playboy. 
  12. ^ Litz, A. Walton. American Writers Supplement IV. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1996. Print.
  13. ^ Contemporary Authors Online. Ray Bradbury. Detroit: Gale, 2009. Web.
  14. ^ Heller, Terry. Magill's Survey of American Literature. Revised Edition. Pasadena: Salem Press, 2006. Print.
  15. ^ Ray Bradbury interview – The art of Fiction No. 203 The Paris Review; Spring, 2009
  16. ^ Paradowski, Robert J. "Ray Bradbury." Critical Survey of Short Fiction, Second Revised Edition" 2001:1–5. EBSCO. November 8, 2010.
  17. ^ Sites from these works which still exist in Waukegan include his boyhood home, his grandparents' home next door (and their connecting lawns where he and his grandfather gathered dandelions to make wine) and, less than a block away, the famous ravine which Bradbury used as a metaphor throughout his career.
  18. ^ Paradowski, Robert J. "Ray Bradbury." Critical Survey of Short Fiction, Second Revised Edition (2001): UFO. November 10, 2010.
  19. ^ "In His Words". RayBradbury.com. Retrieved December 9, 2009. 
  20. ^ "In His Words". RayBradbury.com. Retrieved June 6, 2012. 
  21. ^ Terry Sanders' film Ray Bradbury: Story of a Writer (1963)
  22. ^ a b The Art of Fiction No. 203: Ray Bradbury, Interviewed by Sam Weller; The Paris Review, Spring 2010
  23. ^ A Conversation with Ray Bradbury Point Loma Nazarene University, Writer's Symposium By The Sea; "The only science fiction I have written is Fahrenheit 451. It's the art of the possible. Science fiction is the art of the possible. It could happen. It has happened." Discussion of genres, finding one's voice. April 2001; Cosmos Learning, English Literature
  24. ^ Ray Bradbury interview "I am not a science fiction writer. I am a fantasy writer. But the label got put on me and stuck." March 23, 2005
  25. ^ Personal lessons from futurist Ray Bradbury on crying, escaping, laughing, by Mick Mortlock; Oregon Live, June 6, 2012
  26. ^ Ray Bradbury Biography Ray Bradbury Online
  27. ^ Litz, A. Walton, and Molly Weigel, eds. American Writers (Supp. 4, Pt. 1). New York: Macmillian Library Reference. 1996. Print.
  28. ^ Steinhauer, Jennifer (June 19, 2009). "A Literary Legend Fights for a Local Library". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2009. 
  29. ^ "Mayor, Author Launch Library Funding Drive". Los Angeles Times, October 1, 1988
  30. ^ Ray Bradbury Interview The Paris Review
  31. ^ A Bruin Birthday Tribute To Ray Bradbury Tweet (August 22, 2010). "First Spark: Ray Bradbury Turns 90; The Universe and UCLA Academy Celebrate". Spotlight.ucla.edu. Retrieved September 30, 2011. 
  32. ^ Ray Bradbury's close encounters with W.C. Fields, George Burns... by Susan King; Los Angeles Times, August 18, 2010
  33. ^ Old Radio Shows
  34. ^ The article linked appears in the source, but this name conflicts with the group's web site.
  35. ^ "The Big Read". Neabigread.org. Retrieved July 6, 2012. 
  36. ^ Ray Bradbury, From Truman Capote to A.T.M.’s, by Dean Robinson – 6th floor; The New York Times, June 6, 2012]
  37. ^ Marguerite bradbury – Ray Bradbury Discussion Ray Bradbury Official website
  38. ^ Sam Weller (Spring 2010). "Ray Bradbury, The Art of Fiction No. 203". The Paris Review. 
  39. ^ Ray Bradbury at the Internet Movie Database
  40. ^ Bradbury, Ray (1972). The Veldt. Woodstock, Illinois: Dramatic Publishing. p. 4. ISBN 1-58342-028-2. 
  41. ^ "Biographies: Bradbury, Raymond Douglas". s9.com. Retrieved December 9, 2009. 
  42. ^ Cuppy, Will, "Review of Dark Carnival," New York Herald Tribune Books, May 25, 1947.
  43. ^ Isherwood, Christopher (October 1950), A Review of The Martian Chronicles, Tomorrow 10: 56–58 
  44. ^ "Ray Bradbury: "Russians have an unparalleled capacity for love"". http://rbth.ru. Retrieved September 15, 2012. 
  45. ^ Wil Gerken, Nathan Hendler, Doug Floyd, John Banks. "Books: Grandfather Time (Weekly Alibi . 09-27-99)". Weeklywire.com. Retrieved February 14, 2010. 
  46. ^ Quoted by Kingsley Amis in New Maps of Hell: A Survey of Science Fiction (1960).
  47. ^ "The American Journey" by: Ray Bradbury http://nywf64.com/unista09.shtml
  48. ^ Ray Bradbury. "In 1982 he created the interior metaphors for the Spaceship Earth display at Epcot Center, Disney World." http://www.raybradbury.com/bio.html
  49. ^ Ray Bradbury. "The images at Spaceship Earth in DisneyWorld's EPCOT Center in Orlando? Well, they are all Bradbury's ideas." http://www.raybradbury.com/articles_town_talk.html
  50. ^ Ray Bradbury. "He also serves as a consultant, having collaborated, for example, in the design of a pavilion in the Epcot Center at Walt Disney World." Referring to Spaceship Earth ... http://www.raybradbury.com/articles_book_mag.html
  51. ^ Litz, A. Walton., and Molly V. Weigel. American Writers: a Collection of Literary Biographies. New York: Scribner, 1996. Print
  52. ^ Ray Bradbury, 91, leaves a rich theatrical legacy too by David Ng; Los Angeles Time, June 6, 2012
  53. ^ French, Lawrence "Richard Matheson remembers his good friend Charles Beaumont", March 24, 2010. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
  54. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NBTrUx46b8I&list=PLHaioNpr_GDbvsTj_taM-jO6C1658N1PC&index=36
  55. ^ "Telegraph obituary". The Daily Telegraph. June 6, 2012. Retrieved June 6, 2012. 
  56. ^ a b "Author Ray Bradbury dies, aged 91". BBC News. June 6, 2012. Retrieved June 6, 2012. 
  57. ^ Riddle, Warren (June 25, 2009). "Sci-Fi Author Ray Bradbury Trashes the Web". Switched. Retrieved December 9, 2009. 
  58. ^ Interview with Ray Bradbury in IndieBound, fall 2001.
  59. ^ Bradbury, Ray, From The Dust Returned: A Novel. William Morrow, 2001.
  60. ^ Whitaker, Sheila (May 7, 2013). "Ray Harryhausen obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved June 4, 2013. 
  61. ^ BAFTA Online. "Ray Bradbury pays Tribute to Ray Harryhausen". YouTube. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  62. ^ Ryan, Joal (November 12, 1999). "Sci-Fi Great Ray Bradbury Suffers Stroke". E!. Retrieved June 6, 2012. 
  63. ^ Rogers, Jim (January 18, 2002). "Ray Bradbury Still Writing At 81". CBS News. Associated Press. Retrieved June 6, 2012. 
  64. ^ Bradbury, Ray (June 4, 2012). "Take Me Home". The New Yorker. Retrieved June 6, 2012. 
  65. ^ Steinhauer, Jennifer (June 19, 2009). "A Literary Legend Fights for a Local Library". The New York Times. Retrieved June 7, 2012. 
  66. ^ Lemley, Brad (1985-01-08). "Other Voices, Other Futures". PC Magazine. p. 133. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  67. ^ "Fahrenheit 451 becomes e-book despite author's feelings". BBC News. November 30, 2011. Retrieved December 1, 2011. 
  68. ^ Jablon, Robert (June 6, 2012). "'Fahrenheit 451' Author Ray Bradbury Dies at 91". Time. Retrieved June 6, 2012. [dead link]
  69. ^ "Visiting Marilyn Monroe's grave: Resting places of the rich and famous". Test Pattern. MSNBC. August 15, 2007. Retrieved April 7, 2012. 
  70. ^ Guthrie, Bruce. "CA – Westwood – Pierce Bros. Westwood Village Memorial Park: Ray Bradbury". Bruce Guthrie Photos. Retrieved April 7, 2012. 
  71. ^ Ray Bradbury at Find a Grave
  72. ^ Duke, Alan (June 6, 2012). "Sci-fi legend Ray Bradbury dies". CNN. Retrieved June 6, 2012. 
  73. ^ a b Jonas, Gerald (June 6, 2012). "Ray Bradbury, Master of Science Fiction, Dies at 91". The New York Times. Retrieved June 5, 2012. 
  74. ^ a b George, Lynell (June 6, 2012). "Ray Bradbury dies at 91; author lifted fantasy to literary heights". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 6, 2012. 
  75. ^ Tsukayama, Hayley (June 6, 2012). "Dreams of Ray Bradbury: 10 predictions that came true". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 6, 2012. 
  76. ^ "Statement by the President on the Passing of Ray Bradbury". The White House. Retrieved June 8, 2012. 
  77. ^ Russell Lissau (June 17, 2013). "Ray Bradbury book collection going to Waukegan library". Daily Herald. 
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  81. ^ Stephen Comments on the Death of Ray Bradbury. Stephen King. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
  82. ^ http://bestsciencefictionstories.com/2008/02/21/the-veldt-by-ray-bradbury/
  83. ^ Video on YouTube
  84. ^ Summer Morning, Summer Night, by Ray Bradbury; PS Publishing, 2007
  85. ^ Jessie Lendennie, ed. (2006). "If Only We Had Taller Been". Daughter and Other Poems. Salmon Publishing. pp. 57–58. 
  86. ^ In Memoriam: Ray Bradbury 1920-2012. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. June 6, 2012. Retrieved June 7, 2012. 
  87. ^ Weller, Sam (2005). The Bradbury Chronicles: The Life of Ray Bradbury. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 301–302. ISBN 0-06-054581-X. 
  88. ^ "State Fund of Television and Radio Programs" (in Russian). 
  89. ^ "Будет ласковый дождь" (in Russian). 
  90. ^ ""Вельд", Киностудия "Узбекфильм", 1987" (in Russian). 
  91. ^ "Здесь могут водиться тигры (мультфильм)" (in Russian). [dead link]
  92. ^ "Fahrenheit 451 (1984 game)". 
  93. ^ Fund, John (June 6, 2012). "Ray Bradbury, a Great Conservative". Nationalreview.com. Retrieved June 6, 2012. 
  94. ^ Weller, Sam (2005). The Bradbury Chronicles: The Life of Ray Bradbury. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 330–331. ISBN 0-06-054581-X. 
  95. ^ "Other SFWA Awards". The Locus Index to SF Awards: About the Awards. Locus Publications. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
  96. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". SFWA. Retrieved April 2, 2013. Quote: "Effective January 2009, here are the new rules for the Nebula Awards."
  97. ^ Keilman, John (June 7, 2012). "Waukegan's landscape, values never left Bradbury". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 15, 2012. 
  98. ^ Distinguished Contribution to American Letters Award with his acceptance speech.
  99. ^ "Ray Bradbury Receives Star on Hollywood Walk of Fame". Press release, office of Mayor Hahn, April 1, 2002. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
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  101. ^ "Lifetime honors: National medal of the arts". National Endowment for the arts. Retrieved July 15, 2012. 
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  105. ^ "First Fandom: First Fandom hall of fame award". First Fandom. Retrieved July 15, 2012. 
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  107. ^ "The 2007 Pulitzer Prize Winners: Special Awards and Citations". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved November 2, 2013.
  108. ^ "The US conference of mayors, 80th annual meeting: Honoring the life of Ray Bradbury". The US conference of mayors. June 13–16, 2012. Retrieved July 15, 2012. 
  109. ^ Wilson, Stephen M. (2008). "2008 SFPA Grandmaster". The Science Fiction Poetry Association. SFPA. Retrieved August 3, 2008. [dead link]
  110. ^ "The Eaton Awards". Eaton Science Fiction Conference. University of California, Riverside (ucr.edu). Retrieved April 2, 2013.
  111. ^ "College history: Honorary degree recipients". Columbia University. 2011. Retrieved July 15, 2012. 
  112. ^ MSNBC Staff (August 6, 2012). "Video from rover looks down on Mars during landing". MSNBC. Retrieved October 7, 2012. 
  113. ^ Young, Monica (August 7, 2012). "Watch Curiosity Descend onto Mars". SkyandTelescope.com. Retrieved October 7, 2012. 
  114. ^ Brown, Dwayne; Cole, Steve; Webster, Guy; Agle, D.C. (August 22, 2012). "NASA Mars Rover Begins Driving at Bradbury Landing". NASA. Retrieved August 22, 2012. 
  115. ^ "Mars Curiosity Rover Twitter feed". 
  116. ^ Bob Pool, Intersection near L.A. library named for Ray Bradbury, Los Angeles Times, December 6, 2012
  117. ^ "Oscars 'In Memoriam' 2013: Full list". MSN. 
Citations
  • Anderson, James Arthur (2013). The Illustrated Ray Bradbury. Wildside Press. ISBN 978-1-4794-0007-2. 
  • Albright, Donn (1990). Bradbury Bits & Pieces: The Ray Bradbury Bibliography, 1974–88. Starmont House. ISBN 1-55742-151-X. 
  • Eller, Jonathan R.; Touponce, William F. (2004). Ray Bradbury: The Life of Fiction. Kent State University Press. ISBN 0-87338-779-1. 
  • Eller, Jonathan R. (2011). Becoming Ray Bradbury. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-03629-8. 
  • Nolan, William F. (1975). The Ray Bradbury Companion: A Life and Career History, Photolog, and Comprehensive Checklist of Writings. Gale Research. ISBN 0-8103-0930-0. 
  • Paradowski, Robert J.; Rhynes, Martha E. (2001). Ray Bradbury. Salem Press. 
  • Reid, Robin Anne (2000). Ray Bradbury: A Critical Companion. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-30901-9. 
  • Tuck, Donald H. (1974). The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy. Chicago: Advent. pp. 61–63. ISBN 0-911682-20-1. 
  • Weist, Jerry (2002). Bradbury, an Illustrated Life: A Journey to Far Metaphor. William Morrow and Company. ISBN 0-06-001182-3. 
  • Weller, Sam (2005). The Bradbury Chronicles: The Life of Ray Bradbury. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-054581-X. 

External links[edit]