Majha

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Dialects of Punjabi
The Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple), Amritsar

The Majha (Punjabi: ਮਾਝਾ (Gurmukhi), ماجھا (Shahmukhi); Mājhā) region is recognized as the region that is located at the center of the historical Punjab region,[1] that is northward from the right banks[note 1] of river Beas, and extends up to river Jhelum at its northmost.[2] People of the Majha region are given the demonym "Mājhi". The Majhi dialect of Punjabi language is the main language of this region, which is also the standard dialect of the Punjabi language.[3]

During the partition of India in 1947, the Majha region of Panjab got split into India and Pakistan when Panjab India and Punjab Pakistan were formed. The Majha region of Indian State of Panjab covers the area between Beas and Ravi rivers, including the area on the north of Sutlej, after the confluence of Beas and Sutlej at Harike in Tarn Taran district, extending up to the Ravi river, which is all part of the Majha region in India.[4] This region contains four districts of Indian state of Panjab - Amritsar, Tarn Taran, Gurdaspur, and Pathankot.

The people of the Majha region have been historically known to be fierce and stubborn fighters and in lieu of this, the Majha region is called the "Sword Arm of the Country", due to it contributing disproportionately to the Officer as well as Orderly ranks of the Army. [5] The Sikh Empire was founded in the Majha region which is also referred to as "the cradle of the brave Sikhs." [6]

History[edit]

A map of the Punjab region ca. 1947 showing the different doabs.

The word "Mājhā" (ਮਾਝਾ) means the "central" or the "heartland". The Majha region is geographically located in the middle (or central part) of the historic Punjab region, hence giving it the name Majha.[7] It includes a considerable portion of the Bari Doab (the region between the rivers Beas and Ravi) and the Rechna Doab (the region between the rivers Ravi and Chenab), and a smaller portion of the Jech Doab region (the region between the rivers Jhelum and Chenab).[8]

The Majha region of historical Punjab region spans northward from the right banks[note 1] of river Beas, and extends up to river Jhelum at its northmost,[2] making it the largest regions of historic Punjab.

Though partition split the Punjab Province (British India) into two states of West Punjab (Punjab, Pakistan) and East Punjab (Panjab, India), however the historic Majha region is arguably still the same as before since the partition does not change the previous history of Punjab, therefore does not change the geography of the Majha region of the historic Punjab region.

The Indian state of Panjab has continued to recognize the Majha region through maintaining the districts that have always belonged to the renowned historic Majha region. However, Majha being the only region that Punjab, Pakistan had, it has made Lahore as its provincial capital consisting of 10 sub-divisions such as Bahawalpur, Dera Ghazi Khan, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, Lahore, Multan, Rawalpindi,[9] Sahiwal and Sargodha.

Districts of Majha[edit]

The following districts are classified as Majha:[2]

Majha districts of Panjab, India in 2016 Majha districts of Punjab, Pakistan
Amritsar Gujranwala, Narowal, Sheikhupura, Rawalpindi
Tarn Taran Lahore, Kasur, Faisalabad, Hafizabad
Gurdaspur Nankana Sahib, Pakpattan, Chiniot
Pathankot Sialkot, Sahiwal, Gujrat, Okara

Tourist attractions[edit]

Notable residents[edit]

Photo gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The left/right bank of a river is determined by looking in the direction of flow of the river (facing downstream).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Discover India http://www.discoveredindia.com/punjab/about-punjab/regions-in-punjab.htm
  2. ^ a b c Grover, Parminder Singh (2011). Discover Punjab: Attractions of Punjab. Parminder Singh Grover. p. 179. 
  3. ^ Advanced Centre for Technical Development of Punjabi Language, Literature and Culture, Punjabi University, Patiala Punjabi University, Patiala.
  4. ^ Punjab Data, Know Everything About Punjab http://www.punjabdata.com/Majha-Malwa-Doaba.aspx
  5. ^ Mahmood, Cynthia Keppley (1996). Fighting for Faith and Nation: Dialogues with Sikh Militants (Contemporary Ethnography), p. 153. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania.
  6. ^ Sandhu, Gulzar Singh (2004). Gods on Trial and Other Stories, p. 132. Diamond Pocket Books. ISBN 8128808087
  7. ^ Vipul Punjabi https://vipulpunjabi.wordpress.com/regions-and-districts/majha/
  8. ^ Kakshi, S.R.; Pathak, Rashmi; Pathak, S.R.Bakshi R. (2007-01-01). Punjab Through the Ages. Sarup & Sons. ISBN 978-81-7625-738-1. Retrieved 12 June 2010. 
  9. ^ Rawalpindi: Majha, Punjab, Islamabad, Tribes and Castes of Rawalpindi District, Rawalpindi District, Demography of Rawalpindi District https://www.amazon.it/Rawalpindi-Punjab-Islamabad-District-Demography/dp/6131076170
  10. ^ Singh, Raj Pal (1998). Banda Bahadur and His Times p. 22. Harman Pub. House, 1 Aug 1998.
  11. ^ http://centralsikhmuseum.com/today-in-sikh-history-5th-september/