Cabinet of Malaysia
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The Cabinet of Malaysia is the executive branch of Malaysia's government. Led by the Prime Minister, the cabinet is a council of ministers who are accountable collectively to the Parliament. According to the Article 43 of the Constitution, members of the Cabinet can only be selected from members of either houses of Parliament. Formally, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints all Ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister. The constitution is amended by repealing the Clause (8) of Article 43, enabling a person who is a member of State Legislative Assembly to continue to be one even when he or she is appointed as a minister or deputy minister in the cabinet. Ministers other than the Prime Minister shall hold office during the pleasure of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, unless the appointment of any Minister shall have been revoked by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on the advice of the Prime Minister but any Minister may resign his office. In practice, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is obliged to follow the advice of the Prime Minister on the appointment and dismissal of ministers.
Members of the Cabinet must be members of either house of Parliament. Most ministers are appointed from the lower house, the Dewan Rakyat, although a few are appointed from the upper house, the Dewan Negara. The Prime Minister must be a member of the Dewan Rakyat. Although Deputy Ministers and/or Parliamentary Secretaries may be appointed to each portfolio, they are not included in the Cabinet. The Cabinet meets weekly, every Wednesday. After the position of Parliamentary Secretary was removed and partial live telecasts of Parliament proceedings began in 2008, Cabinet meetings were moved to Fridays whenever Parliament sat, so as to allow Ministers to personally answer questions during Question Time in Parliament.
The composition of the Cabinet, and the number of portfolios depends mainly on the wishes of the Prime Minister at the time. However, the post of Finance Minister was considered so important as to be a necessity, and as a result was incorporated by the Minister of Finance (Incorporation) Act 1957 (Act 375). The position of Deputy Prime Minister is one that exists by convention, and as a result a Prime Minister could theoretically form a Cabinet without a Deputy.
Deputy ministers exist for each portfolio, although they are not considered members of the Cabinet. The position of Deputy Minister was created by constitutional amendment in 1960. The office of parliamentary secretary for each ministry exists but none were appointed after the 2008 Malaysian general election. Parliamentary secretaries were provided for by an amendment in 1963. Deputy ministers and parliamentary secretaries are also appointed from members of Parliament, and deputise for the ministers in government ministries and in Parliament respectively. An additional office, that of the Political Secretary, exists. Political Secretaries need not be members of Parliament. Before taking office, all members of the Cabinet, Deputy Ministers, Parliamentary Secretaries, and Political Secretaries take an oath of secrecy concerning the proceedings of the Cabinet. (See also Official Secrets Act (Malaysia).)
Functions of cabinet
An outline of the functions of the Cabinet are as follow:
- To formulate national economic policies and development programs.
- The Cabinet is responsible to formulate various development programs and projects for the development of the country. Examples are the New Economic Policy (NEP), the National Development Policy (NDP), and the National Vision Policy (NVP).
- To set the budget and finance of the country.
- The government is allowed to generate revenues from the people through the collection of taxes, fines, summons, custom duties, fees, etc.
- The government is allowed to plan for the various development programs, and also to allocate the resources for these development plans and programs.
- As an arena for suggestions, debates, and criticisms.
- The Cabinet is allowed to discuss almost any issues of national interests, except those that touch on the special rights of the Malays, Bumiputeras and/or royal privileges. Article 153 (1): It shall be the responsibility of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong to safeguard the special position of the Malays and Natives of any of the States of Sabah and Sarawak, and the legitimate interests of other communities in accordance with the provisions of this Article.
- To propose and amend the law.
- Law is proposed by the Executive and introduce in Parliament with the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd readings for approval.
- Most provisions for the amendments of the constitution requires a 2/3 majority of the total number of members from both the Houses or Dewans.
- The bill must be presented to the YDPA for the final assent.
The federal cabinet consisted of the following ministers:
- Chief Minister of Malaya
- Minister of Agriculture
- Minister of Agriculture and Co-operatives
- Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries
- Minister of Agriculture and Lands
- Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development
- Minister of Arts, Culture and Heritage
- Minister of Commerce and Industry
- Minister of Communications
- Minister of Communications, Telecommunications and Posts
- Minister of Coordination of Public Corporations
- Minister of Culture and Tourism
- Minister of Culture, Arts and Tourism
- Minister of Culture, Youth and Sports
- Minister of Domestic Trade and Consumer Affairs
- Minister of Energy, Communications and Multimedia
- Minister of Energy, Technology and Research
- Minister of Energy, Telecommunications and Posts
- Minister of Energy, Water and Communications
- Minister of Entrepreneur and Co-operatives Development
- Minister of Entrepreneur Development
- Minister of External Affairs
- Minister of Federal Territories and Urban Wellbeing
- Minister of General Planning and Sosio-Economic Research
- Minister of General Welfare
- Minister of Health and Social Welfare
- Minister of Home Affairs and Justice
- Minister of Housing and Local Government
- Minister of Housing and New Villages
- Minister of Housing and Villages Development
- Minister of Information
- Minister of Information and Broadcasting
- Minister of Information, Communications and Culture
- Minister of Information, Communications, Arts and Culture
- Minister of Internal Security
- Minister of Justice
- Minister of Labour
- Minister of Labour and Manpower
- Minister of Labour and Social Welfare
- Minister of Lands and Co-operatives Development
- Minister of Lands and Mines
- Minister of Lands and Regional Development
- Minister of Lands Development
- Minister of Law
- Minister of Local Government and Environment
- Minister of Local Government and Federal Territories
- Minister of Local Government and Housing
- Minister of Local Government, Housing and Town Planning
- Minister of National and Rural Development
- Minister of National Unity
- Minister of National Unity and Community Development
- Minister of National Unity, Culture, Arts and Heritage
- Minister of Natural Resources
- Minister of Primary Industries
- Minister of Public Enterprises
- Minister of Rural Development
- Minister of Rural Economy Development
- Minister of Sabah Affairs
- Minister of Sarawak Affairs
- Minister of Science, Technology and Environment
- Minister of Social Welfare
- Minister of Technology, Research and Coordination of New Villages
- Minister of Technology, Research and Local Government
- Minister of the Interior
- Minister of Tourism
- Minister of Trade and Industry
- Minister of Welfare Services
- Minister of Women and Family Development
- Minister of Works and Energy
- Minister of Works and Public Amenities
- Minister of Works and Transport
- Minister of Works, Posts and Telecommunications
- Minister of Youth, Culture and Sports
- Minister with Special Functions
- Minister with Special Functions for Foreign Affairs
- Minister without Portfolio
- Shadow Cabinet of Malaysia
- Barisan Nasional Backbenchers Club
- List of female cabinet ministers of Malaysia
- His service was discontinued by the Prime Minister.
- His term as a Senator came to the end on this date.
- He was reassigned to a new portfolio.
- He discontinued his service to the Cabinet on his will.
- He was dismissed from the Cabinet.
- The post was reserved to MCA. He became an Acting Minister throughout the vacancy.
- He stopped serving the Cabinet following his appointment as the Deputy Chief Minister of Sarawak.
- She became the Acting Minister following the vacancy of the Minister's seat.
- He received promotion as a Minister.
- He stopped being a Deputy Minister following his appointment as the Menteri Besar of Kedah.
- The post was vacant following her death from a helicopter crash in Sarawak.
- Hj. Mohd Jali, Nazaruddin, Redzuan, Ma'arof, Abu Samah, Asnarulkhadi & Hj. Mohd Rashid, Ismail (2003). Malaysian Studies: Nationhood and Citizenship, p. 73. Pearson Malaysia. ISBN 983-2473-91-8.
- Funston, John (2001). "Malaysia: Developmental State Challenged". In John Funston (Ed.), Government and Politics in Southeast Asia, pp. 173–175. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
- "Cabinet now to meet Fridays for ministers to attend parliament". The Malaysian Insider. 9 April 2008. Retrieved 9 April 2008.
- Wu, Min Aun & Hickling, R. H. (2003). Hickling's Malaysian Public Law, pp. 84–85. Petaling Jaya: Pearson Malaysia. ISBN 983-74-2518-0.
- Wu & Hickling, p. 86.
- Jeong Chun Hai @ Ibrahim, & Nor Fadzlina Nawi. (2012). Principles of Public Administration: Malaysian Perspectives. Kuala Lumpur: Pearson Publishers. ISBN 978-967-349-233-6