Cruelty-free cosmetics

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Cruelty-free cosmetics is a category containing all cosmetics that have not been tested on animals.[1] The FDA has not approved a legal definition that binds this term to a certain set of criteria, making it difficult to define.[2] However, in addition to the final product, most advocates for cruelty-free beauty agree that none of the ingredients used in the production of the cosmetic can be tested on animals in order for it to be truly cruelty-free, despite the fact that many companies who brand themselves as such still use raw materials that have been tested on animals.[3] Therefore, it is most useful to define the term according to group consensus within the community rather than using government-promoted definitions.

The types of tests performed on animals include acute toxicity testing, eye and skin irritation testing, skin sensitivity testing, carcinogenicity testing and re-productivity and developmental toxicity testing. Numerous studies have shown that the effectiveness of these tests is limited, and valid alternatives exist for many of these tests.[4]

People only buying from cruelty-free companies is effective because it boycotts the practice of testing on animals and proves that there is a specific market for cruelty-free consumers, incentivizing brands to "go" cruelty-free and follow their guidelines.[5]

Labels[edit]

Under the impulse of the public shocked by the conditions of experimentation on animals and the suffering that engenders, a collective consciousness around the world has gradually immersed and many actors of this movement have emerged in the industry to avoid use animal testing and look for new alternatives.[6] Since 2004, animal testing for finished products is banned in the European Union. Since 2009, the ingredients of cosmetics are no longer the subject of animal experiments. In 2013 and 2016, the EU banned the import of cosmetic products tested on animals in its territory.[7]

Leaping Bunny[edit]

Created in 1996, the Leaping Bunny label or Human Cosmetic Standard (HCS) is one of the European pioneers[according to whom?] in cruelty free cosmetics.[8] This logo, valid in Europe and North America, certifies:

  • the brand in its totality is cruelty free
  • the absence of animal testing of the ingredients
  • the absence of animal testing of finished products
  • the absence of animal testing in foreign markets

The label does not certify the absence of material of animal origin such as honey.

Each cosmetic is subject to strict control by independent inspection bodies chosen by the Coalition for Consumer Information in Cosmetics (CCIC), which is an NGO founded by 8 international animal protection groups such as: American Anti-Vivisection Society, Animal Alliance of Canada, Doris Day Animal League, etc.

Choose Cruelty Free[edit]

This logo applies to several areas: cosmetics, medicines and hygiene products and home. It certifies that:

  • all brands in the group are cruelty free
  • the brand in its entirety only offers cruelty free products
  • the absence of animal testing of finished products
  • he absence of animal testing of the ingredients
  • the absence of animal testing in foreign markets

The label does not certify the absence of material of animal origin but does certify that the mark does not have the right to sell its cosmetics in countries where the law authorizes the tests on the animals.

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals[edit]

A non-profit association created in the United States, it has set up two cruelty free labels. The first named "cruelty free" and the second called "cruelty free and vegan". A single criterion separates these two labels: that of the presence or absence of matter of animal origin in the composition of cosmetics.

One Voice[edit]

French non-profit association, the association One Voice is a law association of 1908 under Alsacian-Mosellan law, founded in 1995 militant for the "absolute right of animals to respect". It certifies:

  • the absence of animal testing of finished products
  • the absence of animal testing of the ingredients
  • the presence of organic natural ingredients (orange logo)
  • the absence of material of animal origin except honey, pollen and beeswax

IHTN Rabbit[edit]

This label was created by the International Association of Manufacturers against animal testing in cosmetics (IHTN). It certifies:

  • the absence of animal testing of finished products
  • the absence of animal testing of the ingredients
  • the raw materials of animal origin (egg, milk, honey) come from organic farming. This label prohibits materials of dead animal origin or obtained by ill-treatment. Finally, it also certifies the mark in its entirety. 

Legislation against testing animals[edit]

Advancement of cosmetic cruelty free fight around the world[edit]

Thanks to the development of the media, information and images showing the treatment of animals in laboratories have been disclosed around the world.[9] The methods used to perform the tests have shocked the public and a collective desire to stop the treatment of animals, for the benefit of alternative experiments, such as in vitro tests, in silicon that requires no animal presence are now relevant.

Faced with this plague, the authorities of several nations have reviewed their legislation to limit the use of animal testing in the cosmetics sector.[9]

A derogation whose pass over the European legislation[edit]

REACH is a regulation from European Union aiming to better protecting human health and the environment from the risks related to chemicals substances, while promoting the competitiveness of the EU chemical industry. Also supports alternative methods for assessing the hazards of substances to reduce the number of animal tests.[10]

The REACH regulation applies to all chemical substances : those used in industrial processes, but also those in our daily life such as cleaning products, paints, electrical appliances and cosmetics.[10]

With the REACH regulation, companies must be transparent and must identify and manage the risks related to the substances they manufacture and market in the EU. They should also show to ECHA how the substance can be safely uses and communicate risk management measures to users.[10]

Companies must register their substances, so ECHA receives the registrations and assesses their compliance, and then EU Member States evaluate certain substances to address the initial concerns about human health or the environment. Then they determine whether the risks of the substances can be managed.[10]

A dangerous substance can be banned by the authorities if the risks it presents cannot be controlled. Authorities may also decide to restrict use or subject it to prior authorization.[10]

If the risks cannot be managed, the authorities can limit the utilization of the substances in several manners. The target is to reduce indeed replace most dangerous substances.[10]

Therefore, REACH lists all the chemical substances used by the industries and all the information concerning them. When a company decides to use a non-REACH listed substance or an ingredient in which the information is insufficient, the company must demonstrate that these substances are safe. Tests must then be performed by the company itself a it is responsible for ensuring the safety of the substances they use. These may be alternative tests for animal testing or animal testing where there is no alternative under the law.[11]

Chemical ingredients used at more than one ton per year in Europe are compulsorily tested. Indeed, the European Commission can estimate that it is necessary to evaluate the risks for certain substances. Thus, even for purely cosmetic ingredients, animal testing can always be done to ensure the safety of workers exposed to it in the manufacturing process. The REACH Regulation thus goes beyond the Cosmetics Regulation because the European Commission considers that in-vitro (non-animal) methods are not sufficiently reliable and underestimate the danger of certain substances.

REACH can pass over the law that prohibits animal testing of ingredients and finished cosmetic products from 2013. 

Export to China[edit]

Mandatory to testing animals before enter into the Chinese market[edit]

China has become one of the largest market in the world,[12] so it represents an opportunity for companies to expand their market and sales but to access, companies testing their products on animals before entering with a few exceptions.

Indeed, we can see a progression of the Chinese legislation, on the one hand thanks to the mobilization of the associations of animal defenses at the same time local and international, vegan communities and consumers refusing the tests by boycotting the brands, but also on the other hand, thanks to the European law banning testing which has a “snowball effect”, especially India, which is the first Asian country to ban testing on the animals in July 2013. Chinese legislation has therefore evolved by allowing certain brands to gain access to the Chinese market.

Chinese legislation separate cosmetics in 2 categories :

  • Non special use cosmetics : these are all the products that won’t deeply change the aspect of your body or have a therapeutic aspect such as makeup, body and face skincare, perfume, toothpaste, nail care.
  • Special use cosmetics : these cosmetics change your aspect on the long term, we can find slimming product, re-sculpting cream (breast, body, wrinkle…), depilatory products, hair products (coloring hair, permanent hair, Brazilian smooth…) solar protection and deodorants.

Non tested products :

Non special use products manufactured and sold in China

  •  Non special use products manufactured but not sold in China
  • All products sold on the internet on Chinese or not website

Tested products :

  • Special use products manufactured and sold in China
  • All products imported and sold in stores in China

Animal testing is therefore mandatory for only a few products, but this change only affects companies that manufacture their products in the country. Companies that have foreign manufacture still need to test on animals but no requirement is imposed on cosmetics purchased on foreign e-commerce sites and delivered in China. [12]

Requirements on over-seas mandatory testing[edit]

Some cruelty free cosmetic brands such as Urban Decay, Hourglass or Lush are implanted in Hong Kong and this has led a lot of confusion because Hong Kong is a part of China whose requires mandatory animal testing on all cosmetics product that are manufactured outside of the country. But Hong Kong does not have the same testing animal law as China and a cosmetic brand can be pretended to be “cruelty free” while being on Hong Kong soil even though Hong Kong is often considered as China. Although, this does not mean that the test on animals are totally banned from the territory. [13]

List of cruelty free cosmetic brands[edit]

CRUELTY FREE BRANDS CRUELTY FREE AND VEGAN CRUELTY FREE BUT BE APART IN GROUP WHICH TESTING ANIMALS
AromaZone (France) Aimée de Mars (France) BareMinerals (USA) : Shiseido
Avril (France) Arctic Fox (USA)

Kat Von D (USA) : Kendo, LVMH

Cattier (France) Alva (UK) NYX Cosmetics (USA) : L'Oréal
ELF (USA) Beauty without Cruelty (USA) Tarte Cosmetics (USA) : Kosé Corp
H&M (Sweden) Beauty Blender (USA) Too Faced (USA) : Estée Lauder
Real Techniques (USA) Blush away (USA) Urban Decay (USA) : L'Oréal
Sigma (USA) Cocoon Apothecary (Canada)
Sleek Makeup (USA) Cover FX (Canada)
Stila (USA) DermOrganic (UK)
Wet n Wild (USA) Dr Bronner's (Germany)
The Body Shop (UK) Hurraw ! (USA)
Amore Pacific (Korea) Inika (Australia)
Aritaum (Korea) Nabla cosmetics (Italy)
Aromatica (Korea) 100BON (France)
Beyond (Korea) Concrete Minerals (USA)
Blossom Jeju (Korea) Druide (Canada)
Cosrx (Korea) EcoTools (USA)
Dr Jart (Korea) Elysian Nail Lacquer (USA)
Etude House (Korea) Fairypants (UK)
Hanyul (Korea) Gaiia (France)
Innisfree (Korea) Giovanni (USA)
Iope (Korea) Karethic (France)
It's skin (Korea) Houglass (USA)
Ishizawa (Japan) De Lorenzo

(AUS)

Klair's (Korea) Teadora (USA)
Lirikos (Korea)
Laneige (Korea)
Lush (UK)
Makanai (Japan)
Mamonde (Korea)
Mise en scene ( Korea)
Missha (Korea)
Nature Republic (Korea)
O'sum (Korea)
Re:cipe (Korea)
Sulwhasoo (Korea)
Whamisa (Korea)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Nutrition, Center for Food Safety and Applied. "Labeling Claims -". www.fda.gov. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  2. ^ Nutrition, Center for Food Safety and Applied. "Labeling Regulations". www.fda.gov. Retrieved 2018-04-06.
  3. ^ Nutrition, Center for Food Safety and Applied. "Labeling Regulations". www.fda.gov. Retrieved 2018-04-06.
  4. ^ "Vegan and cruelty-free perfumes: The truth about the perfume's industry use of animals". splashofscent.com. Retrieved 2018-05-20.
  5. ^ "Act Now to Stop Cruel Cosmetics Tests on Animals in the U.S." support.peta.org. Retrieved 2018-04-06.
  6. ^ Gannon, Frank (June 2007). "Animal rights, human wrongs? Introduction to the Talking Point on the use of animals in scientific research". EMBO Reports. 8 (6): 519–520. doi:10.1038/sj.embor.7400998. ISSN 1469-221X. PMC 2002541. PMID 17545989.
  7. ^ "Ban on Animal Testing - Croissance - European Commission". Croissance (in French). Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  8. ^ "Frequently asked questions by companies - Cruelty Free International".
  9. ^ a b "Worldwide Progress | National Anti-Vivisection Society". National Anti-Vivisection Society. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  10. ^ a b c d e f "Understanding REACH - ECHA". echa.europa.eu. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
  11. ^ "News - ECHA". www.echa.europa.eu (in French). Retrieved 2017-12-11.
  12. ^ a b "Animal Testing For Cosmetics In China". Cruelty-Free Kitty. 2014-08-12. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
  13. ^ "Can Brands Sell in Hong Kong and be Cruelty-Free? - Logical Harmony". Logical Harmony. 2016-01-27. Retrieved 2017-12-11.