total: 600,000, including 420,000 regular speakers (2015)
|Regulated by||Osservatori Regjonâl de Lenghe e de Culture Furlanis |
Friulian or Friulan ( furlan (help·info) or affectionately marilenghe in Friulian, friulano in Italian, Furlanisch in German, furlanščina in Slovene; also Friulian), is a Romance language belonging to the Rhaeto-Romance family, spoken in the Friuli region of northeastern Italy. Friulian has around 300,000 speakers, the vast majority of whom also speak Italian. It is sometimes called Eastern Ladin, since it shares the same roots as Ladin, although over the centuries it has diverged under the influence of surrounding languages, including German, Italian, Venetian, and Slovene. Documents in Friulian are attested from the 11th century, and poetry and literature dating as far back as 1300. By the 20th century, there was a revival of interest in the language, which has continued to this day.
- 1 History
- 2 Area of diffusion
- 3 Literature
- 4 Phonology
- 5 Grammar
- 6 Vocabulary
- 7 Present condition
- 8 Challenges of standardisation
- 9 Writing systems
- 10 Examples
- 11 References
- 12 External links
A question which causes many debates is the influence of the Latin spoken in Aquileia and surrounding areas. Some claim that it had peculiar features that later passed into Friulian. Epigraphs and inscriptions from that period show some variants if compared to the standard Latin language, but most of these are common to other areas of the Roman Empire; often it is cited that Fortunatianus, bishop of Aquileia from 342 till circa 357, wrote a commentary to the Gospel in sermo rusticus, that is, in the language spoken by the people, which therefore can be assumed to have been quite different from Standard Latin. The text itself did not survive, so its language cannot be examined – but its attested existence testifies to a shift between languages that didn't exist, for example, in other important communities of Northern Italy. The language spoken before the arrival of the Romans in 181 BC was of Celtic origin, since the inhabitants belonged to the Carni, a Celtic population. In modern Friulian the words of Celtic origins are a lot (names of elements of mountains,of woods, plants, animals and generally nature) and much influence of the original population is shown in toponyms (names of villages which end in -acco, -icco are an example). Even influences from Longobardic language—Friuli was one of their strongholds—are very frequent. In Friulian there are also a lot of German, Slovenian and Venetian words. From this evidence, scholars today agree that the formation of Friulian dates back to around 1000, at the same time as other dialects derived from Latin (see Vulgar Latin). The first written records of Friulian have been found in administrative acts of the 13th century, but these documents became more frequent in the following century, when literary works also emerged (Frammenti letterari for example). The main center at that time was Cividale. The Friulian language has never acquired official status: legal statutes were first written in Latin, then in Venetian, and finally in Italian.
The "Ladin Question"
The idea of unity among Ladin, Romansh and Friulian comes from the Italian historical linguist Graziadio Isaia Ascoli, who was born in Gorizia. In 1871 he presented his theory that these three languages are part of one family, which in the past stretched from Switzerland to Muggia and perhaps also Istria. These three languages are the only survivors of this family, and they all developed differently – in particular, Friulian was much less influenced by German. The scholar Francescato claimed subsequently that until the 14th century the Venetian language shared many phonetic features with Friulian and Ladin; therefore he thought that Friulian was a much more conservative language. Many features that Ascoli thought were peculiar to the Rhaeto-Romance languages can in fact be found in other languages of northern Italy.
Area of diffusion
Today, Friulian is spoken in the province of Udine including the area of the Carnia Alps, but widely throughout the province of Pordenone, in half of the province of Gorizia, and in the eastern part of the province of Venice. In the past, the language borders were wider since also in Trieste and Muggia particular variants of Friulian were spoken—the main document about the dialect of Trieste, or tergestino, is "Dialoghi piacevoli in dialetto vernacolo triestino", published by G. Mainati in 1828.
Friuli was until the 1960s an area of deep poverty, causing a large number of Friulian speakers to emigrate. Most went to France, Belgium, and Switzerland or outside Europe, to Canada, Mexico, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, the United States, and South Africa. In these countries, there are associations of Friulian immigrants (called Fogolâr furlan), who try to protect their traditions and language.
The first texts in Friulian date back to the 13th century and are mainly commercial or juridical acts. We can see in these examples that Friulian was used together with Latin, which was still the administrative language. The prime examples of literature that have survived—much from this period has been lost—are poems from the 14th century, which are mainly dedicated to the theme of love and were probably inspired by the Italian poetic movement Dolce Stil Novo. The most notable work is Piruç myò doç inculurit (which means "My sweet, coloured pear"), composed by an anonymous author from Cividale del Friuli, probably in 1380.
|Original text||Version in modern Friulian|
|Piruç myò doç inculurit
quant yò chi viot, dut stoi ardit
|Piruç gno dolç inculurît
cuant che jo ti viôt, dut o stoi ardît
There are few differences in the first two rows, which demonstrates that there has not been a great evolution in the language except for several words which are no longer used (for example, dum(n) lo, a word which means "child", which was used frequently in the past). A modern Friulian speaker can understand these texts with only a little difficulty.
The second important period for Friulian literature is the 16th century. The main author of this period was Ermes di Colorêt, who composed over 200 poems.
|Ermes di Colorêt||16th|
|Pier Paolo Pasolini||20th|
|This section requires expansion. (July 2012)|
Long vowels are typical of the Friulian language and this has a great influence also on Friulian pronunciation of Italian.
- lat (milk)
- lât (gone)
- fis (fixed, dense)
- fîs (sons)
- lus (luxury)
- lûs (light n.)
The Friulian dialects differ in their treatment of long vowels. In certain dialects, some of the long vowels are actually diphthongs. The following chart shows how four words (sêt thirst, pît foot, pôc (a) little, fûc fire) are pronounced in four dialects. Each dialect uses a unique pattern of diphthongs (yellow) and monophthongs (blue) for the long vowels:
The long consonants (ll, rr, and so on), frequently used in Italian, are nearly absent in Friulian.
Most feminine nouns end in -e, which is pronounced.
- cjase = house (from Latin "casa, -ae" hut)
- lune = moon (from Latin "luna, -ae")
- scuele = school (from Latin "schola, -ae")
Some feminine nouns, however, end in a consonant, including those ending in -zion (from Latin).
- man = hand (from Latin "manŭs, -ūs" f)
- lezion = lesson (from Latin "lectio, -nis" f)
Most masculine nouns end either in a consonant or in -i.
- cjan = dog
- gjat = cat
- fradi = brother
- libri = book
A few masculine nouns end in -e, including sisteme (system) and probleme (problem). These are usually words coming from ancient Greek. However, because most masculine nouns end in a consonant, it is not uncommon to find the forms sistem and problem instead—though this is more likely to occur in print than in speech.
There are also a number of masculine nouns which have been borrowed intact from Italian, that is, with a final -o, like treno (train). Many of these words have been fully absorbed into the language, even forming their plurals with the regular Friulian -s rather than the Italian -i. Still, there are some purists, including those influential in Friulian publishing, who frown on such words, insisting that the "proper" Friulian terms should be without the final -o. So despite the fact that one almost always hear treno, chances are that if you see the word in print it will be seen as tren.
The Friulian definite article (which corresponds to "the" in English) is derived from the Latin ille and takes the following forms:
The indefinite article in Friulian (which corresponds to "a" in English) derives from the Latin unus and varies according to gender:
An invariable partitive article also exists: des: des vacjis – some cows.
A Friulian adjective must agree in gender and number with the noun it qualifies. Most adjectives have four forms for singular (masculine and feminine) and plural (masculine and feminine), for example brut (ugly):
Note that, in some part of Friuli, the feminine is pronounced with different vowels, i.e. plural brutes, brutas, or singular bruta, bruto.
To form the plural, normal rules are followed; given a masculine singular form, the corresponding feminine form is not so straightforward:
- in most cases, just add an ending -e (curt, curte)
- if the final letter is a -c, feminine is in -cje, -gje, -che, -ghe
- if the final letter is a -f, feminine is in -ve
- if the final letter is a -p, feminine is in -be
- if the final letter is a -t, feminine is in -de
Rules for the formation of plurals
To form the plural of nouns ending in -e, whether feminine or masculine, change the final -e to -is.
- taule, taulis = table, tables
- cjase, cjasis = house, houses
- lune, lunis = moon, moons
- scuele, scuelis = school, schools
- sisteme, sistemis = system, systems
To form the plural of almost all other nouns, simply add a final s. Note: this final /s/ is always pronounced as voiceless [s], as in English cats, never as voiced [z] as in dogs.
- man, mans = hand, hands
- lesion, lesions = lesson, lessons
- cjan, cjans = dog, dogs
- gjat, gjats = cat, cats
- fradi, fradis = brother, brothers
- livri, livris = book, books
- treno, trenos = train, trains
- braç, braçs = arm, arms (from Latin "bracchium")
- guant, guants = glove, gloves (compare English "gauntlet")
In some Friulian dialects there are many words whose final consonant becomes silent when the +s is added. These words include just about all those whose singular form ends in -t. The plural of gjat, for example, is written as gjats, but is pronounced in much of Friuli as though it were gjas, and that of plat 'dish', though written as plats, is often pronounced as plas. Other words in this category include clâf (key) and clap (stone), whose plural forms, clâfs and claps, are often pronounced with no f or p, respectively (clâs, clas), so that the longer a in the former is all that distinguishes it from the latter. Note also that a final -ç, which is pronounced either as the English "-ch" (in central Friulian) or as "-s", is pluralized in writing as -çs, regardless of whether the pluralized pronunciation is "-s" or "-ts" (it varies according to dialect); an example is messaç / messaçs (message).
Masculine nouns ending in -l or -li form their plurals by dropping the -l or -li and adding -i.
- cjaval, cjavai = horse, horses (from Latin "caballus")
- fîl, fîi = string, strings (from Latin "filum")
- cjapiel, cjapiei = hat, hats
- cjaveli, cjavei = hair, hairs
- voli, voi = eye, eyes
- zenoli, zenoi = knee, knees (from Latin "genu")
Feminine nouns ending in -l are pluralized regularly.
- piel, piels = skin, skins
- val, vals (in northern Friulian also "Tal", "tals") = valley, valleys
Some masculine nouns which end in -t are pluralized by changing the final -t to -cj.
- dint, dincj = tooth, teeth (from Latin "dens, -tis")
- dut, ducj = all (of one thing), all (of several things) (from Latin "totus")
Nouns ending in "s" do not change spelling when pluralized (even though some speakers may pronounce the plural -s differently from the singular -s).
- vues = bone, bones
- pes = fish (singular or plural) (from Latin "piscis")
- mês = month, months (from Latin "mensis")
The plural of an (year) has several forms depending on dialect, including ain, ains, agn and agns. Regardless of pronunciation, the written form is agns.
Clitic subject pronouns
A feature of Friulian are the clitic subject pronouns. These, known in Friulian as pleonastics, are never stressed; they are used together with the verbs to express the subject, and can be found before the verb in declarative sentences or immediately after it in case of interrogative or vocative (optative) sentences.
An example: jo o lavori means "I work"; jo lavorio? means "Do I work?", while lavorassio means "I wish I worked".
- Friulian verbal infinitives have one of four endings, either -â, -ê, -i, -î; if you remove the ending you get the root which is used to form the other forms (fevel – â, to speak). In the case of irregular verbs, even the root changes. These kind of verbs are commonly used (jessi, to be, vê, to have, podê, to be able to). Frequently people use verbs in combination with adverbs to restrict the meaning.
|Person||fevelâ (to speak)||lâ (to go)||jessi (to be)|
|Jo||o fevel-i||o v-oi||o soi|
|Tu||tu fevel-is||tu v-âs||tu sês|
|Lui||al fevel-e||al v-a||al è|
|Nô||o fevel-ìn||o l-in||o sin|
|Vô||o fevel-ais||o v-ais (l-ais)||o sês|
|Lôr||a fevel-in||a v-an||a son|
An adjective can be made into an adverb by adding -mentri to the ending of the feminine singular form of the adjective (lente becomes lentementri, slowly), though it can sometimes lose the -e of the adjective (facile becomes facilmentri, easily). This type of formation is more common in written language; in spoken language people use frequently other forms or locutions (i.e. a planc for slowly).
Most of the FriulIan vocabulary is derived from Latin. Needless to say, there have been substantial phonological and morphological changes throughout its history. Therefore many words are shared with Romance languages, but other languages have contributed too:
- German words were introduced in particular in the Middle Ages, during the Patrie dal Friûl, when the influence from this culture was quite strong (i.e. bearç, backyard).
- Slavic words were brought by South Slavic (mostly Alpine Slavic) immigrants that were called several times to Friuli to repopulate lands devastated by Hungarian invasions in the 10th century (i.e. cjast, barn; zigâ, to shout). Furthermore, many Slavic words have entered Friulian through the century-long neighbourhood between Friulians and Slovenes, especially in north-eastern Friuli (Slavia Friulana) and in the Gorizia and Gradisca area. Words such as colaç (cake), cudiç (devil) and cos (basket) are all of Slovene origin. There are also many toponyms with Slavic roots.
- There are many words that have Germanic (probably Longobardic origins) and Celtic roots (what still remains of the languages spoken before Roman colonizations). Examples of the first category are sbregâ, to tear; sedon, spoon; taponâ, to cover. For the latter category, troi, path; bragons, trousers.
- The Venetian language influenced Friulian vocabulary, for example canucje, straw.
- scientific terms are often of Greek origin, and there are also some Arab terms in Friulian (lambic, still)
- Some French words entered the Friulian vocabulary: examples include pardabon, really and gustâ, to have lunch
- Many English words (such as computer, monitor, mouse and so on) have entered the Friulian vocabulary through Italian.
- Italian itself has a growing influence on Friulian vocabulary, especially as far as neologisms are concerned (e.g. treno meaning train, aereo meaning airplane). Such neologisms are currently used, although not accepted in the official dictionary.
Nowadays, Friulian is officially recognized in Italy, supported by law 482/1999, which protects linguistic minorities. Therefore, optional teaching of Friulian has been introduced in many primary schools. An online newspaper is active, and there are also a number of musical groups which use Friulian for their songs as well as some theatrical companies. Recently two movies have been made in Friulian (Tierç lion, Lidrîs cuadrade di trê), with positive reviews in Italian newspapers. In about 40% of the communities in the Province of Udine, road signs are in both Friulian and Italian. There is also an official translation of the Bible. In 2005, a notable brand of beer used Friulian for one of its commercials.
Every city and village in Friuli has two names, one in Italian and one in Friulian. Only the Italian is official and used in administration, although it is widely expected that the Friulian ones will receive partial acknowledgement in the near future. For example, the city of Udine is called Udin in Friulian, the town of Tolmezzo is called Tumieç, the town of Aviano is called both Avian and Pleif.
Challenges of standardisation
A challenge that Friulian shares with other minorities is to create a standard language and a unique writing system. The regional law 15/1996 approved a standard orthography, which represents the basis of a common variant and should be used in toponyms, official acts, written documents. These standard is based on Central Friulian, which was traditionally the language used in literature already in 1700 and afterwards (the biggest examples are probably Pieri Çorut's works), but with some changes:
- the diphthong ie replaces ia, e.g. fier (iron) instead of fiar or tiere (soil, Earth) instead of tiare.
- the use of vu instead of u at the beginning of word, e.g. vueli (oil) instead of ueli or vueit (empty) instead of ueit.
- the use of i between vocals, for example ploie (rain) instead of ploe.
Criticism against standard Friulian
There have been several critics of the standardization of Friulian, mainly from speakers of local variants which can differ substantially from the proposed standard; they also argue that the standard could eventually kill local variants. The supporters of standardization refer to the various advantages that a unique form can bring to the language: above all, it can help to stop the influence of Italian language in the neologisms, which pose a serious threat to Friulian's future development. They also point out that it is a written standard without affecting pronunciation, which can follow local variants. Opponents of the standardization, on the other hand, insist that the standard language, being artificially created, is totally inadequate to represent the local variations, particularly due to differences in the phonetic pronunciation of the words in each variant, which may, in some cases, even require special and different diacritics for writing a single variant.
Variants of Friulian
Four dialects of Friulian can be at least distinguished, all mutually intelligible. They are usually distinguished by the last vowel of many parts of speech (including nouns, adjectives, adverbs), following this scheme:
- Central Friulian, spoken around Udine
- words end in -e
- used in official documents and generally considered standard
- some people see it as the least original, but historically one of the most recent variants, since it doesn't show interesting features which can be found in other variants
- Venetian influence
- Northern Friulian, spoken in Carnia
- several variants; language can vary with the valleys; words can end in -o, -e, or -a
- most archaic variant
- South-eastern Friulian, spoken in Bassa Friulana, and Isontino, spoken in the area along the Isonzo River (the area of the old Contea di Gorizia e Gradisca)
- words end in -a
- variant known since the origins of the language and used as official literary language from the Friulians of the Austrian Empire
- German and Slavic influences
- Western Friulian, including Pordenonese, spoken in the Province of Pordenone, also called concordiese, from Concordia Sagittaria
- words end in -a or -e
- strong Venetian influence
- considered one of the most corrupted variant
For example, the word home becomes cjase in Central Friulian, and cjasa or cjaso in other areas. Pier Paolo Pasolini wrote his works in Western Friulian, since he learned the language from his mother who was from Casarsa/Cjasarsa, near Pordenone.
In the 13th century, early literary works in Friulian were based on the language spoken in Cividale del Friuli, which was at that time the most important town in Friuli. These works show endings in -o, which, interestingly, nowadays is restricted to some villages in Carnia. Later, the main city of Friuli became Udine and the most common ending was -a; only from the 16th century on, -e endings were used in standard Friulian.
|This section requires expansion. (July 2012)|
In the official writing system, approved by the Province of Udine and used in official documents, Friulian is written using the Latin script, plus the c-cedilla (ç). The letter q is used only for personal names and historical toponyms, and in every other case is replaced by c. Besides that, k, x, w, and y appear only in loan words, so they are not considered part of the alphabet.
- Aa Bb Cc Çç Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Zz
There are also grave accents (à, è, ì, ò and ù) and circumflex accents (â, ê, î, ô, and û), which are put above the vowels to distinguish between homophonic words or to show where there is stress (the former) and show long vowels (the latter). Letter Q is used only for names.
An alternative system is called Faggin-Nazzi from the names of the scholars who proposed it. It is less common, probably also because it is more difficult for a beginner due to its use of letters such as č that are typical of Slavic languages, but seem foreign to native Italian speakers.
|Hello; my name is Jack!||Mandi; jo mi clami Jack!|
|Today the weather is really hot!||Vuê al è propite cjalt!|
|I really have to go now; see you.||O scugni propite lâ cumò; ariviodisi.|
|I can’t go out with you tonight; I have to study.||No pues vignî fûr cun te usgnot; o ai di studiâ.|
- Paola Benincà, Laura Vanelli, Linguistica friulana, Unipress, Padova, 2005.
- Franc Fari (ed.), Manuâl di lenghistiche furlane, Forum, Udine, 2005.
- Giuseppe Francescato, Dialettologia friulana, Società Filologica Friulana, Udine,1966.
- Giovanni Frau, I dialetti del Friuli, Società Filologica Friulana, Udine, 1984.
- Sabine Heinemann, Studi di linguistica friulana, Società Filologica Friulana, Udine, 2007.
- Carla Marcato, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Laterza, Roma – Bari, 2001.
- Piera Rizzolati, Elementi di linguistica friulana, Società Filologica Friulana, Udine, 1981.
- Paolo Roseano, La pronuncia del friulano standard: proposte, problemi, prospettive, Ce Fastu?, LXXXVI (2010), n. 1, p. 7–34.
- Paolo Roseano, Suddivisione dialettale del friulano. In: S. Heinemann, L. Melchior (eds.), Manuale di linguistica friulana. De Gruyter Mouton, Berlin, 2015, pp. 155–186.
- Federico Vicario (ed.), Lezioni di lingua e cultura friulana, Società Filologica Friulana, Udine, 2005.
- Federico Vicario, Lezioni di linguistica friulana, Forum, Udine, 2005.
The grammar section is based on An introduction to Friulan by R. Pontisso. Some parts are also based loosely on Gramatiche furlane by Fausto Zof, Edizioni Leonardo, Udine 2002.
- Friulian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- http://www.arlef.it/it/la-lingua-friulana/condizione-sociolinguistica/5 - Study made by Arlef, Association of Region for the Friulian Language
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Friulian". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Northern Friuli: ‘el’ is used instead of ‘il’; Southern and western Friuli: ‘al’ instead of ‘il’; Northern Friuli: ‘li’ or ‘las’ instead of ‘lis’; Northern Friuli: ‘le’ instead of ‘la’
- Such is the case of FriulIan adjectives deriving from Latin adjectives of the second class.
- Language similarity table
- casarsa_casa Pasolini (Colussi) a Casarsa
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Friulian language.|
|Friulian edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
- Short video showing bilingual Italian/Friulian road signs
- Radio Onde Furlane. Radio in Friulian language.
- Grafie uficiâl de lenghe furlane — Agjenzie regjonal pe lenghe furlane (different other language resources)
- Dante in furlan: 
- eBooks: different language resources)
- Grafie lenghe furlane: Free downloads in different formats
- Provincie di Udin-Provincia di Udine: La lingua friulana
- La Patrie dal Friûl; Magazine and News in Friulian language since 1946
- Lenghe.net – Online bilingual magazine in Friulian language (2004–2010)
- Online magazine and resources
- The juridical defence of Friulian (in English)
- Course of Friulian
- Friulian Journal of Science – an association to foster the use of Friulian in the scientific world
- Fogolâr furlan of Toronto
- Fogolâr Furlan of Windsor
- Societat Filologjiche Furlane
- Centri interdipartimentâl pe ricercje su la culture e la lenghe dal Friûl "Josef Marchet"
- Friulian version of Firefox browser
- Centri Friûl Lenghe 2000, Online bilingual dictionary (Italian/Friulian) with online tools
- Furlan English Dictionary from Webster's Online Dictionary – The Rosetta Edition
- C-evo Furlan – a computer game in Friulian
- Italian-Friulian Dictionary
- Friulian-Italian-Slovenian-German-English-Spanish-French Multilingual Dictionary
- Friulian basic lexicon at the Global Lexicostatistical Database
- Friulian-English English-Friulian dictionary – uses the Faggin-Nazzi alphabet