German submarine U-995
U-995 Type VIIC/41 at the Laboe Naval Memorial
|Ordered:||14 October 1941|
|Builder:||Blohm & Voss, Hamburg|
|Laid down:||25 November 1942|
|Launched:||22 July 1943|
|Commissioned:||16 September 1943|
|Status:||Museum ship at Laboe Naval Memorial|
|Class and type:||Type VIIC/41 submarine|
|Draught:||4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)|
|Complement:||4 officers, 40–56 enlisted|
|Identification codes:||M 55 095|
German submarine U-995 is a Type VIIC/41 U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine. She was laid down on 25 November 1942 by Blohm & Voss in Hamburg, Germany, and commissioned on 16 September 1943 with Oberleutnant zur See Walter Köhntopp in command.
During the war U-995's commanders were:
- 16 September 1943 to 9 October 1944 Kapitänleutnant Walter Köhntopp
- 10 October 1944 to 8 May 1945 Oberleutnant zur See Hans-Georg Hess (Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross)
German Type VIIC/41 submarines were preceded by the heavier Type VIIC submarines. U-995 had a displacement of 759 tonnes (747 long tons) when at the surface and 860 tonnes (850 long tons) while submerged. She had a total length of 67.10 m (220 ft 2 in), a pressure hull length of 50.50 m (165 ft 8 in), a beam of 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in), a height of 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in), and a draught of 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in). The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower (2,060 to 2,350 kW; 2,760 to 3,160 shp) for use while surfaced, two Brown, Boveri & Cie GG UB 720/8 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower (550 kW; 740 shp) for use while submerged. She had two shafts and two 1.23 m (4 ft) propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres (750 ft).
The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph). When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 8,500 nautical miles (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). U-995 was fitted with five 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four fitted at the bow and one at the stern), fourteen torpedoes, and three anti-aircraft guns. The boat had a complement of between forty-four and sixty.
During the war U-995 conducted 9 patrols:
- 16 September 1943 to 31 May 1944 5th Flotilla (training)
- 1 June 1944 to 28 February 1945 13th Flotilla (front boat)
- 1 March 1945 to 8 May 1945 14th Flotilla (front boat)
U-995 took part in five wolfpacks, namely.
- Dachs (1–5 September 1944)
- Zorn (26 September - 1 October 1944)
- Panther (16 October - 10 November 1944)
- Stier (11 December 1944 – 6 January 1945)
- Hagen (17–21 March 1945)
Summary of raiding history
|Date||Name of ship||Flag||Tonnage[Note 1]||Fate|
|5 December 1944||Proletarij||Soviet Union||1,123||Sunk|
|21 December 1944||Reshitel'nyj||Soviet Union||20||Sunk|
|26 December 1944||RT-52 Som||Soviet Union||417||Sunk|
|29 December 1944||T-883 (No 37)||Soviet Navy||633||Sunk|
|2 March 1945||BO-224||Soviet Navy||105||Sunk|
|20 March 1945||Horace Bushnell||United States||7,176||Damaged|
At the end of the war, on 8 May 1945, U-995 was stricken at Trondheim, Norway. She was surrendered to the British and then transferred to Norwegian ownership in October 1948. In December 1952 U-995 became the Norwegian submarine Kaura and in 1965 she was stricken from service by the Royal Norwegian Navy. She then was offered to the West German government for the ceremonial price of one Deutsche Mark. The offer was refused; however, the boat was saved by the German Navy League, DMB. U-995 became a museum ship at Laboe Naval Memorial in October 1971.
U-995 was mounted with a single 3.7 cm Flak M42U gun on the LM 42U mount. The LM 42U mount was the most common mount used with the 3.7 cm Flak M42U. The 3.7 cm Flak M42U was the marine version of the 3.7 cm Flak and was also used by the Kriegsmarine on other Type VII and Type IX U-boats.
Additionally the boat was armed with a pair of twin Flak 38 20mm "Flakzwilling" mounts immediately adjacent to the 37mm gun mount.
U-995 was fitted with a Royal Norwegian Navy design Balkongerät sometime during the 1960s and then removed sometime between 4 November 1971 and 13 March 1972.
Other surviving U-boats
- Gröner, Jung & Maass 1991, pp. 43-46.
- Blair, p. 819.
- Wetzel, Eckard. U-995. Motorbuch Verlag; Erw. N.-A. edition (1 November 2004). ISBN 978-3613024250.
- This drawing is based foremost on the internal framing of the Type VIIC and photographs of U-995's. Its dimensions and attachment points are based principally on the external framing of the Type VIIC.
- Clay Blair : Hitler’s U-Boat War Vol II (1998). ISBN 978-0-394-58839-1
- Gröner, Erich; Jung, Dieter; Maass, Martin (1991). U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith; Magowan, Rachel. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4.
- Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). German U-boat commanders of World War II : a biographical dictionary. Translated by Brooks, Geoffrey. London, Annapolis, Md: Greenhill Books, Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-186-6.
- Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945 [German U-boat losses from September 1939 to May 1945]. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German). IV. Hamburg; Berlin; Bonn: Mittler. ISBN 3-8132-0514-2.
- Documentary about U995
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIC/41 boat U-995". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 8 December 2014.