Jinshi (imperial examination)

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Jinshi (Chinese: 進士; pinyin: jìnshì) was the highest and final degree in the imperial examination in Imperial China, and also derivative systems in Korea, Vietnam, and to some extent Japan.[1] The jinshi has been compared to a modern doctoral degree. It was usually taken in the imperial capital in the palace, and was also called the metropolitan exam.[dubious ]

The jinshi degree was first created after the institutionalization of the civil service exam. Initially it had been "for six categories" but was later consolidated into a single degree. Throughout the Tang Dynasty, every year around 1-2 percent of test takers would obtain a jinshi title out of a total of 1-2 thousand test takers.[2]

The numbers of jinshi degrees given out were increased in the Song Dynasty, and the examinations were given every three years. Most senior officials of the Song Dynasty were jinshi holders.[3]

The Ming dynasty resumed the civl-service exam after its occurrence became more irregular in the Yuan dynasty. After the reign of the Emperor Yingzong of Ming, it became the rule that only jinshi holders could enter the Hanlin Academy. On average around 89 jinshi per year were conferred.[4]

During the Qing dynasty around 102 jinshi degrees were given a year.

The highest scoring jinshi in the country was known as the zhuangyuan, a term that survives today as a high scoring gaokao test taker or just someone who is very good as a skill.

Subtypes of jinshi recipients[edit]

  • Jinshi Jidi (進士及第, lit. "distinguished jinshi"), graduates ranked first class in the court exam, usually only the top three individuals were qualified for this title.
    • Zhuangyuan (狀元, lit. "top thesis author"), the jinshi who ranked first overall nationwide.
    • Bangyan (榜眼, lit. "eyes positioned alongside"), the jinshi who ranked second overall just below zhuangyuan.
    • Tanhua (探花, lit. "flower snatcher"), the jinshi ranked third overall.
  • Jinshi Chushen (進士出身, lit. "jinshi background"), the graduates who ranked second class in court exam, ranking immediately after the tanhua.
  • Tong Jinshi Chushen (同進士出身, lit. "along with jinshi background"), graduates ranked third class in the court exam.

Notable jinshi recipients by year[edit]

The Confucius Temple in Dongcheng District, firstly built in 1302 under Temür Khan (Emperor Chengzong) is the second largest in China. The temple houses 198 stone tabulets engraved with the names of 51,624 jinshi scholars of the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties.

Tang Dynasty[edit]

Song Dynasty[edit]

Yuan dynasty[edit]

Ming dynasty[edit]

Qing dynasty[edit]

People who failed jinshi exams[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Chinese Imperial Examination System: An Annotated Bibliography. 
  2. ^ Fu, Zhengyuan. Autocratic Tradition and Chinese Politics. p. 98. 
  3. ^ History of Song
  4. ^ Ho 1962
  5. ^ Wang Xijun (王錫爵; 1534–1611). Taipusi sicheng Guigong muzhiming (太僕寺丞歸公墓誌銘) [Gui Youguang's Epitaph]
  6. ^ Gedalecia, David. The Philosophy of Wu Ch’eng: A Neo-Confucian of the Yüan Dynasty. Bloomington: Indiana University, 1999.