|Jmol interactive 3D||Image|
|Molar mass||146.15 g·mol−1|
|Melting point||decomposes around 185°C|
Chiral rotation ([α]D)
|+6.5º (H2O, c = 2)|
|Supplementary data page|
|Refractive index (n),
Dielectric constant (εr), etc.
|UV, IR, NMR, MS|
|what is ?)(|
Glutamine (abbreviated as Gln or Q, and often called L-glutamine) is one of the 20 amino acids encoded by the standard genetic code. It is considered conditionally essential. In human blood, glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid, with a concentration of about 500–900 µmol/l. The side-chain is an amide formed by replacing the side-chain hydroxyl of glutamic acid with an amine functional group, making it the amide of glutamic acid. Gln's codons are CAA and CAG.
Glutamine plays a role in a variety of biochemical functions:
- Protein synthesis, as any other of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids
- Regulation of acid-base balance in the kidney by producing ammonium
- Cellular energy, as a source, next to glucose
- Nitrogen donation for many anabolic processes, including the synthesis of purines
- Carbon donation, as a source, refilling the citric acid cycle
- Nontoxic transporter of ammonia in the blood circulation
Producing and consuming organs
Glutamine is synthesized by the enzyme glutamine synthetase from glutamate and ammonia. The most relevant glutamine-producing tissue is the muscle mass, accounting for about 90% of all glutamine synthesized. Glutamine is also released, in small amounts, by the lung and the brain. Although the liver is capable of relevant glutamine synthesis, its role in glutamine metabolism is more regulatory than producing, since the liver takes up large amounts of glutamine derived from the gut.
In catabolic states of injury and illness, glutamine becomes conditionally essential requiring intake from food or supplements.
Glutamine oral supplementation significantly reduces the risk of systemic infections originating from the gut such as in critically ill individuals and in individuals who have had abdominal surgery. The reduction in rates of infections in these groups of people are due to glutamine improving intestinal barrier function including reducing increased intestinal permeability. Intravenous administration does not appear to produce these benefits, however.
Supplementation does not appear to have an effect in infants with significant problems of the stomach or intestines.
In biological research, L-glutamine is commonly added to the media in cell culture. However, the high level of glutamine in the culture media may inhibit other amino acid transport activities.
Occurrences in nature
Glutamine is the most abundant naturally occurring, nonessential amino acid in the human body, and one of the few amino acids that can directly cross the blood–brain barrier. In the body, it is found circulating in the blood, as well as stored in the skeletal muscles. It becomes conditionally essential (requiring intake from food or supplements) in states of illness or injury.
Dietary sources of L-glutamine include beef, chicken, fish, eggs, milk, dairy products, wheat, cabbage, beets, beans, spinach, and parsley. Small amounts of free L-glutamine are also found in vegetable juices.
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- Brown, JV; Moe-Byrne, T; McGuire, W (15 December 2014). "Glutamine supplementation for young infants with severe gastrointestinal disease.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 12: CD005947. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005947.pub4. PMID 25504522.
- Thilly, William G. (1986). Mammalian cell technology. London: Butterworths. p. 110. ISBN 0-409-90029-X. Retrieved 2012-06-22.
13 amino acids in Eagle's popular culture medium...are arginine, cyst(e)ine, glutamine...
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- Lee, W. J.; Hawkins, R. A.; Viña, J. R.; Peterson, D. R. (1998). "Glutamine transport by the blood-brain barrier: A possible mechanism for nitrogen removal". The American journal of physiology 274 (4 Pt 1): C1101–C1107. PMID 9580550.