List of biochemists
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Part of a series on|
|History and topics|
|Portals: Biology, MCB|
Articles about notable biochemists include:
- John Jacob Abel, (1857-1938) American biochemist and pharmacologist. He founded and chaired the first department of pharmacology in the United States at the University of Michigan.
- John Abelson, (b. 1938) American biologist with expertise in biophysics, biochemistry, and genetics. He was a professor at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).
- Gary Ackers, (1939-2011) American Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics at Washington University in St. Louis.
- Julius Adler, (b. 1930) American Professor of biochemistry and genetics at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
- David Agard, American Professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics at the University of California, San Francisco. Member of the National Academy of Sciences.
- Natalie Ahn, Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of Colorado at Boulder.
- Bruce Alberts, (born 1938) American biochemist known for his work in science public policy and as an original author of Molecular Biology of the Cell. Alberts, noted particularly for his study of the protein complexes which enable chromosome replication when living cells divide.
- Denis Alexander, (b. 1945), Emeritus Director of the Faraday Institute for Science and Religion at St Edmund's College, Cambridge. Open Scholar at Oxford, where he studied Biochemistry. He studied for a PhD in Neurochemistry at the Institute of Psychiatry.
- Richard Amasino, Professor of biochemistry and genetics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Member of the National Academy of Sciences and was awarded the McKnight Foundation Individual Research Award in Plant Biology in 1986.
- Bruce Ames, (b. 1928) Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the University of California, Berkeley. Awarded the National Medal of Science and is the inventor of the Ames test.
- John E. Amoore, British, Biochemist who postulated the stereochemical theory of olfaction in 1952.
- Rudolph John Anderson, (1879-1961) American biochemist, graduated with a Ph.D. from Cornell University Medical College.
- Thomas F. Anderson, (1911-1991) American biophysical chemist and geneticist. Elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1964.
- Mortimer Louis Anson, (1901-1968), American biochemist famous for the advancement in the field of Protein Chemistry.
- Judy Armitage, British professor of molecular and cellular biochemistry at the University of Oxford.
- Gilbert Ashwell, (1916-2014), American biochemist known for isolating the first cell receptor.
- Isaac Asimov, (1920-1992), Russian-born American science fiction writer and professor of biochemistry at Boston University
- William Astbury, (1898-1961), British, pioneer in applying X-ray crystallography to biological molecules such as proteins
- Milo Aukerman, (b. 1963) American biochemist best known for being the lead singer of the punk band the Descendents.
- Werner Emmanuel Bachmann (1901-1951), American chemist, studied physical organic chemistry and organic synthesis. Considered a pioneer in steroid synthesis.
- David Baker (born 1962) American biochemist and computational biologist who studies methods to predict and design the three-dimensional structures of proteins. He is a Professor of Biochemistry at the University of Washington.
- Tania A. Baker, American biochemist, Professor of Biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and member of the National Academy of Science.
- Clinton Ballou (b. 1923), Professor Emeritus of biochemistry at the University of California, Berkeley. He served as an editorial board of the Journal of Biological Chemistry. Member of the National Academy of Sciences.
- Horace Barker (1907-2000), American biochemist and microbiologist. Awarded his Ph.D. from Stanford University in 1933.
- David Bartel, Professor of Biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Member of the Whitehead Institute.
- Paul Baskis, American biochemist.
- Bonnie Bassler (b. 1962), American molecular biologist and Professor at Princeton University.
- Philip A. Beachy (b. 1958), Ernest and Amelia Gallo Professor at Stanford University School of Medicine.
- Jon Beckwith (b. 1935), American microbiologist and geneticist. Professor of the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics at Harvard Medical School.
- Lorena S. Beese, Professor of Biochemistry at Duke University.
- Michael Behe (b. 1952), American biochemist, author, and intelligent design (ID) advocate. Professor of biochemistry at Lehigh University in Pennsylvania and as a senior fellow of the Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture.
- Helmut Beinert (1913-2007), German born-American professor in the Biochemistry Department at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
- Marlene Belfort (b. 1945), American biochemist and professor at the Wadsworth Center at the New York State Department of Health.
- Boris Pavlovich Belousov (1893–1970), USSR, chemist/biophysicist, Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction.
- Paul Berg (born 1926) American biochemist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1980.
- Helen M. Berman, Board of Governors Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology at Rutgers University.
- Klaus Biemann (b. 1926), Professor Emeritus of chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
- Ethel Ronzoni Bishop (1890-1975), American biochemist and physiologist. Awarded her Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin in 1923.
- Pamela J. Bjorkman (b. 1956), American biochemist and Max Delbrück Professor of Biology at the California Institute of Technology.
- Konrad Emil Bloch (1912-2000), German-American, 1964 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
- Elkan Blout (1919-2006), Professor of biochemistry at Harvard University. Awarded the National Medal of Science in 1990.
- Aaron Bodansky (1887-1960), Russian-born American biochemist specializing in the area calcium metabolism. Earned his Ph.D. from Cornell University in 1921.
- Paul D. Boyer (born 1918), American, studies on ATP synthase, won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1997.
- Harold C. Bradley (1878-1976), Professor in biochemistry at the University of Wisconsin.
- Roscoe Brady (b. 1923), American biochemist, Earned his M.D. from Harvard Medical School in 1947. Member of the National Academy of Sciences.
- Kenneth Breslauer, Linus C. Pauling professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology at Rutgers University.
- Anne Briscoe (1918-2014), American biochemist and activist. Earned her Ph.D. from Yale University in 1949.
- Bernard Brodie (1907-1989), Leading researcher in the field of pharmacology. Awarded the Distinguished Service Award of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare in 1958 and the National Medal of Science in 1968.
- Adrian John Brown (1852-1920), British, pioneer in enzyme kinetics
- Patrick O. Brown (b. 1954), Professor in the Department of Biochemistry at Stanford University.
- Thomas Bruice, Professor of chemistry and biochemistry at University of California, Santa Barbara. Member of the National Academy of Sciences.
- John Buchanan, Professor of biochemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Earned his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1943.
- Eduard Buchner (1860-1917), German, 1907 Nobel Prize in Chemistry see fermentation (biochemistry)
- Dean Burk (1904-1988), American, co-discoverer of biotin.
- Robert H. Burris (1914-2010), Professor in the Biochemistry Department at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Member of the National Academy of Sciences. Was awarded the National Medal of Science in 1979.
- David S. Cafiso, (b. 1952) American biochemist and a Professor of Chemistry at the University of Virginia.
- T. Colin Campbell, (b. 1934) Professor Emeritus of Nutritional Biochemistry at Cornell University.
- David E. Cane, (b. 1944) Professor of Chemistry and Professor of Biochemistry at Brown University. Earned his PhD at Harvard University in 1971.
- Lewis C. Cantley, (b. 1949) Professor in the Departments of Systems Biology and Medicine at Harvard Medical School.
- John Carbon, Professor Emeritus of molecular and cellular biology at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
- H. E. Carter, (1910-2007) American biochemist, Earned PhD in 1934 in organic chemistry from the University of Illinois.
- Thomas Cech, (b. 1947) President of Howard Hughes Medical Institute and was awarded the 1989 Nobel prize in chemistry along with Sidney Altman.
- Howard Cedar, (b. 1943) Israeli American biochemist, awarded the Israel Prize in Biology in 1999.
- Michael Chamberlin (b. 1937) Professor Emeritus of biochemistry and molecular biology at University of California, Berkeley. Member of the United States National Academy of Sciences.
- Britton Chance, (1913-2010), Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Has a PhD in Physical Chemistry and also a PhD in Biology/Physiology. Also earned a Gold Metal in sailing from the 1952 Summer Olympics.
- Christopher Chang, (b. 1974) Professor of chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley.
- Michelle Chang, (b. 1977)
- Emmett Chappelle, (b. 1925) Biochemist inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his work on Bioluminescence.
- Erwin Chargaff, (1905-2002) Austrian biochemist known for Chargaff's rules.
- Martha Chase, (1927-2003) American geneticist, earned her PhD from the University of Southern California.
- Zhijian James Chen, Chinese American biochemist and Professor in the Department of Molecular Biology at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center.
- Gilbert Chu, Professor of Medicine and Biochemistry at the Stanford Medical School.
- Paul Chun, Professor emeritus at the University of Florida.
- George M. Church, (b. 1954) Professor of Genetics at Harvard Medical School and Professor of Health Sciences and Technology at Harvard University and MIT.
- Steven Clarke, (b. 1949)
- W. Wallace Cleland, (1930-2013)
- Philip Cohen, (born 1945)
- Edwin Joseph Cohn, (1892-1953)
- Mildred Cohn, (1913-2009)
- Robert Corey, (1897-1971), American, co-discoverer of the alpha helix and beta sheet
- Carl Ferdinand Cori, (1896-1984), American, 1947 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, glycogen research.
- Gerty Cori, (1896-1957), American, 1947 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, glycogen research.
- Shirley Corriher, (b. 1935)
- Peter Coveney, UK, Computational molecular biology specialist.
- Nicholas R. Cozzarelli, (1938-2006)
- Gerald Crabtree, (b. 1946)
- Elizabeth A. Craig,
- Margaret Crane,
- Robert K. Crane, (1919-2010), American, discovered sodium-glucose cotransport.
- Francis Crick, (1916-2004), British, discovered the double helical structure of DNA.
- Lourdes J. Cruz,
- Pedro Cuatrecasas, (b. 1936)
- Richard D. Cummings,
- David Cushman, (1939-2000)
- Valerie Daggett
- John Call Dalton (1825-1889)
- John W. Daly (1933-2008)
- Marie Maynard Daly (1921-2003)
- Carl Peter Henrik Dam (1895-1976), Danish, 1943 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
- Robert B. Darnell (b. 1957),
- Marguerite Davis (b. 1887),
- Ronald W. Davis (b. 1941),
- Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (1925-1983),
- Michael W. Deem
- William DeGrado
- Hector DeLuca
- Pierre De Meyts (1944), Belgian physician and biochemist, 2002 Christophe Plantin Prize, Belgium
- Willey Glover Denis (1879-1929),
- Herbert C. Dessauer (1921-2013),
- Revaz Dogonadze (1931-1985), Georgian, Co-author of the quantum-mechanical model of Enzyme Catalysis
- Edward Adelbert Doisy (1893-1986),
- Ford Doolittle (b. 1942),
- Jonathan Dordick (b. 1959),
- Ralph Dorfman (1911-1985)
- Jennifer Doudna,
- Alexander Dounce (1909-1997),
- Gideon Dreyfuss,
- Jack Cecil Drummond FRS (1891-1952), isolation of Vitamin A, wartime advisor on nutrition
- Christian de Duve, (1917-2013), British-born Belgian, 1974 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine
- Richard H. Ebright, American molecular biologist and Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology at Rutgers University.
- John Tileston Edsall (1902-2002)
- Konstantin Efetov, (b. 1958) Ukrainian biochemist.
- Gertrude B. Elion (1918-1999), American biochemist and pharmacologist. Recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine and is a member of the National Inventors Hall of Fame.
- Terry Elton, American biochemist, earned his PhD in Biochemistry from Washington State University.
- Conrad Elvehjem (1901-1962), American biochemist specializing in nutrition.
- Gladys Anderson Emerson (1903-1984), American historian, biochemist and nutritionist.
- Akira Endo, statins
- Donald Engelman, cancer research
- Earl Evans (1910-1999),
- Richard D. Feinman (b. 1940) Professor of biochemistry and medical researcher at SUNY Downstate Medical Center.
- David Sidney Feingold (b. 1922) American biochemist
- John D. Ferry, (born 1912)
- Edmond H. Fischer (b. 1920) Swiss American biochemist awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
- Louis B. Flexner (1902-1996), American biochemist.
- Otto Folin (1867-1934)
- Karl August Folkers (1906-1997), American biochemist awarded the National Medal of Science.
- Bent Formby
- Sidney W. Fox (1912-1998)
- Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat (1910-1999), German/US, virus research.
- Rosalind Franklin, (1920-1958), X-ray crystallographer who helped determine the structure of DNA
- Perry A. Frey (b. 1935) Professor emeritus of biochemistry at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
- Irwin Fridovich (b. 1929) American biochemist.
- Joseph S. Fruton, (1912-2007)
- Kazimierz Funk, (1884-1967), Polish, see Vitamin
- Robert F. Furchgott (1916-2009), American biochemist awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
- Elmer L. Gaden
- Alberto Granado, (1922-2011) Argentine–Cuban biochemist, doctor, writer, and scientist. Best known for being friends with Che Guevara.
- Merrill Garnett, (b. 1931) Biochemist and cancer researcher.
- Michael H. Gelb, (b. 1957)
- Susan Gerbi, (b. 1944) Professor of Biochemistry and a professor of biology at Brown University.
- Jonathan Gershenzon
- William John Gies, (1872-1956)
- Walter Gilbert, (b. 1932) Biochemist, awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
- Martin Glennie, (born 1956) British, developed anti-cancer therapeutic chiLOB7/4.
- Edward D. Goldberg, (1921-2008)
- Joseph L. Goldstein, (b. 1940) Biochemist awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
- Eugene Goldwasser, (1922-2010)
- Michael M. Gottesman, (b. 1946) American biochemist.
- Sam Granick, (1909-1977) American biochemist and member of the United States National Academy of Sciences.
- David E. Green, (1910-1983) pioneer in the study of enzymes, particularly those involved in oxidative phosphorylation.
- Lewis Joel Greene, (b. 1934) American Brazilian biochemist
- Walter Greiling, (1900-1986), German, worked in the field of agricultural microbiology.
- Mark Griep, (b. 1959), Professor of chemistry at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
- Frederick Griffith, (1879-1941), British, discovered that DNA carried hereditary information.
- Charles Grisham, Professor of chemistry at the University of Virginia.
- Kun-Liang Guan, (b. 1963)
- F. Peter Guengerich, Professor of biochemistry and the director of the Center in Molecular Toxicology at Vanderbilt University.
- Irwin Gunsalus, (1912-2008) American biochemist who discovered lipoic acid.
- John Scott Haldane, (1860-1936), British, physiologist.
- Dorothy Hodgkin, (1910-1994), British, founder of protein crystallography and Nobel Prize winner
- Frederick Gowland Hopkins, (1861-1947), British, Nobel Prize-winner for the discovery of vitamins
- Arthur Harden, (1865-1940), British, awarded a Nobel prize for studies on the enzymes of fermentation
- Wayne L. Hubbell, (born 1943), American, biochemist-pioneer of site-directed spin labeling
- Max Henius, (1859-1935) Danish-American Biochemist who specialized in the fermentation processes.
- Harvey Itano (1920-2010)
- Zheng Ji, (1900-2010), Reputed to be the world's oldest professor and the founder of modern nutrition science in China.
- Tracy L. Johnson, Biochemist, Cell and Molecular Biologist, HHMI Professor
- Herman Kalckar, (1908-1991), Danish, early work on cellular respiration, nucleotide metabolism and galactose metabolism.
- Sir Bernard Katz (1911-2003), German-born, 1970 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for work on nerve biochemistry and the pineal gland.
- Stuart Alan Kauffman, (born 1939), Professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics
- John Kendrew, (1917-1997), British. Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1962 for determining the first crystal structure of a protein, myoglobin.
- Sir Ernest Kennaway, (1881-1958), British. Early work on carcinogenic effects of hydrocarbons
- Aila Keto, (born 1943) President of the Rainforest Conservation Society in Queensland, Australia, now known as the Australia Rainforest Conservation Society. Studied biochemistry at the University of Queensland.
- Antony Kidman, (1938-2014), Australian biochemist earned his Ph.D on an American Cancer Society Scholarship from the University of Hawaii. Best known for being the father of Academy Award-winning actress Nicole Kidman.
- Charles Glen King (1896-1988) was an American biochemist who was a pioneer in the field of nutrition research.
- Arthur Kornberg, (1918-2007) American biochemist, won the Nobel Prize in 1959 for discovery of DNA polymerase.
- Sir Hans Kornberg, (born 1928), British. Microbial biochemistry
- Roger D. Kornberg, American biochemist, won the Nobel Prize in 2006 for studies on RNA polymerase.
- Thomas B. Kornberg, American biochemist
- Ernst T. Krebs, Jr. (1911-1996). Promoter of the ineffective cancer cures laetrile and pangamic acid
- Sir Hans Adolf Krebs, (1900-1981), German, 1953 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine see Krebs cycle
- Marc Lacroix (biochemist), (b. 1963), Belgian.
- David Lester (1916-1990), American biochemist who did extensive studies of alcoholism and was a professor at Rutgers University.
- Phoebus Levene, (1869-1940), Russian, discovered that DNA was composed of nucleobases and phosphate.
- Choh Hao Li (1913-1987) Known for discovering and synthesizing the human pituitary growth hormone.
- John James Rickard Macleod, (1876-1935), Scottish biochemist and physiologist, 1923 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, discovery of Insulin.
- Thaddeus Mann, (1908-1993), British reproductive biologist.
- Harden M. McConnell, (born 1927) American biochemist
- Maude Menten, (1879-1960) Canadian, early work on enzyme kinetics.
- Friedrich Miescher, (1844-1895) first scientist to isolate DNA
- Peter D. Mitchell, (1920-1992) British, 1978 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
- Leonor Michaelis, (1875-1949) German, early work on enzyme kinetics.
- César Milstein, (1927-2002), Argentine biochemist in the field of antibody research. Shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1984 with Niels K. Jerne and Georges Köhler.
- Jacques Monod, (1910-1976), French, 1965 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
- Kary Mullis, (born 1944), American, 1993 Nobel Prize in Chemistry see Polymerase chain reaction
- Elmer Verner McCollum (1879-1967) co-discovered Vitamins A and D and their benefits
- David Nachmansohn, (1899-1983), German, responsible for elucidating the role of phosphocreatine in energy production in the muscles.
- Joseph Needham, (1900-1995), British, studied the history of Chinese science
- Carl Neuberg, (1877-1956), German, pioneer in the study of metabolism.
- Marshall Warren Nirenberg, (born 1927), American, winner of the 1968 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
- Paul Nurse, (born 1949), British, awarded a Nobel prize for studies on the control of the cell cycle
- Eva J. Neer, (1937-2000), American Scientist, awarded the American Heart Association's Basic Research Prize 1997, also the FASEB Excellence in Science Award in 1998 for research on G-proteins cell biology
- Frank Olson, (1910-1953), American, non-consenting subject of CIA MKULTRA
- Alexander Oparin, (1894-1980) Soviet biochemist notable for his untested theories about the origin of life.
- Mary Jane Osborn (born 1927), American lipopolysaccharide researcher
- Jakub Karol Parnas, (1884-1949), Polish – Soviet, major contributor to the discovery of glycolysis
- Linus Pauling, (1901-1994) American, 1954 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
- Louis Pasteur, (1822-1895), French, Pioneer in microbiology and stereochemistry
- Max Perutz, (1914-2002), British, Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1962 for solving the crystal structure of hemoglobin
- Samuel Victor Perry (1918-2009), British, pioneer in muscle research
- David Andrew Phoenix, (Born 1966), British, Structure-function relationships of amphiphilic peptides
- Judah Hirsch Quastel, (1899-1987), British-Canadian, neurochemistry, soil metabolism, cell metabolism, and cancer.
- R. Rajalakshmi (1926-2007), Indian nutritionist and biochemist
- David Rittenberg, (1906-1970), US, pioneer in the use of radioactive tracers in molecules
- Jane S. Richardson, (1941- ), US, developer of the ribbon diagram
- Frederick Sanger (1918-2013), two Nobel prizes for DNA sequencing and protein sequencing.
- Rudolph Schoenheimer (1898-1941), German/US, pioneer of radioactive tagging of molecules
- Raj Shankar, (1947-2000), Indian Neurobiochemist, Work on: Cerebral Metabolism, Signal transduction and for establishing that there is phosphorylation related folding problem of proteins in Alzheimer's disease.
- Anatoly Sharpenak, (1895-1969), Russian, biochemist.
- Alexander Shulgin, (Born 1925), Russian/American pharmacologist, popularized MDMA in America, and work with various psychoactive drugs
- Karl Slotta, (1895-1987), German/US, biochemist pioneer in study of progesterone and antivenom.
- Olav Aasmund Smidsrød (b. 1936) Norwegian biochemist
- Donald F. Steiner, (1930-2014), American biochemist who made ground breaking discoveries in the treatment of diabetes
- Audrey Stevens, (1932-2010), co-discoverer of RNA polymerase
- Amanda Swart, South African biochemist known for her research on rooibos
- Arne Tiselius, (1902–1971), Nobel laureate, developed protein electrophoresis.
- Angela Vincent, (born ?), British, Autoimmune and genetic disorders.
- Frederic Vester, (1925-2003), German, Author and ecologist.
- John Craig Venter, (born 1946), American, Human Genome Project.
- John E. Walker, (b. 1941), British biochemist. Awarded
- Selman Waksman, (1888-1973), Russian, biochemist.
- Christopher T. Walsh, Professor of biological chemistry and pharmacology at Harvard Medical School.
- James C. Wang, (b. 1938), Chinese-born American biochemist and biologist. Professor of biochemistry and molecular biology at Harvard University. Known for the discovery of topoisomerases.
- Xiaodong Wang, (b. 1963), Chinese-born American biochemist best known for his work with cytochrome c. Member of United States National Academy of Sciences and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
- Lewis W. Wannamaker, (1924-1983), American biochemist and was a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences.
- Arieh Warshel, (b. 1940), Israeli-American biochemist and biophysicist. Awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2013.
- James D. Watson, (born 1928), American, discovered the double helical structure of DNA
- Samuel Weiss, Canadian neurobiologist. Studied Biochemistry at McGill University.
- Karl Günther Weitzel, (1915-1984) Founder of the first university degree program of biochemistry in Germany.
- Harold Dadford West, (1904-1974), American biochemist known for the first to synthesize threonine.
- William T. Wickner, (b. 1946), Professor of Biochemistry at Dartmouth Medical School.
- Maurice Wilkins, (1916-2004), British, discovered the double helical structure of DNA
- Allan Charles Wilson, (1934-1991), Professor of Biochemistry at the University of California, Berkeley, a pioneer in the use of molecular approaches to understand evolutionary change and reconstruct phylogenies, and a revolutionary contributor to the study of human evolution.
- Friedrich Wöhler, (1810-1882), German, chemist.
- Felisa Wolfe-Simon, American microbial geobiologist and biogeochemist. Member of the NASA Astrobiology Institute.
- Richard Wolfenden, (b. 1935), Professor of chemistry, biochemistry and biophysics at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
|This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (July 2010)|
- Donald Zilversmit, (1919-2010), Dutch-born American nutritional biochemist. Professor at Cornell University and member of the National Academy of Sciences.