List of biochemists

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This is a list of biochemists. It should include those who have been important to the development or practice of biochemistry. Their research or applications have made significant contributions in the area of basic or applied biochemistry.


A[edit]

B[edit]

  • David Baker (b. 1962). American biochemist and computational biologist at the University of Washington, who studies methods to predict and design the three-dimensional structures of proteins.
  • Tania A. Baker. American biochemist at MIT, who has studied transposons and enzymes that catalyse protein unfolding.
  • Clinton Ballou (b. 1923). American biochemist at UC Berkeley, whose research focused on the metabolism of carbohydrates and the structures of microbial cell  walls. Member of the National Academy of Sciences.
  • Horace Barker (1907–2000). American biochemist and microbiologist at UC
  • David Bartel. American biochemist at MIT, known for work on microRNA biology.
  • Bonnie Bassler (b. 1962). American molecular biologist at Princeton University, known for studies of quorum sensing, and the idea that disruption of chemical signalling can be used as an antimicrobial therapy.
  • Philip A. Beachy (b. 1958). American biochemist at Stanford University, known for studies to understand the molecular mechanisms behind the growth of multicellular embryos, especially the role of the Hedgehog signalling pathway.
  • Jon Beckwith (b. 1935). American microbiologist and geneticist at Harvard who made important contributions to the study of bacterial genetics.
  • Lorena S. Beese. Biochemist at Duke University, known for structural biochemistry of DNA replication and protein prenylation enzymes.
  • Helmut Beinert (1913–2007). German born-American biochemist at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, a pioneer of and advocate for the use of electron paramagnetic resonance in biological systems.
  • Marlene Belfort (b. 1945). American biochemist at the New York State Department of Health involved in the discovery of self-splicing introns in bacteriophage. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Boris Pavlovich Belousov (1893–1970). Chemist and biophysicist in the Ministry of Health of the USSR who discovered the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction.
  • Myron L. Bender (1924–1928). American biochemist at Northwestern University, who pioneered mechanistic studies of enzymes, especially chymotrypsin and other proteases.
  • Paul Berg (b. 1926). American biochemist at Stanford University, known for pioneering work involving gene splicing of recombinant DNA. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1980.
  • Helen M. Berman. American biochemist at Rutgers University, known for work on nucleic acids, their interactions with proteins, and also the structure of collagen.
  • Claude Bernard (1813–1878). French physiologist and physician (early biochemist) at the Collège de France, Paris. Introduced concept of homeostasis (given that name by Walter Cannon).
  • Klaus Biemann (1926–2016), Austrian chemist at MIT, the "father of organic mass spectrometry" and particularly noted for his role in advancing protein sequencing with tandem mass spectrometry.
  • Pamela J. Bjorkman (b. 1956). American biochemist at CalTech, who studies immune recognition of viral pathogens.
  • Konrad Emil Bloch (1912–2000). German-American biochemist at Harvard, who worked on the mechanism and regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964.
  • Elkan Blout (1919–2006). American biochemist at Harvard, who worked on peptide structure and conformation, including cyclic peptides. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • David Mervyn Blow (1931-2004). British X-ray crystallographer at Imperial College, London, who worked on protein structure.
  • Aaron Bodansky (1887–1960). Russian-born American biochemist at the Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, specializing in the area calcium metabolism.
  • Paul D. Boyer (1918–2018). American biochemist, at UCLA who studied ATP synthase. Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1997.
  • Roscoe Brady (1923–2016). American biochemist at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, who identified many enzyme defects responsible for metabolic diseases. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Kenneth Breslauer. American biochemist at Rutgers University (born in Sweden of German parents), who has studied DNA damage and repair, including why certain mutations escape repair and result in cancer.
  • Bernard Brodie (1907–1989). American biochemist and pharmacologist at the National Heart Institute, regarded as the founder of modern pharmacology. He studied drug metabolism and the mechanisms of drug effects. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Adrian John Brown (1852–1920). British expert on brewing and malting at the University of Birmingham. He was a pioneer of enzyme kinetics and proposed an explanation of enzyme saturation.
  • Patrick O. Brown (b. 1954). American biochemist at Stanford. Among numerous advances in experimental techniques he has developed experimental methods for using DNA microarrays to investigate the basic principles of genome organization.
  • Thomas Bruice (1925–2019). American biochemist at UC Santa Barbara, pioneering researcher in chemical biology. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • John Buchanan (1917–2007). American biochemist at MIT, best known for his research on the biosynthesis of purines.
  • Eduard Buchner (1860–1917). German chemist and physiologist at the University of Munich, who overthrew the doctrine of vitalism by showing that cell-free yeast extract could catalyse fermentation, a discovery described by Arthur Kornberg as the beginning of biochemistry. 1907 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
  • Dean Burk (1904–1988). American biochemist at the Fixed Nitrogen Research Laboratory, co-discoverer of biotin. He is credited (with Hans Lineweaver) with introducing the double-reciprocal plot in kinetics. He became a vociferous opponent of water fluoridation.
  • Robert H. Burris (1914–2010). American biochemist at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, considered the foremost expert on nitrogen fixation. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Carlos Bustamante (b. 1951). Peruvian-American biophysicist at UC Berkeley. Known for single-molecule studies, including the use of optical tweezers for measuring the forces that maintain biological structures. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.

C[edit]

  • David S. Cafiso (b. 1952) American biochemist at the University of Virginia, with research focussing on membranes and membrane proteins.
  • T. Colin Campbell (b. 1934) American biochemist at Cornell University, specializing in the effect of nutrition on long-term health.
  • David E. Cane (b. 1944) at Brown University,recognized for his work on the biosynthesis of natural products, particularly terpenoids and polyketides.
  • Lewis C. Cantley, (b. 1949) American cell biologist and biochemist at Harvard Medical School, who has made significant advances to the understanding of cancer metabolism.
  • Charles Cantor (b. 1942). An American biophysicist, he developed the method of pulse field gel electrophoresis, and was formerly Director of the Human Genome Project. He is known also for his book series Biophysical Chemistry with Paul Schimmel
  • John Carbon, American cellular biologist at UC Santa Barbara, known for development of techniques for making genome libraries. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • H. E. Carter (1910–2007). American biochemist, at the University of Illinois, known for determining the structure of threonine. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Thomas Cech (b. 1947) American biochemist at the University of Colorado, famous for discovering catalytic properties of RNA. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. Nobel prize in chemistry, along with Sidney Altman, in 1989.
  • Howard Cedar, (b. 1943) Israeli American biochemist at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, working on DNA methylation, awarded the Israel Prize in Biology in 1999.
  • Michael Chamberlin (b. 1937) American molecular biologist at UC Berkeley, with research focussed on gene expression in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Britton Chance (1913–2010) American biochemist at the University of Pennsylvania. He studied enzyme structure and function, and invented the stopped-flow spectrophotometer for studying fast reactions. Winner of the gold medal in sailing at Harmaja (Sweden) in the 1952 Olympic Games.
  • Christopher Chang (b. 1974) American bioinorganic chemist at UC Berkeley. His research includes molecular imaging sensors for the study of redox biology.
  • Jean-Pierre Changeux (b. 1936), French biochemist and neuroscientist at the Collège de France and Institut Pasteur. Originator of the allosteric model of cooperativity, but now known mainly work in neuroscience.
  • Emmett Chappelle (1925–2019). American biochemist at NASA, known for using bioluminescence to develop a method of detecting ATP.
  • Erwin Chargaff (1905–2002). Austrian-American biochemist at Columbia University, known for Chargaff's rules, according to the first of which the number of guanine units in DNA is equal to the number of cytosine units, and the number of adenine units is equal to the number of thymine units.
  • Martha Chase, (1927–2003) American geneticist at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, famous for the Hershey–Chase experiment, which indicated that genetic information is held and transmitted by DNA, not by protein.
  • Zhijian James Chen (b. 1966). Chinese-American biochemist at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, known discovering mechanisms by which nucleic acids trigger innate and autoimmune responses from the interior of a cell.
  • Gilbert Chu. American biochemist at Stanford University, known for investigating how cells react to DNA damage from radiation.
  • Paul Chun. Protein chemist at the University of Florida, who worked on protein folding equilibria.
  • George M. Church (b. 1954). American geneticist at Harvard and MIT, known for pioneering personal genomics and synthetic biology. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Aaron Ciechanover (b. 1947). Israeli biochemist at the Technion, Haifa, known for work on protein turnover. Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2004.
  • Steven Clarke (b. 1949). American biochemist at UCLA, known for work on molecular damage and molecular repair mechanisms.
  • W. Wallace Cleland (1930–2013). American biochemist at the University of Wisconsin known for work on enzyme kinetics and mechanism.
  • Tameka A. Clemons, American biochemist and professor at Meharry Medical College.
  • G. Marius Clore FRS (b. 1955). (b. 1955) British-American biochemist at the National Institutes of Health known for work in protein and nucleic acid structure determination by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Philip Cohen FRS (b. 1945) at the University of Dundee known primarily for work on protein phosphorylation and ubiquitylation.
  • Edwin Joseph Cohn (1892–1953). American protein chemist at Harvard, known for studies on blood and the physical chemistry of protein. Author, with John Edsall of Proteins, Amino Acids and Peptides, a very influential book. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Mildred Cohn (1913–2009). American biochemist, at the University of Pennsylvania, pioneer in the use of nuclear magnetic resonance to study enzyme reactions.
  • Robert Corey (1897–1971). American protein chemist, known for work with Linus Pauling on the alpha helix and beta sheet.
  • Carl Ferdinand Cori, (1896–1984), American biochemist at Washington University and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, who worked on glycogen. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1947). Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Gerty Cori (1896–1957). Czech-American biochemist at Washington University, known for glycogen research. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1947).
  • Peter Coveney (b. 1958). British Computational molecular biology specialist at University College London, University of Amsterdam and Yale.
  • Nicholas R. Cozzarelli (1938–2006). American biochemist at UC Berkeley, and former editor-in-chief of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
  • Gerald Crabtree (b. 1946). American biochemist at Stanford University, known for defining the Ca2+-calcineurin-NFAT signalling pathway, pioneering the development of synthetic ligands for regulation of biological processes.
  • Robert K. Crane (1919–2010). American biochemist at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, known for his discovery of sodium-glucose cotransport.
  • Francis Crick (1916–2004). British molecular biologist and neuroscientist at the University of Cambridge and the Salk Institute, noted for proposing the double helical structure of DNA.
  • Pedro Cuatrecasas (b. 1936). American biochemist at UC San Diego, known for the development of affinity chromatography.
  • Richard D. Cummings. American biologist at Harvard, known for studying pathways of glycoconjugate biosynthesis and alterations in biosynthesis in human and animal diseases.

D[edit]

  • Valerie Daggett. American protein chemist at the University of Washington, known for molecular dynamics simulations of proteins and other biomolecules.
  • John Call Dalton (1825–1889). American physiologist at the New York Metropolitan Board of Health, known for detailed and precise sketches of the brain.
  • John W. Daly (1933–2008). American biochemist at the National Institutes of Health, working primarily on alkaloids. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Marie Maynard Daly (1921–2003). American biochemist at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, who studied the chemistry of histones, protein synthesis, the relationships between cholesterol and hypertension, and uptake of creatine by muscle cells.
  • Keith Dalziel FRS (1921-1994). British biochemist at Oxford University, pioneer in analysis of the kinetics of two-substrate enzyme-catalysed reactions.
  • Carl Peter Henrik Dam (1895–1976). Danish biochemist and physiologist at Copenhagen University who discovered vitamin K and its role in human physiology. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1943).
  • Marguerite Davis (1887–1967). American biochemist at the University of Wisconsin, co-discoverer of vitamins A and B
  • Ronald W. Davis (b. 1941). American biochemist and geneticist at Stanford, known for developing new technologies in genomics.
  • Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (1925–1983). American biochemist at Georgetown University, pioneer in bioinformatics.
  • Michael W. Deem. American biochemist and genetic engineer at Rice University, known for work in evolution, immunology, and materials.
  • William DeGrado. American pharmaceutical chemist at UC San Francisco, known for protein design, synthesis of peptidomimetics, and characterizing membrane-active peptides and proteins.
  • Hector DeLuca. American biochemist at the University of Wisconsin, known for work on Vitamin D.
  • Pierre De Meyts (b. 1944). Belgian physician and biochemist at the Université Catholique de Louvain, known for studies of hormone-receptor interaction of peptide hormones and the physiopathogenesis of diabetes.
  • Willey Glover Denis (1879–1929). American biochemist at Tulane University, a pioneer in clinical chemistry and the measurement of protein in biological fluids.
  • Malcolm Dixon (1899–1985), British biochemist at the University of Cambridge. Research on enzyme structure, kinetics, and properties. His book (with Edwin C. Webb) Enzymes was very influential.
  • Edward Adelbert Doisy (1893–1986). American biochemist at St Louis University, known for discovering vitamin K. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1943).
  • Ford Doolittle (b. 1942). American biochemist at Dalhousie University, known for contributions to the study of cyanobacteria and of biochemical evolution in general. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Jonathan Dordick (b. 1959). American biochemical engineer at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, known for development of enzyme catalysis under extreme conditions.
  • Ralph Dorfman (1911–1985). American biochemist at Stanford University, known for treatments for cancer and rheumatoid arthritis
  • Jennifer Doudna (b.1964). American biochemist at UC Berkeley, known for CRISPR-mediated genome editing.
  • Alexander Dounce (1909–1997). American protein chemist at the University of Rochester, active in early work on the genetic code, one of the first to suggest that it was triplet-based.
  • Gideon Dreyfuss. American biochemist and biophysicist at the University of Pennsylvania, concerned with the function and biogenesis of non-coding RNA and the proteins that interact with RNA. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Jack Cecil Drummond FRS (1891–1952). British biochemist at University College London, known for the isolation of Vitamin A, and wartime advisor on nutrition. Murdered in France, with his wife and daughter.
  • Christian de Duve, (1917–2013). Belgian cytologist and biochemist, known for discovering peroxisomes and lysosomes. Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine (1974).

E[edit]

  • Richard H. Ebright (b. 1959). American molecular biologist at Rutgers University, known for work on protein-DNA interaction, aspects of transcription, and antibacterial drug discovery.
  • John Tileston Edsall (1902–2002). American protein chemist at Harvard, very influential in protein research, and author (with Edwin Cohn) of Proteins, Amino Acids and Peptides.
  • Konstantin Efetov (b. 1958) Ukrainian biochemist at Crimea State Medical University, known for work in molecular immunology, evolutionary biology, and biosystematics.
  • Gertrude B. Elion (1918–1999). American biochemist and pharmacologist at Duke University, known for using rational drug design for the discovery of new drugs. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1988).
  • Conrad Elvehjem (1901–1962), American biochemist and nutritionist at the University of Wisconsin, known for identifying two vitamins, nicotinic acid, and nicotinamide.
  • Gladys Anderson Emerson (1903–1984), American historian, biochemist and nutritionist at UCLA, the first to isolate Vitamin E in a pure form.
  • Akira Endo (b. 1933). Japanese biochemist at the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology. His research into the relationship between fungi and cholesterol biosynthesis led to the development of statin drugs.
  • Donald Engelman (b. 1941). American biochemist at Yale, involved in the creation of new cancer drugs and treatments. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
  • Earl Evans (1910–1999). American biochemist at the University of Chicago.

F[edit]

  • Leone N. Farrell (1904–1986). Canadian biochemist and microbiologist at Connaught Laboratories (Toronto) who discovered a way of live virus in bulk quantities, sufficient for producing the polio vaccine.
  • Richard D. Feinman (b. 1940). American biochemist and medical researcher at SUNY Downstate Medical Center, known for research on the Atkins Diet, and on application of thermodynamics to nutrition.
  • David Sidney Feingold (1922–2019). American biochemist at the University of Pittsburgh known for research on carbohydrates.
  • John D. Ferry (1912–2002). Canadian-American biochemist noted for development of surgical products from blood plasma.
  • Alan Fersht FRS (b. 1943). British chemist and biochemist at the University of Cambridge, known for enzyme kinetics and protein folding. Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences.
  • Edmond H. Fischer (b. 1920). Swiss American biochemist known for protein phosphorylases and phosphatases. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1992).
  • Louis B. Flexner (1902–1996). American biochemist at the University of Pennsylvania, who worked on the biochemistry of memory and brain function. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
  • Otto Folin (1867–1934). Swedish-American chemist at Harvard, best known for developing methods for the determination of the constituents of protein-free blood filtrates.
  • Karl August Folkers (1906–1997). American biochemist at Merck, known for work on the antibiotics cathomycin and cycloserine.
  • Sidney W. Fox (1912–1998). American biochemist at the University of Miami who worked on the production of amino acids in abiotic conditions.
  • Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat (1910–1999). German-American biochemist at UC Berkeley, known for research on viruses such as tobacco mosaic virus.
  • Rosalind Franklin (1920–1958). British X-ray crystallographer at King's and Birkbeck Colleges, London, who worked on the structure of DNA
  • Perry A. Frey (b. 1935). American biochemist at the University of Wisconsin known for work on enzyme mechanisms.
  • Irwin Fridovich (1929–2019). American biochemist at Duke University, who discovered superoxide dismutase and studied its mechanisms and superoxide toxicity.
  • Joseph S. Fruton (1912–2007). Polish-American biochemist at the Rockefeller Institute. He worked on proteases, but is best known for his influential book General Biochemistry, written with his wife Sofia Simmonds, and for later work on the history of biochemistry.
  • Kazimierz Funk (1884–1967). Polish-American biochemist at the Pasteur Institute, discoverer of vitamin B3 (niacin).
  • Robert F. Furchgott (1916–2009). American biochemist at the State University of New York known for discovering the biological roles of nitric oxide. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1998).

G[edit]

  • Elmer L. Gaden (1923–2012). American biochemical engineer at the University of Virginia, known as the father of biochemical engineering.
  • Michael H. Gelb (b. 1957). American biochemist at the University of Washington who studies study enzymatic processes of biomedical significance.
  • Susan Gerbi, (b. 1944) American biochemist at Brown University working on RNA and DNA.
  • Jonathan Gershenzon (b. 1955). American biochemist at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in Jena, known for work on the biochemistry of secondary plant metabolites,
  • Walter Gilbert (b. 1932). American biochemist at Harvard, awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1980) for work on DNA sequencing. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA; Foreign Member of the Royal Society.
  • Joseph L. Goldstein (b. 1940). American biochemist at the at University of Texas, awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine(1985) for studies of cholesterol.
  • Eugene Goldwasser (1922–2010). American biochemist at the University of Chicago, known for identifying the hormone erythropoietin.
  • Michael M. Gottesman (b. 1946). American biochemist at the National Institutes of Health, whose achievements includes the discovery of P-glycoprotein. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Sam Granick (1909–1977). American biochemist at the Rockefeller University, known for his studies of ferritin and iron metabolism. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • David E. Green (1910–1983). American biochemist at the University of Wisconsin, pioneer in the study of enzymes, involved in oxidative phosphorylation.
  • Lewis Joel Greene, (b. 1934) American-Brazilian biochemist at the University of São Paulo, known for studies of protein chemistry.
  • Mark Griep (b. 1959). American chemist at the University of Nebraska who works on enzymes involved in DNA synthesis.
  • Frederick Griffith (1877–1941). British bacteriologist, at the Ministry of Health's Pathological Laboratory, who discovered that DNA carries hereditary information.
  • Charles Grisham. Chemist at the University of Virginia known primarily for his textbook Biochemistry written with Reginald Garrett.
  • Kun-Liang Guan (b. 1963). Chinese-American biochemist at the University of Michigan who works on gene regulation.
  • F. Peter Guengerich. Biochemist and toxicologist at Vanderbilt University, working on cytochromes P450, DNA damage and carcinogenesis, and drug metabolism..
  • Irwin Gunsalus (1912–2008). American biochemist at the University of Illinois, who discovered lipoic acid. He coauthored The Bacteria: A Treatise on Structure and Function with Roger Y. Stanier, a highly influential five-volume work.
  • Herbert Gutfreund FRS (b. 1921). Austrian-British biochemist at Bristol, known for enzyme kinetics and for developing methods for studying fast reactions.

H[edit]

  • J. B. S. Haldane (John Burdon Sanderson Haldane, 1892–1964). British (and later Indian) geneticist, biochemist (study of enzymes) and statistician, at University College London and at the end of his life at the Calcutta Statistical Institute. Apart from his contributions to science, he was notable for political activism and wrote many articles for the Daily Worker.
  • Gordon Hammes (b. 1934). American biochemist at Duke University, noted for work on enzyme mechanisms and kinetics.
  • Philip Handler (1917–1981). American nutritionist and biochemist, noted understanding of nicotinic acid deficiency and the discovery of the tryptophan-nicotinic acid relationship. He was at Duke University until he became President of the National Academy of Sciences.
  • Arthur Harden. (1865–1940). British biochemist at the Lister Institute, known for work on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes. Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1929).
  • Reinhart Heinrich (1946–2006). German biophysicist at the Humboldt University of Berlin, noted for origin and development of metabolic control analysis.
  • Max Henius (1859–1935). Danish-American biochemist who specialized in fermentation processes. Founder of the Chicago-based American Brewing Academy.
  • Archibald Vivian Hill (1886–1977) British protein biophysicist known primarily for work in muscle biochemistry, but also for the Hill equation (biochemistry), still widely used for quantifying protein cooperativity. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1922).
  • Avram Hershko (b. 1937 as Herskó Ferenc). Hungarian-Israeli biochemist at the Technion (Haifa), known for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. Nobel Prize in Chemistry (2004).
  • Dorothy Hodgkin (1910–1994) British X-ray crystallographer at the University of Oxford, pioneer in protein crystallography. Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1964)
  • Frederick Gowland Hopkins (1861–1947). British biochemist at Cambridge University who discovered tryptophan and worked on vitamins. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1929).
  • Wayne L. Hubbell (b. 1943). American biochemist at UCLA, pioneer of site-directed spin labelling. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.

I[edit]

J[edit]

  • Alec Jeffreys FRS (b. 1950). British biochemist and geneticist at Leicester University, known for inventing genetic fingerprinting.
  • William Jencks (1927–2007). American biochemist at Brandeis University, known for applying chemical mechanisms to enzyme-catalysed reactions and for his masterly book Catalysis in Chemistry and Enzymology. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, and a foreign member of the Royal Society.

K[edit]

  • Henrik Kacser (1918–1995). British geneticist and biochemist at Edinburgh, founder of metabolic control analysis.
  • Emil T. Kaiser (1938–1988). Hungarian-born American protein chemist at the University of Chicago, known for his work on enzyme modification. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Herman Kalckar (1908–1991). Danish biochemist at the New York Public Health Institute, who worked on cellular respiration, nucleotide metabolism and galactose metabolism. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
  • Sir Bernard Katz FRS (1911–2003), German-British neuroscientist and biophysicist at University College London. Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine (1970) for work on nerve biochemistry and the pineal gland.
  • Stuart Alan Kauffman (b. 1939). American theoretical biologist, expert on complex systems, now at the University of Pennsylvania. Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada.
  • Douglas Kell (b. 1953). British biochemist at the University of Manchester, known for research on functional genomics, metabolomics and the yeast genome.
  • John Kendrew (1917–1997). British x-ray crystallographer at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, known for determining the crystal structure of myoglobin. Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1962).
  • Sir Ernest Kennaway FRS (1881–1958), British pathologist at the University of London, who carried out early work on carcinogenic effects of hydrocarbons.
  • Har Gobind Khorana (1922–2011). Indian-American biochemist at the University of Wisconsin, who participated in elucidating the genetic code. Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine (1968).
  • Charles Glen King (1896–1988). American biochemist at the University of Pittsburgh. He isolated vitamin C, and was a pioneer in the field of nutrition research.
  • Judith Klinman (b. 1941). American chemist, biochemist, and molecular biologist at UC Berkeley, known for her work on enzyme catalysis. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Aaron Klug (1926–2018). Lithuanian/South African/British structural biologist at Cambridge University. Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1982). President of the Royal Society.
  • Jeremy Randall Knowles FRS (1935-2008). British and American biochemist at Oxford and Harvard, known for research on enzyme mechanisms. Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences.
  • Arthur Kornberg (1918–2007). American biochemist at Stanford, who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1959) for discovery of DNA polymerase.
  • Sir Hans Kornberg FRS (1928–2019). British biochemist at Cambridge University, known for research in Microbial biochemistry. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Roger D. Kornberg (b. 1947). American biochemist at Stanford, who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (2006) for studies on RNA polymerase.
  • Sylvy Kornberg (1917–1986). American biochemist at Stanford, who worked in collaboration with Arthur Kornberg on DNA replication and polyphosphate synthesis.
  • Thomas B. Kornberg (b. 1948). American biochemist at UC San Francisco, who works on Drosophila melanogaster development.
  • Daniel E. Koshland Jr. (1920–2007). American biochemist at UC Berkeley, known for protein flexibility (induced fit)
  • Sir Hans Adolf Krebs FRS (1900–1981). British biochemist at Sheffield and Oxford, known for many advances in metabolism, most notably the tricarboxylate ("Krebs") cycle. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1953).

L[edit]

  • Marc Lacroix (biochemist) (b. 1963). Belgian biochemist at the at the Institut Jules Bordet (Brussels), who specializes in breast cancer biology, metastasis and therapy.
  • Keith Laidler (1916–2003). British-Canadian chemist and biochemist at the University of Ottawa. Expert on chemical and enzyme kinetics. Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada.
  • Henry Lardy (1917–2010). American biochemist at the University of Wisconsin, noted for work on metabolism.
  • Michel Lazdunski (b. 1938). French biochemist and neuroscientist at Sophia-Antipolis. Known especially for work on ion channels. Full Member of the French Academy of Sciences.
  • Luis Federico Leloir. (1906–1987). Argentinian biochemist at the Fundación Instituto Campomar (Buenos Aires) who worked on sugar nucleotides, carbohydrate metabolism, and renal hypertension. Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1970).
  • Albert L. Lehninger (1917–1986). American biochemist at the University of Wisconsin. He discovered, with Eugene P. Kennedy, that mitochondria are the site of oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotes. Author of several influential texts, including The Mitochondrion, Bioenergetics and Biochemistry.
  • Phoebus Levene (1869–1940). Russian-American biochemist at the Rockefeller Institute, who discovered that DNA was composed of nucleobases and phosphate.
  • Cyrus Levinthal (1922–1990). American molecular biologist at Columbia, known for theoretical analysis of protein folding, and for Levinthal's paradox.
  • Michael Levitt (b. 1947). American-British-Israeli-South African biophysicist at Stanford. Nobel Prize in Chemistry (2013).
  • Choh Hao Li (1913–1987). Chinese-American biochemist at UC Berkeley. Known for discovering and synthesizing the human pituitary growth hormone. Academician of Academia Sinica.
  • Anthony William Linnane FRS (1930–2017). Australian biochemist at Monash University, known for work on mitochondria, and in particular for the relationship between mitochondrial damage and aging.
  • Fritz Lipmann (1899–1986). German and later American biochemist at the Rockefeller University, known for work in intermediary metabolism. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1953).
  • William Lipscomb Jr. (1919–2011). American inorganic and organic chemist at Harvard, who worked on nuclear magnetic resonance, theoretical chemistry, boron chemistry, and biochemistry. Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1976).
  • Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen FRS (1911–1979). German biochemist at the Max-Planck Institute for Cellular Chemistry (Munich), who worked on the mechanism and regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1964).

M[edit]

  • John James Rickard Macleod (1876–1935). British biochemist and physiologist at the University of Toronto, discoverer of insulin. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1923).
  • Thaddeus Mann FRS (1908–1993). Ukrainian-British biochemist at the University of Cambridge, who worked on reproductive biology.
  • Emanuel Margoliash (1920-2008). Israeli-American biochemist at Northwestern University, known for research on cytochrome c sequences, which formed the starting point for studies of protein evolution. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Vincent Massey (1926–2002). Australian biochemist and enzymologist at the University of Michigan, best known for studies of flavoenzymes. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Elmer Verner McCollum (1879–1967). American biochemist at Johns-Hopkins University, who discovered Vitamins A and D, and their benefits. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Harden M. McConnell (1927–2014). American biochemist at Stanford known for the technique of spin-labels, whereby electron and nuclear magnetic resonance can be used to study the structure and kinetics of proteins. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Maud Menten (1879–1960). Canadian biochemist at the University of Pittsburgh who carried out early work on enzyme kinetics. Later she pioneered the use of electrophoresis to study haemoglobin variants.
  • Otto Fritz Meyerhof (1884–1951). German-American physician and biochemist at the University of Pennsylvania, who pioneered the study of muscle biochemistry. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1922). Foreign Member of the Royal Society.
  • Leonor Michaelis (1875–1949). German biochemist at the Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research, known for early work on enzyme kinetics. He developed biochemistry in Japan. He studied quinones, and used this knowledge to develop a method for producing a perm (hairstyle).
  • Friedrich Miescher (1844–1895). Swiss physician and biologist, the first to isolate DNA.
  • César Milstein FRS (1927–2002). Argentinian-British biochemist at the University of Cambridge, known for developing the use of monoclonal antibodies. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1984).
  • Ann Stone Minot (1894–1980). American U.S. biochemist and physiologist at Vanderbilt University.
  • Peter D. Mitchell FRS (1920–1992). British biochemist at the Glynn Research (Bodmin, Cornwall), known for the theory of chmiosmosis. Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1978).
  • Jacques Monod (1910–1976). French biochemist and microbiologist, known for many discoveries and for the theory of allostery. His philosophical book Chance and Necessity has been influential. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1965). Foreign Member of the Royal Society.
  • Kary Mullis (1944–2019). American biochemist at the Cetus Corporation (Emeryville, California), inventor of the polymerase chain reaction. Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1993).

N[edit]

  • David Nachmansohn (1899–1983). German biochemist at Columbia University, responsible for elucidating the role of phosphocreatine in energy production in muscles. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
  • Joseph Needham FRS (1900–1995). British biochemist, historian and sinologist, noted for embryology and morphogenesis, and also in Chinese science.
  • Carl Neuberg (1877–1956). German biochemist at the University of Berlin, a pioneer in the study of metabolism.
  • Hans Neurath (1909–1902). American protein chemist at the University of Washington. He was the Founding editor of Biochemistry, which he edited for 30 years (1961-1991). Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Marshall Warren Nirenberg (1927–2010). American biochemist and geneticist at the National Institutes of Health, who showed that UUU codes for phenylalanine, the first step in deciphering the genetic code. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1968).
  • Roland Victor Norris (1888–1950). British biochemist at the Indian Institute of Science, who worked on glycogen metabolism and yeast fermentation, and later pioneered biochemistry in India.
  • Paul Nurse, (b. 1949). British geneticist at the Rockefeller University, who worked on control of the cell cycle. President of the Royal Society. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (2001)
  • Eva J. Neer, (1937–2000). American physician and biochemist at Harvard, who researched on G-proteins cell biology. Member of the National Academy of Medicine.

O[edit]

  • Severo Ochoa (1905–1993). Spanish and American biochemist at New York University, major contributor to elucidating the genetic code. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1959). Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Alexander George Ogston FRS (1911–1996). British biochemist at Oxford University, known for the three-point attachment explanation of how an achiral substance can have a chiral product in the tricarboxylate cycle.
  • Reiji Okazaki (1930–1975). Japanese molecular biologist at Hiroshima, known for discovering Okazaki fragments, an essential step for understanding DNA replication.
  • Tsuneko Okazaki (b. 1933). Japanese molecular biologist at Nagoya University, known for discovering Okazaki fragments, an essential step for understanding DNA replication.
  • Muriel Wheldale Onslow (1880–1932). British biochemist at Cambridge University, pioneer in biochemical genetics who worked on petal colour in flowers.
  • Alexander Oparin, (1894–1980). Soviet biochemist at Moscow State University, known for his theory on the origin of life in coacervates.
  • Mary Jane Osborn (1927–2019). American biochemist at the University of Connecticut, who worked on lipopolysaccharides, and discovered the mechanism of action of methotrexate.

P[edit]

  • Jakub Karol Parnas (1884–1949). Polish-Soviet biochemist at Lviv, who discovered (with Gustav Embden and Otto Fritz Meyerhof, the glycolytic pathway.
  • Linus Pauling (1901–1994). American chemist and biochemist at CalTech, known for many advances in chemistry, including the α-helical structure of proteins. Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1954).
  • Louis Pasteur (1822–1895). French biologist, microbiologist and chemist at the Pasteur Institute (Paris), who made many contributions to microbiology, stereochemistry and medicine, including the first vaccines for rabies anthrax. Foreign Associate of the Royal Society, and of the National Academy of Sciences.
  • Max Perutz (1914–2002). Austrian-British molecular biologist and X-ray crystallographer at Cambridge University, who solved the crystal structure of haemoglobin. Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1962).
  • Samuel Victor Perry FRS (1918–2009). British biochemist at Birmingham University, pioneer in the biochemistry of muscle.
  • David Andrew Phoenix (b. 1966). British biochemist at the University of Central Lancashire (Preston), where he studies properties of biologically active amphiphilic peptides.
  • Frank W. Putnam (1917–2006). American biochemist at the Indiana University, who worked on the structure and function of blood proteins. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.

Q[edit]

  • Juda Hirsch Quastel FRS (1899–1987). British-Canadian biochemist, known for research in neurochemistry, metabolism and cancer.

R[edit]

  • Efraim Racker (1913–1991). Austrian-American biochemist at Cornell University, notable for work on ATP synthase. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • George Radda FRS (b. 1936). Hungarian biochemist at Oxford University, known for applying nuclear magnetic resonance to complex biological material, and many other contributions. 1952), Indian-British-American at the Medical Research Council, Cambridge, a structural biologist known for his work on the ribosome. President of the Royal Society. Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2009.
  • Samuel Mitja Rapoport (1912–2004). Austrian and German biochemist at Berlin noted for studies of mitochondria, and for discovering a method for preserving blood for transfusions. Leader of biochemistry in the German Democratic Republic.
  • David Rittenberg (1906–1970). American biochemist at Columbia University, a pioneer in the use of radioactive tracers to study metabolism. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Alexander Rich (1924–2015). American biophysicist at MIT, whose many contributions included elucidation of the structure of collagen (with Francis Crick).
  • Jane S. Richardson (b. 1941). American biophysicist at Duke University, known for the ribbon diagram, a method of representing the 3D structures of proteins.
  • Irwin Rose (1926–2015). American biochemist at the University of Pennsylvania, noted for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. Nobel Prize in Chemistry (2004).

S[edit]

  • Frederick Sanger (1918–2013). British biochemist at Cambridge University, known for advances in sequencing proteins and nucleic acids. Nobel prizes in Chemistry (1958, 1980). Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences.
  • Paul Schimmel (b. 1940). American biochemist at the Scripps Research Institute, who developed methods of nucleic acid sequencing and coauthored (with Charles Cantor) the very influential three-volume book Biophysical Chemistry.
  • Rudolph Schoenheimer (1898–1941). German-American biochemist at the Columbia University, pioneer of radioactive tagging of molecules.
  • Stefan Schuster (b. 1961). German biophysicist at the University of Jena, pioneer in metabolic control analysis and metabolic pathway analysis.
  • Anatoly Sharpenak (1895–1969). Russian biochemist at Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, who studied protein metabolism, and the aetiology and pathogenesis of dental caries.
  • Karl Slotta (1895–1987). German-American biochemist at the University of Miami, who discoverd progesterone, and studied snake venoms.
  • Emil L. Smith (1911–2009). American protein chemist at UCLA, known in particular for studies of protein evolution.
  • Donald F. Steiner (1930–2014). American biochemist at the University of Chicago, who made ground breaking discoveries in the treatment of diabetes
  • Joan Steitz (b. 1941). American biochemist at Yale, best known for her work on RNA. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Thomas A. Steitz (1940–2018). American biochemist, best known for his pioneering work on the ribosome. Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 2009.
  • Majory Stephenson (1885-1948). British biochemist and microbiologist at Cambridge University, most widely remembered for her seminal book, Bacterial Metabolism.
  • Audrey Stevens (1932–2010). American biochemist at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, co-discoverer of RNA polymerase. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Lubert Stryer (b. 1938). American biophysicist at Stanford who pioneered the use of fluorescence spectroscopy, particularly Förster resonance energy transfer, to monitor the structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules. He is best known for his textbook Biochemistry.
  • Albert Szent-Györgyi (1893–1986). Hungarian biochemist at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, the first to isolate vitamin C. He discovered the components and reactions of the tricarboxylate cycle. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1937.

T[edit]

  • Charles Tanford (1921–2009). American protein chemist at Duke University, known for analysis of the hydrophobic effect.
  • Ignacio Tinoco Jr. (1930–2016). American chemist at UC Berkeley, known for his pioneering work on RNA folding. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Chen-Lu Tsou (Zou Chenglu in Pinyin, 1923–2006). Chinese biochemist at the Academia Sinica, known for work on enzyme inactivation kinetics, and even more as the "face of Chinese biochemistry" for many years in the west.
  • Arne Tiselius (1902–1971). Swedish biochemist at University of Uppsala, who developed protein electrophoresis. Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1948).

U[edit]

V[edit]

  • Pablo DT Valenzuela (b. 1941). Chilean biochemist and biotechnologist at Chiron Corporation (Emeryville, California), known for his genetic studies of hepatitis viruses.
  • Ruth van Heyningen (1917–2019), British biochemist at Oxford University, known for her research on the lens and cataracts.
  • John Craig Venter (b. 1946). American biotechnologist at the J. Craig Venter Institute (Rockville, Maryland), known for human genome sequencing.

W[edit]

  • John E. Walker (b. 1941). British biochemist at Cambridge University, known for studies of ATPases and ATP synthase. Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1997).
  • Selman Waksman (1888–1973). Ukrainian-American biochemist at Rutgers University, known for discovering streptomycin and other antibiotics. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1952).
  • Christopher T. Walsh. American biochemist at Harvard, known for work on enzymes and enzyme inhibition, and especially for his book Enzymatic Reaction Mechanisms. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • James C. Wang, (b. 1938). Chinese-American biochemist at Harvard University, known for the discovery of topoisomerases. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
  • Xiaodong Wang, (b. 1963), Chinese-American biochemist at the National Institute of Biological Sciences, Peking, known for his work with cytochrome c. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883–1970). German biochemist at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Cell Physiology (Berlin), who pioneered the study of respiration. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1931).
  • Arieh Warshel (b. 1940). Israeli-American biochemist and biophysicist at the University of Southern California, a pioneer in computational studies on functional properties of biological molecules. Nobel Prize in Chemistry (2013).
  • James D. Watson (b. 1928). American molecular biologist at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, who proposed the double helical structure of DNA, with Francis Crick. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1962). Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
  • Gregorio Weber (1916–1997). Argentinian spectroscopist at the University of Illinois, who pioneered the application of fluorescence spectroscopy to the biological sciences. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Hans Westerhoff (b. 1953). Dutch biochemist at the Universities of Amsterdam and of Manchester, known for work in systems biology and metabolic regulation.
  • Frank Henry Westheimer (1912–2007). American chemist at Harvard who did pioneering work in physical organic chemistry, applying techniques from physical to organic chemistry and integrating the two fields. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • William Joseph Whelan FRS (b. 1924). British-American biochemist at the University of Miami, who worked on the structure of glycogen, and discovered the protein glycogenin at its core. He was very active in the creation of international organizations, including the IUB (now IUBMB) and FEBS.
  • William T. Wickner (b. 1946). American biochemist at Dartmouth Medical School, an authority on membrane fusion and inheritance. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Maurice Wilkins (1916–2004). New Zealand and British x-ray crystallographer at King's College London, whose work on DNA played an essential part in recognizing its double-helical structure. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1962).
  • Robert Joseph Paton Williams FRS (1926–2015). British bioinorganic chemist at Oxford University, with many contributions to understanding the role of metals in biological systems.
  • Allan Charles Wilson FRS (1934–1991). New Zealand biochemist and evolutionary biologist at UC Berkeley, a pioneer in molecular approaches to understand evolutionary change and reconstruct phylogenies.
  • Friedrich Wöhler (1810–1882). German chemist at the University of Giessen, known for his synthesis of urea from ammonium cyanate (a nail in the coffin of vitalism). Foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
  • Richard Wolfenden (b. 1935). British-American biochemist at the University of North Carolina, known for work on the kinetics of enzyme-catalysed reactions. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
  • Harland G. Wood (1907–1991). American biochemist notable at Case Western Reserve University, known for work on use of carbon dioxide by animals and bacteria. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.

Y[edit]

  • Ada Yonath (b. 1939). Israeli crystallographer at the Weizmann Institute of Science, best known for her pioneering work on the structure of the ribosome. Nobel Prize in Chemistry (2009).

Z[edit]

  • Donald Zilversmit (1919–2010). Dutch-American nutritional biochemist at Cornell, with many contributions to the understanding of the relationship between diet and cardiovascular disease. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

See also[edit]

Scientists in fields close to biochemistry