List of countries by population in 1800

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Historical Demographics
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List of Countries by Population
1700 1800 1900
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This is a list of countries by population in 1800. Estimate numbers are from the beginning of the year, and exact population figures are for countries that were having a census in the year 1800 (which were on various dates in that year). The bulk of these numbers are sourced from Alexander V. Avakov's Two Thousand Years of Economic Statistics, Volume 1, pages 21 to 24, which cover population figures from the year 1800 divided into modern borders. Avakov, in turn, cites a variety of sources, mostly Angus Maddison. Italian sub figures are derived from elsewhere.[1] Other figures come from Jan Lahmeyer's website,[2] which in turn is based on a variety of sources.[3]

Country/Territory Population c. 1800 Percentage of

World Population

  World 978,000,000 -
Imperial standard of the Qing Emperor.svg Qing China[2]
297,623,950 30.4%
Flag of the Maratha Empire.svg Maratha Confederacy[6][note 1] ~207,000,000 21.1%
Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg Britain and possessions[7][2][8][note 2]
57,000,000 5.8%
French First Republic France and possessions[14][2]
47,296,000 4.8%
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806).svg Holy Roman Empire[15]
41,050,000 4.2%
 Russian Empire[2]
35,005,000 3.6%
Flag of the Tokugawa Shogunate.svg
Tokugawa Japan[2]
29,000,000 3.0%
 Ottoman Empire[2][17]
26,000,000 2.7%
Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931).svg Spain and possessions[2]
24,710,115 2.5%
Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg Habsburg Monarchy[2]
23,145,000 2.4%
Flag of the King of Joseon (Fringeless).svg Joseon[20] 16,500,000 1.7%
Flag of the Kingdom of Prussia (1750-1801).svg Kingdom of Prussia
10,700,000[citation needed] 1.1%
 Portuguese Empire[2]
9,270,000 0.9%
Flag of Tây Sơn Dynasty.svg
Đại Việt[21]
7,291,000 0.7%
Flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1816).svg
Kingdom of Naples and Sicily[14]
6,700,000 0.7%
Iran[22] 6,000,000 0.6%
US flag 15 stars.svg
United States of America[23]
5,308,483 0.5%
Flag of Morocco (1666–1915).svg Morocco[7] 5,000,000 0.5%
Flag of Thailand (1782).svg
Siam[24][note 5]
4,700,000 0.5%
Flag of the Alaungpaya Dynasty of Myanmar.svg
4,200,000 0.4%
Sikh Empire flag.jpgSikh Empire[26] 3,500,000 0.4%
Naval Ensign of Sweden.svg
3,347,000 0.2%
Flag of Herat until 1842.svg Durrani Afghan Empire[7] 3,280,000 0.2%
Flag of the Papal States (pre 1808).svg
Papal States[28]
2,300,000 0.2%
Flag of Denmark.svg
2,200,000 0.2%
Flag of the Second Saudi State.svg Emirate of Diriyah[7]
2,132,000 0.2%
Flag of Cambodia (pre-1863).svg Cambodia[7] 2,090,000 0.2%
Royal Flag of Vietnam (1802–1885).svg Southern Vietnam under Nguyen Anh[29] 1,770,000 0.2%
Savoyard flag.svg Kingdom of Sardinia 2,900,000[30] 0.30%
Flag of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.svg
Grand Duchy of Tuscany[14]
1,224,000 0.13%
 Parma[14] 415,000 0.042%
Royal Standard of Oman.svg Sultanate of Oman[7]
363,000 0.037%
Flag of Ryukyu.svg Ryukyu Kingdom[31] 155,650 0.016%
Flag of Lucca.svg Republic of Lucca[14] 120,000 0.012%
St. Blaise - National Flag of the Ragusan Republic.png Republic of Ragusa[2] 30,000 0.012%
Emblem of Bahrain.svg
14,000 0.0014%


The aggregate populations will exceed the total population because some states existed in multiple entities. For example, the Kingdom of Prussia and the Habsburg Monarchy had holdings that were also part of the Holy Roman Empire (though not all of the Prussian and Habsburg territories shared this aspect). In another case, the province of Wallachia was a vassal of the Ottoman sultan, but also a tributary of the Russian Empire.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ In 1800 the Maratha Confederacy controlled roughly 2,500,000 km2 of land, or 56% of the Indian subcontinent, which had a population of 207 million at the time according to Mahalanobis and Bhattacharya.
  2. ^ Several territories were under the rule of the British East India Company rather than being directly controlled by the British government. London would not directly manage the Indian princely states until 1858
  3. ^ This estimation of population excludes Aboriginal Australians who were not included in estimations of populations until 1967.
  4. ^ Left-bank Ukraine and Right-bank Ukraine included.
  5. ^ This is the population of the territory that makes up modern Thailand in 1800, not the territory Siam controlled. In 1800, Siam controlled parts of Laos and Cambodia, meaning that the population is potentially higher.


  1. ^ Journal of the Private Life and Conversations of the Emperor, Vol. 3. Emmanuel-Auguste-Dieudonne comte de Las Cases. 1816.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Lahmeyer, Jan (2006). Archived from the original on 2017-02-01. Retrieved 2019-01-28. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. ^ "SOURCES". Retrieved 2019-01-28.
  4. ^ a b Avakov, Alexander V. (April 2015). Two Thousand Years of Economic Statistics, Volume 1. ISBN 9781628941012.
  5. ^ Millward, James (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-13924-3.
  6. ^ Sahu, Binod K. (2004). Aids And Population Education. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 9788120726581.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Avakov, Alexander V. (April 2015). Two Thousand Years of Economic Statistics, Volume 1. ISBN 9781628941012. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  8. ^ a b Robert Montgomery Martin (1843). History of the Colonies of the British Empire. W. H. Allen. p. 404. population.
  9. ^ Globalising Migration History: The Eurasian Experience (16th-21st Centuries). 27 March 2014. p. 101. ISBN 9789004271364. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  10. ^ A. K. Cairncross, The Scottish Economy: A Statistical Account of Scottish Life by Members of the Staff of Glasgow University (Glasgow: Glasgow University Press, 1953), p. 10.
  11. ^ MArshall, John (1838). "Statistics of the British Empire".
  12. ^ "AUSTRALIA historical demographical data of the whole country". Populstat. Retrieved 2018-12-22.
  13. ^ "Historical population methodology". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2021-09-21.
  14. ^ a b c d e "Tacitus, Historical Populations of European States". Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  15. ^ The combined population of Germany (25m), Austria (3.37m), Czechia (5.516m), Belgium (3.434m), Slovenia (0.469m), and a third of Italy (6.7m). Avakov, p. 21-23. Many of these places were under the occupation of France, but the Empire was not formally dissolved until 1806.
  16. ^ Territory also includes the rest of "Austrian Lombardy."
  17. ^ Inalcik, Halil; Qautaert, Donald, eds. (1994). An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, Volume 2. ISBN 9780521574556.
  18. ^ Isichei, Elizabeth Isichei (1997). A history of African societies to 1870. Cambridge University Press. p. 263. ISBN 0-521-45444-1. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  19. ^ a b Murgescu, Bogdan (14 June 2016). Romania si Europa. Polirom. pp. 75–76. ISBN 9789734620418.
  20. ^ 이헌창 (1999). 한국경제통사 52쪽.
  21. ^
  22. ^ Malcolm, John. "The History of Persia: From the Most Early Period to the Present Time" (1815), via Encyclopædia Iranica at
  23. ^ "Decennial Census – History – U.S. Census Bureau". Retrieved 2017-04-25.
  24. ^
  25. ^ Ritchell, Judith L., "Disease and Demography in Colonial Burma" (2006), pp.11-16, via:
  26. ^ Singh, Amarinder, "The Last Sunset: The Rise & Fall of the Lahore Durbar", Roli Books (2012).
  27. ^ a b "Population of Scandinavia". Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  28. ^ "Papal States". Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  29. ^ Khâm định Việt sử thông giám cương mục, Library of National Bureau, 1874
  30. ^ Journal of the Private Life and Conversations of the Emperor, Vol. 3. Emmanuel-Auguste-Dieudonne comte de Las Cases. 1816.
  31. ^ (a) Yoshio Oguchi, "Demographics of Satsuma Domian", Reimeikan Chōsa Kenkyū Hōkoku (no. 11), pp. 87–134 (1998). (b) Yoshio Oguchi, "Demographics of Satsuma Domian and early modern Ryūkyū", Reimeikan Chōsa Kenkyū Hōkoku (no. 13), pp. 1–42 (2000) (all in Japanese).
  • Kurt Witthauer. Bevölkerung der Erde (1958)
  • Calendario atlante de Agostini, anno 99 (2003)
  • The Columbia gazetteer of the world (1998)
  • Britannica book of the year : world data (1997)