Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study

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TIMSS 8th grade average Mathematics scores (2019)
TIMSS 8th grade average Science scores (2019)
TIMSS 4th grade average Mathematics scores (2019)
TIMSS 4th grade average Science scores (2019)

The IEA's Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is a series of international assessments of the mathematics and science knowledge of students around the world. The participating students come from a diverse set of educational systems (countries or regional jurisdictions of countries) in terms of economic development, geographical location, and population size. In each of the participating educational systems, a minimum of 4,000 to 5,000 students is evaluated. Contextual data about the conditions in which participating students learn mathematics and science are collected from the students and their teachers, their principals, and their parents via questionnaires.[1]

TIMSS is one of the studies established by IEA aimed at allowing educational systems worldwide to compare students' educational achievement and learn from the experiences of others in designing effective education policy. This assessment was first conducted in 1995, and has been administered every four years thereafter. Therefore, some of the participating educational systems have trend data across assessments from 1995 to 2019.[2] TIMSS assesses 4th and 8th grade students, while TIMSS Advanced assesses students in the final year of secondary school in advanced mathematics and physics.

Definition of Terms[edit]

"Eighth grade" in the United States is approximately 13–14 years of age and equivalent to:

  • 3rd Form in England, Northern Ireland and Wales
  • 2nd Year in the Republic of Ireland
  • 2nd Year in Scotland
  • 1st Year in South Africa
  • Form 2 in Hong Kong
  • Third Year in France
  • Year 9 in New Zealand
  • Form 2 in Malaysia

"Fourth grade" in the United States is approximately equivalent to 9–10 years of age and equivalent to:

  • Primary 6 (P6) in the United Kingdom
  • Group 6 in the Netherlands
  • CM1 in France
  • Fourth Class in the Republic of Ireland
  • Standard 3 or Year 5 in New Zealand

History[edit]

A precursor to TIMSS was the First International Mathematics Study (FIMS) performed in 1964 in 11 countries for students aged 13 and in the final year of secondary education (FS) under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). This was followed in 1970-71 by the First International Science Study (FISS) for students aged 10, 14, and FS. Fourteen countries tested 10-year-olds; 16 countries tested the older two groups. These were replicated between 1980 and 1984.[3]

These early studies were revised and combined by the IEA to create TIMSS, which was first administered in 1995. It was the largest international student assessment study of its time and evaluated students in five grades. In the second cycle (1999) only eighth-grade students were tested. In the next cycles (2003, 2007, 2011 and 2015) both 4th and 8th grade students were assessed. The 2011 cycle was performed in the same year as the IEA's Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), offering a comprehensive assessment of mathematics, science and reading for the countries participating in both studies. The sixth cycle was conducted in 2015, and the results were released in 2016;[4] the data set was published in February 2017. TIMSS 2015 included data collected from parents for the first time.[5] TIMSS Advanced, previously conducted in 1995 and 2008, was also conducted in 2015, and assessed final-year secondary students' achievement in advanced mathematics and physics. Policy-relevant data about curriculum emphasis, technology use, and teacher preparation and training accompanies the TIMSS Advanced results.

The seventh cycle of TIMSS was conducted in 2019 and marked the beginning of the transition to a digital assessment format, with the digital assessment administered to half of participating countries, and the paper assessment administered to the remaining half. 64 countries and 8 benchmarking systems participating in TIMSS 2019. Results were released in December 2020. [6]

Preparations are underway for TIMSS 2023.

Method, data and documentation[edit]

Along with the overall students’ achievement data, TIMSS comprehensive assessments include data on student performance in various mathematics and science domains (algebra, geometry, biology, chemistry, etc.) and on performance in the problem solving challenges in each of these contexts. In addition, TIMSS provides contextual data on crucial curricular, instructional, and resource-related factors that can impact the teaching and learning process. These data are gathered using student, teacher, school, and curriculum (national) questionnaires filled out by students, teachers, school principals and National Research Coordinators, respectively.

According to the TIMSS 2019 Assessment Frameworks, “The TIMSS mathematics and science achievement scales were created with the first TIMSS assessment in 1995, separately for each subject and each grade. The scale units were established so that 100 points on the scale was equivalent to one standard deviation of the distribution of achievement across all of the countries that participated in TIMSS 1995, and the scale midpoint of 500 was located at the mean of this international achievement distribution. The TIMSS achievement scales were first used for reporting TIMSS results with TIMSS 1995, and all results from subsequent TIMSS assessments have been reported on the same scale metrics, making it possible to measure growth or decline in countries’ achievement distributions from assessment to assessment.”[7]

Because TIMSS is administered in four-year cycles, it enables participating counties to use the results between the fourth and eighth grades to track the changes in achievement and certain background factors from an earlier study. For example, results of the fourth grade in TIMSS 1995 can be compared with the results of the eighth grade in TIMSS 1999, as fourth graders had become eighth graders in the next cycle of study.[8]

The collected information is presented in different formats. For example, for TIMSS 2019 the results are presented as TIMSS 2019 International Results in Mathematics and Science TIMSS 2019 International Results in Mathematics and Science. The TIMSS 2019 Encyclopedia provides an overview of how mathematics and science are taught in each participating country. Methods and Procedures: TIMSS 2019 Technical Report documents the development of the TIMSS assessments and questionnaires, and describes the methods used. The TIMSS 2019 User Guide for the International Database describes the content and format of the data in the TIMSS 2019 International Database.

The IEA has developed an application for working with data from TIMSS and other IEA large-scale assessments called the "IEA International Database (IDB) Analyzer".. This application allows researchers to combine data files and facilitates some types of statistical analysis (such as computing means, percentages, percentiles, correlations, and estimating single level multiple linear regression). The application takes into account the complex sample structure of the databases when calculating the statistics and their standard errors. It also allows researchers to estimate achievement scores and their standard errors.

For an overview of the IEA study results and interpretation of information, the IEA's "Data Visualizer". can come in handy.

Cycles[edit]

TIMSS 2019[edit]

TIMSS 2019 was the seventh cycle of TIMSS and reported overall achievement as well as results according to international benchmarks, by major content domains (number, algebra, and geometry in mathematics, and earth science, biology, and chemistry in science) and by cognitive domains (knowing, applying, reasoning).[9] TIMSS 2019 collected detailed information about curriculum and curriculum implementation of participating countries and published this information the TIMSS 2019 Encyclopedia: Education Policy and Curriculum in Mathematics and Science.[10]

TIMSS 2019 marked the transition to a digital assessment format, allowing for new and innovative item types. In the digital assessment, students solved problems by interacting with shapes and patterns, arranging items on the screen, dragging and dropping items, and drawing. The digital version of TIMSS 2019 also introduced Problem Solving and Inquiry tasks that simulated real-world and laboratory situations and called for students to integrate and apply process skills and content knowledge. Half of the participating countries took the paper version of TIMSS and half of the participating countries took the digital version of TIMSS.

TIMSS 2019 results are summarized in TIMSS 2019 International Results in Mathematics and Science.[6] This detailed report presents achievement and contextual data from participating countries and benchmarking entities. The TIMSS 2019 Encyclopedia: Education Policy and Curriculum in Mathematics and Science describes various features of the education systems in each participating country, including the mathematics and science curriculum, professional development requirements for teachers, and methods of monitoring student progress in mathematics and science. Each country's "chapter" in the encyclopedia was authored by that country's TIMSS representative.[11]

Eighth grade[edit]

Mathematics[12]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1  Singapore 616 Decrease 5 points
2  Chinese Taipei 612 Increase 13 points
3  South Korea 607 Increase 1 point
4  Japan 594 Increase 8 points
5  Hong Kong 578 Decrease 16 points
6  Russia 543 Increase 5 points
7  Ireland 524 Increase 1 point
8  Lithuania 520 Increase 9 points
9  Israel 519 Increase 8 points
10  Australia 517 Increase 12 points
10  Hungary 517 Increase 3 points
12  United States 515 Decrease 3 points
12  England 515 Decrease 3 points
14  Finland 509 N/A
15  Norway[a] 503 Decrease 9 points
15  Sweden 503 Increase 2 points
17  Cyprus 501 N/A
18  Portugal 500 N/A
International average 500 Steady
19  Italy 497 Increase 3 points
20  Turkey 496 Increase 38 points
21  Kazakhstan 488 Decrease 40 points
22  France 483 N/A
23  New Zealand 482 Decrease 11 points
24  Bahrain 481 Increase 27 points
25  Romania 479 N/A
26  United Arab Emirates 473 Increase 8 points
27  Georgia 461 Increase 8 points
27  Malaysia 461 Decrease 4 points
29  Iran 446 Increase 8 points
30  Qatar 443 Increase 6 points
31  Chile 441 Increase 14 points
32  Lebanon 429 Decrease 13 points
33  Jordan 420 Increase 34 points
34  Egypt 413 Increase 21 points
35  Oman 411 Increase 8 points
36  Kuwait 403 Increase 11 points
37  Saudi Arabia 394 Increase 26 points
38  South Africa[a] 389 Increase 17 points
39  Morocco 388 Increase 4 points
Benchmarking participants
Moscow Moscow (Russia) 575 N/A
Quebec Quebec (Canada) 543 Steady
Emirate of Dubai Dubai (United Arab Emirates) 537 Increase 25 points
Ontario Ontario (Canada) 530 Decrease 8 points
Western Cape Western Cape (South Africa)[a] 441 N/A
Emirate of Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) 436 Decrease 6 points
Gauteng Gauteng (South Africa)[a] 421 N/A
Science[13]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1  Singapore 608 Increase 11 points
2  Chinese Taipei 574 Increase 5 points
3  Japan 570 Decrease 1 point
4  South Korea 561 Increase 5 points
5  Russia 543 Decrease 1 point
5  Finland 543 N/A
7  Lithuania 534 Increase 15 points
8  Hungary 530 Increase 3 points
9  Australia 528 Increase 16 points
10  Ireland 523 Decrease 7 points
11  United States 522 Increase 8 points
12  Sweden 521 Decrease 1 point
13  Portugal 519 N/A
14  England 517 Decrease 20 points
15  Turkey 515 Increase 22 points
16  Israel 513 Increase 6 points
17  Hong Kong 504 Decrease 42 points
18  Italy 500 Increase 1 point
International average 500 Steady
19  New Zealand 499 Decrease 14 points
20  Norway[a] 495 Decrease 14 points
21  France 489 N/A
22  Bahrain 486 Increase 20 points
23  Cyprus 484 N/A
24  Kazakhstan 478 Decrease 55 points
25  Qatar 475 Increase 18 points
26  United Arab Emirates 473 Decrease 4 points
27  Romania 470 N/A
28  Chile 462 Increase 8 points
29  Malaysia 460 Decrease 11 points
30  Oman 457 Increase 2 points
31  Jordan 452 Increase 26 points
32  Iran 449 Decrease 7 points
33  Georgia 447 Increase 4 points
34  Kuwait 444 Increase 33 points
35  Saudi Arabia 431 Increase 35 points
36  Morocco 394 Increase 1 point
37  Egypt 389 Increase 18 points
38  Lebanon 377 Decrease 21 points
39  South Africa[a] 370 Increase 12 points
Benchmarking participants
Moscow Moscow (Russia) 567 N/A
Quebec Quebec (Canada) 548 Increase 18 points
Emirate of Dubai Dubai (United Arab Emirates) 537 Increase 12 points
Ontario Ontario (Canada) 522 Decrease 2 points
Western Cape Western Cape (South Africa)[a] 439 N/A
Gauteng Gauteng (South Africa)[a] 422 N/A
Emirate of Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) 420 Decrease 34 points
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Ninth grade students

Fourth grade[edit]

Mathematics[14]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1  Singapore 625 Increase 7 points
2  Hong Kong 602 Decrease 13 points
3  South Korea 600 Decrease 8 points
4  Chinese Taipei 599 Increase 2 points
5  Japan 593 Steady
6  Russia 567 Increase 3 points
7 Northern Ireland 566 Decrease 4 points
8  England 556 Increase 10 points
9  Ireland 548 Increase 1 point
10  Latvia 546 N/A
11  Norway[a] 543 Decrease 6 points
12  Lithuania 542 Increase 7 points
13  Austria 539 N/A
14  Netherlands 538 Increase 8 points
15  United States 535 Decrease 4 points
16  Czech Republic 533 Increase 5 points
17  Belgium (Flemish) 532 Decrease 14 points
17  Cyprus 532 Increase 9 points
17  Finland 532 Decrease 3 points
20  Portugal 525 Decrease 16 points
20  Denmark 525 Decrease 14 points
22  Hungary 523 Decrease 6 points
22  Turkey[a] 523 N/A
24  Sweden 521 Increase 2 points
24  Germany 521 Decrease 1 point
26  Poland 520 Decrease 15 points
27  Australia 516 Decrease 1 point
28  Azerbaijan 515 N/A
28  Bulgaria 515 Decrease 9 points
28  Italy 515 Increase 8 points
31  Kazakhstan 512 Decrease 32 points
31  Canada 512 Increase 1 point
33  Slovakia 510 Increase 12 points
34  Croatia 509 Increase 7 points
34  Malta 509 N/A
36  Serbia 508 Decrease 10 points
37  Spain 502 Decrease 3 points
International average 500 Steady
38  Armenia 498 N/A
39  Albania 494 N/A
40  New Zealand 487 Decrease 4 points
41  France 485 Decrease 3 points
42  Georgia 482 Increase 19 points
43  United Arab Emirates 481 Increase 29 points
44  Bahrain 480 Increase 29 points
45  North Macedonia 472 N/A
46  Montenegro 453 N/A
47  Bosnia and Herzegovina 452 N/A
48  Qatar 449 Increase 10 points
49  Kosovo 444 N/A
50  Iran 443 Increase 12 points
51  Chile 441 Decrease 18 points
52  Oman 431 Increase 6 points
53  Saudi Arabia 398 Increase 15 points
54  Morocco 383 Increase 6 points
54  Kuwait 383 Increase 30 points
56  South Africa[a] 374 Decrease 2 points
57  Pakistan 328 N/A
58  Philippines 297 N/A
Benchmarking participants
Moscow Moscow (Russia) 593 N/A
Emirate of Dubai Dubai (United Arab Emirates) 544 Increase 33 points
Quebec Quebec (Canada) 532 Decrease 4 points
Community of Madrid Madrid (Spain) 518 N/A
Ontario Ontario (Canada) 512 Steady
Emirate of Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) 441 Increase 22 points
Science[15]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1  Singapore 595 Increase 5 points
2  South Korea 588 Decrease 1 point
3  Russia 567 Steady
4  Japan 562 Decrease 7 points
5  Chinese Taipei 558 Increase 3 points
6  Finland 555 Increase 1 point
7  Latvia 542 N/A
8  Norway[a] 539 Increase 1 point
8  United States 539 Decrease 7 points
10  Lithuania 538 Increase 10 points
11  Sweden 537 Decrease 3 points
11  England 537 Increase 1 point
13  Czech Republic 534 Steady
14  Australia 533 Increase 9 points
15  Hong Kong 531 Decrease 26 points
15  Poland 531 Decrease 16 points
17  Hungary 529 Decrease 13 points
18  Ireland 528 Decrease 1 point
19  Turkey[a] 526 N/A
20  Croatia 524 Decrease 9 points
21  Canada 523 Decrease 2 points
22  Denmark 522 Decrease 5 points
22  Austria 522 N/A
24  Bulgaria 521 Decrease 15 points
24  Slovakia 521 Increase 1 point
26 Northern Ireland 518 Decrease 2 points
26  Netherlands 518 Increase 1 point
26  Germany 518 Decrease 10 points
29  Serbia 517 Decrease 8 points
30  Cyprus 511 Increase 30 points
30  Spain 511 Decrease 7 points
32  Italy 510 Decrease 6 points
33  Portugal 504 Decrease 4 points
34  New Zealand 503 Decrease 3 points
35  Belgium (Flemish) 501 Decrease 11 points
International average 500 Steady
36  Malta 496 N/A
37  Kazakhstan 494 Decrease 56 points
38  Bahrain 493 Increase 34 points
39  Albania 489 N/A
40  France 488 Increase 1 point
41  United Arab Emirates 473 Increase 22 points
42  Chile 469 Decrease 9 points
43  Armenia 466 N/A
44  Bosnia and Herzegovina 459 N/A
45  Georgia 454 Increase 3 points
46  Montenegro 453 N/A
47  Qatar 449 Increase 13 points
48  Iran 441 Increase 20 points
49  Oman 435 Increase 4 points
50  Azerbaijan 427 N/A
51  North Macedonia 426 N/A
52  Kosovo 413 N/A
53  Saudi Arabia 402 Increase 12 points
54  Kuwait 392 Increase 55 points
54  Morocco 374 Increase 17 points
56  South Africa[a] 324 N/A
57  Pakistan 290 N/A
58  Philippines 249 N/A
Benchmarking participants
Moscow Moscow (Russia) 595 N/A
Emirate of Dubai Dubai (United Arab Emirates) 545 Increase 27 points
Ontario Ontario (Canada) 524 Decrease 6 points
Community of Madrid Madrid (Spain) 523 N/A
Quebec Quebec (Canada) 522 Decrease 3 points
Emirate of Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) 418 Increase 3 points
  1. ^ a b c d e f Fifth grade students

TIMSS 2015[edit]

In TIMSS 2015,[16] nationally representative samples of students in 57 countries and 7 benchmarking entities participated in the fourth grade assessment, the eighth grade assessment, or both.[17]

Eighth grade[edit]

Mathematics[18]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1  Singapore 621 Increase 10 points
2  South Korea 606 Decrease 7 points
3  Chinese Taipei 599 Decrease 10 points
4  Hong Kong 594 Increase 8 points
5  Japan 586 Increase 16 points
6  Russia 538 Decrease 1 point
7  Kazakhstan 528 Increase 41 points
8  Canada 527 N/A
9  Ireland 523 N/A
10  United States 518 Increase 9 points
10  England 518 Increase 11 points
12  Slovenia 516 Increase 11 points
13  Hungary 514 Increase 9 points
14  Norway[a] 512 N/A
15  Lithuania 511 Increase 9 points
15  Israel 511 Decrease 5 points
17  Australia 505 Steady
18  Sweden 501 Increase 17 points
International average 500 Steady
19  Italy 494 Decrease 4 points
19  Malta 494 N/A
21  New Zealand 493 Increase 5 points
22  Malaysia 465 Increase 25 points
23  United Arab Emirates 465 Increase 9 points
24  Turkey 458 Increase 6 points
25  Bahrain 454 Increase 45 points
26  Georgia 453 Increase 22 points
27  Lebanon 442 Decrease 7 points
28  Qatar 437 Increase 27 points
29  Iran 436 Increase 21 points
30  Thailand 431 Increase 4 points
31  Chile 427 Increase 11 points
32  Oman 403 Increase 37 points
33  Kuwait 392 N/A
33  Egypt 392 N/A
35  Botswana[a] 391 Decrease 6 points
36  Jordan 386 Decrease 20 points
37  Morocco 384 Increase 13 points
38  South Africa[a] 372 Increase 20 points
39  Saudi Arabia 368 Decrease 26 points
Benchmarking participants
Quebec Quebec (Canada) 543 Increase 11 points
Ontario Ontario (Canada) 522 Increase 10 points
Emirate of Dubai Dubai (United Arab Emirates) 512 Increase 34 points
Florida Florida (United States) 493 Decrease 20 points
 Norway[b] 487 Increase 12 points
Emirate of Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) 442 Decrease 7 points
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires (Argentina) 396 N/A
Science[19]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1  Singapore 597 Increase 7 points
2  Japan 571 Increase 13 points
3  Chinese Taipei 569 Increase 5 points
4  South Korea 556 Decrease 4 points
5  Slovenia 551 Increase 8 points
6  Hong Kong 546 Increase 11 points
7  Russia 544 Increase 2 points
8  England 537 Increase 4 points
9  Kazakhstan 533 Increase 43 points
10  Ireland 530 N/A
10  United States 530 Increase 5 points
12  Hungary 527 Increase 5 points
13  Canada 526 N/A
14  Sweden 522 Increase 13 points
15  Lithuania 519 Increase 5 points
16  New Zealand 513 Increase 1 point
17  Australia 512 Decrease 7 points
18  Norway[a] 509 N/A
19  Israel 507 Decrease 9 points
International average 500 Steady
20  Italy 499 Decrease 2 points
21  Turkey 493 Increase 10 points
22  Malta 481 N/A
23  United Arab Emirates 477 Increase 12 points
24  Malaysia 471 Increase 45 points
25  Bahrain 466 Increase 14 points
26  Qatar 457 Increase 38 points
27  Iran 456 Decrease 18 points
27  Thailand 456 Increase 5 points
29  Oman 455 Increase 35 points
30  Chile 454 Decrease 7 points
31  Georgia 443 Increase 23 points
32  Jordan 426 Decrease 23 points
33  Kuwait 411 N/A
34  Lebanon 398 Decrease 8 points
35  Saudi Arabia 396 Decrease 40 points
36  Morocco 393 Increase 17 points
37  Botswana[a] 392 Decrease 12 points
38  Egypt 371 N/A
39  South Africa[a] 358 Increase 26 points
Benchmarking participants
Quebec Quebec (Canada) 530 Increase 10 points
Emirate of Dubai Dubai (United Arab Emirates) 525 Increase 40 points
Ontario Ontario (Canada) 524 Increase 3 points
Florida Florida (United States) 508 Decrease 22 points
 Norway[b] 489 Decrease 5 points
Emirate of Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) 454 Decrease 7 points
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires (Argentina) 386 N/A
  1. ^ a b c d e f Ninth grade students
  2. ^ a b Eighth grade students

Fourth grade[edit]

Mathematics[18]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1  Singapore 618 Increase 12 points
2  Hong Kong 615 Increase 13 points
3  South Korea 608 Increase 3 points
4  Chinese Taipei 597 Increase 6 points
5  Japan 593 Increase 8 points
6 Northern Ireland 570 Increase 8 points
7  Russia 564 Increase 22 points
8  Norway[a] 549 N/A
9  Ireland 547 Increase 20 points
10  England 546 Increase 4 points
10  Belgium (Flemish) 546 Decrease 3 points
12  Kazakhstan 544 Increase 43 points
13  Portugal 541 Increase 9 points
14  United States 539 Decrease 2 points
14  Denmark 539 Increase 2 points
16  Lithuania 535 Increase 1 point
16  Finland 535 Decrease 10 points
16  Poland 535 Increase 54 points
19  Netherlands 530 Decrease 10 points
20  Hungary 529 Increase 14 points
21  Czech Republic 528 Increase 17 points
22  Bulgaria 524 N/A
23  Cyprus 523 N/A
24  Germany 522 Decrease 6 points
25  Slovenia 520 Increase 7 points
26  Sweden 519 Increase 15 points
27  Serbia 518 Increase 2 points
28  Australia 517 Increase 1 point
29  Canada 511 N/A
30  Italy 507 Decrease 1 point
31  Spain 505 Increase 23 points
32  Croatia 502 Increase 12 points
International average 500 Steady
33  Slovakia 498 Decrease 9 points
34  New Zealand 491 Increase 5 points
35  France 488 N/A
36  Turkey 483 Increase 14 points
37  Georgia 463 Increase 13 points
38  Chile 459 Decrease 3 points
39  United Arab Emirates 452 Increase 18 points
40  Bahrain 451 Increase 15 points
41  Qatar 439 Increase 26 points
42  Iran 431 Steady
43  Oman 425 Increase 40 points
44  Indonesia 397 N/A
45  Jordan 388 N/A
46  Saudi Arabia 383 Decrease 27 points
47  Morocco 377 Increase 42 points
48  South Africa[a] 376 N/A
49  Kuwait 353 Increase 11 points
Benchmarking participants
Florida Florida (United States) 546 Increase 1 point
Quebec Quebec (Canada) 536 Increase 3 points
Ontario Ontario (Canada) 512 Decrease 6 points
Emirate of Dubai Dubai (United Arab Emirates) 511 Increase 43 points
 Norway[b] 493 Decrease 2 points
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires (Argentina) 432 N/A
Emirate of Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) 419 Increase 2 points
Science[19]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1  Singapore 590 Increase 7 points
2  South Korea 589 Increase 2 points
3  Japan 569 Increase 10 points
4  Russia 567 Increase 15 points
5  Hong Kong 557 Increase 22 points
6  Chinese Taipei 555 Increase 3 points
7  Finland 554 Decrease 16 points
8  Kazakhstan 550 Increase 55 points
9  Poland 547 Increase 42 points
10  United States 546 Increase 2 points
11  Slovenia 543 Increase 23 points
12  Hungary 542 Increase 8 points
13  Sweden 540 Increase 7 points
14  Norway[a] 538 N/A
15  England 536 Increase 7 points
15  Bulgaria 536 N/A
17  Czech Republic 534 Decrease 2 points
18  Croatia 533 Increase 17 points
19  Ireland 529 Increase 13 points
20  Germany 528 Steady
20  Lithuania 528 Increase 13 points
22  Denmark 527 Decrease 1 point
23  Canada 525 N/A
23  Serbia 525 Increase 9 points
25  Australia 524 Increase 8 points
26  Slovakia 520 Decrease 12 points
26 Northern Ireland 520 Increase 3 points
28  Spain 518 Increase 13 points
29  Netherlands 517 Decrease 14 points
30  Italy 516 Decrease 8 points
31  Belgium (Flemish) 512 Increase 3 points
32  Portugal 508 Decrease 14 points
33  New Zealand 506 Increase 9 points
International average 500 Steady
34  France 487 N/A
35  Turkey 483 Increase 20 points
36  Cyprus 481 N/A
37  Chile 478 Decrease 2 points
38  Bahrain 459 Increase 10 points
39  Georgia 451 Decrease 4 points
39  United Arab Emirates 451 Increase 23 points
41  Qatar 436 Increase 42 points
42  Oman 431 Increase 54 points
43  Iran 421 Decrease 32 points
44  Indonesia 397 N/A
45  Saudi Arabia 390 Decrease 39 points
46  Morocco 357 Increase 93 points
47  Kuwait 337 Decrease 10 points
Benchmarking participants
Florida Florida (United States) 549 Increase 4 points
Ontario Ontario (Canada) 530 Increase 2 points
Quebec Quebec (Canada) 525 Increase 9 points
Emirate of Dubai Dubai (United Arab Emirates) 518 Increase 57 points
 Norway[b] 493 Decrease 1 point
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires (Argentina) 418 N/A
Emirate of Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) 415 Increase 4 points
  1. ^ a b c Fifth grade students
  2. ^ a b Fourth grade students

TIMSS 2011[edit]

TIMSS 2011[20] had 52 participating educational systems for the fourth grade and 45 for the eighth grade.[5]

Eighth grade[edit]

Mathematics[21]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1  South Korea 613 Increase 16 points
2  Singapore 611 Increase 18 points
3  Chinese Taipei 609 Increase 11 points
4  Hong Kong 586 Increase 14 points
5  Japan 570 Steady
6  Russia 539 Increase 27 points
7  Israel 516 Increase 53 points
8  Finland 514 N/A
9  United States 509 Increase 1 point
10  England 507 Decrease 6 points
11  Hungary 505 Decrease 12 points
11  Australia 505 Increase 9 points
11  Slovenia 505 Increase 4 points
14  Lithuania 502 Decrease 4 points
International average 500 Steady
15  Italy 498 Increase 18 points
16  New Zealand 488 N/A
17  Kazakhstan 487 N/A
18  Sweden 484 Decrease 7 points
19  Ukraine 479 Increase 17 points
20  Norway 475 Increase 6 points
21  Armenia 467 Decrease 32 points
22  Romania 458 Decrease 3 points
23  United Arab Emirates 456 N/A
24  Turkey 452 Increase 20 points
25  Lebanon 449 Steady
26  Malaysia 440 Decrease 34 points
27  Georgia 431 Increase 21 points
28  Thailand 427 Decrease 14 points
29  Macedonia 426 N/A
30  Tunisia 425 Increase 5 points
31  Chile 416 N/A
32  Iran 415 Increase 12 points
33  Qatar 410 Increase 103 points
34  Bahrain 409 N/A
35  Jordan 406 Decrease 21 points
36  Palestine 404 Increase 37 points
37  Saudi Arabia 394 Increase 65 points
38  Indonesia 386 Decrease 11 points
39  Syria 380 Decrease 15 points
40  Morocco 371 Decrease 10 points
41  Oman 366 Decrease 6 points
42  Ghana 331 Increase 22 points
Ninth grade participants
 Botswana[a] 397 N/A
 South Africa[a] 352 N/A
 Honduras[a] 338 N/A
Benchmarking participants
Massachusetts Massachusetts (United States) 561 Increase 14 points
Minnesota Minnesota (United States) 545 Increase 13 points
North Carolina North Carolina (United States) 537 N/A
Quebec Quebec (Canada) 532 Increase 4 points
Indiana Indiana (United States) 522 N/A
Colorado Colorado (United States) 518 N/A
Connecticut Connecticut (United States) 518 N/A
Florida Florida (United States) 513 N/A
Ontario Ontario (Canada) 512 Decrease 5 points
Alberta Alberta (Canada) 505 N/A
California California (United States) 493 N/A
Emirate of Dubai Dubai (United Arab Emirates) 478 Increase 17 points
Alabama Alabama (United States) 466 N/A
Emirate of Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) 449 N/A
Science[22]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1  Singapore 590 Increase 23 points
2  Chinese Taipei 564 Increase 3 points
3  South Korea 560 Increase 7 points
4  Japan 558 Increase 4 points
5  Finland 552 N/A
6  Slovenia 543 Increase 5 points
7  Russia 542 Increase 12 points
8  Hong Kong 535 Increase 5 points
9  England 533 Decrease 9 points
10  United States 525 Increase 5 points
11  Hungary 522 Decrease 17 points
12  Australia 519 Increase 4 points
13  Israel 516 Increase 48 points
14  Lithuania 514 Decrease 5 points
15  New Zealand 512 N/A
16  Sweden 509 Decrease 2 points
17  Italy 501 Increase 6 points
17  Ukraine 501 Increase 16 points
International average 500 Steady
19  Norway 494 Increase 7 points
20  Kazakhstan 490 N/A
21  Turkey 483 Increase 29 points
22  Iran 474 Increase 15 points
23  Romania 465 Increase 3 points
23  United Arab Emirates 465 N/A
25  Chile 461 N/A
26  Bahrain 452 N/A
27  Thailand 451 Decrease 20 points
28  Jordan 449 Decrease 33 points
29  Tunisia 439 Decrease 6 points
30  Armenia 437 Decrease 51 points
31  Saudi Arabia 436 Increase 33 points
32  Malaysia 426 Decrease 45 points
32  Syria 426 Decrease 26 points
34  Palestine 420 Increase 16 points
34  Georgia 420 Decrease 1 point
34  Oman 420 Decrease 3 points
37  Qatar 419 Increase 100 points
38  Macedonia 407 N/A
39  Lebanon 406 Decrease 8 points
39  Indonesia 406 Decrease 21 points
41  Morocco 376 Decrease 26 points
42  Ghana 306 Increase 3 points
Ninth grade participants
 Botswana[a] 404 N/A
 Honduras[a] 369 N/A
 South Africa[a] 332 N/A
Benchmarking participants
Massachusetts Massachusetts (United States) 567 Increase 11 points
Minnesota Minnesota (United States) 553 Increase 14 points
Alberta Alberta (Canada) 546 N/A
Colorado Colorado (United States) 542 N/A
Indiana Indiana (United States) 533 N/A
Connecticut Connecticut (United States) 532 N/A
North Carolina North Carolina (United States) 532 N/A
Florida Florida (United States) 530 N/A
Ontario Ontario (Canada) 521 Decrease 5 points
Quebec Quebec (Canada) 520 Decrease 6 points
California California (United States) 499 N/A
Alabama Alabama (United States) 485 N/A
Emirate of Dubai Dubai (United Arab Emirates) 485 Decrease 4 points
Emirate of Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) 461 N/A
  1. ^ a b c d e f Ninth grade students

Fourth grade[edit]

Mathematics[21]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1  Singapore 606 Increase 7 points
2  South Korea 605 N/A
3  Hong Kong 602 Decrease 5 points
4  Chinese Taipei 591 Increase 15 points
5  Japan 585 Increase 17 points
6 Northern Ireland 562 N/A
7  Belgium (Flemish) 549 N/A
8  Finland 545 N/A
9  England 542 Increase 1 point
9  Russia 542 Decrease 2 points
11  United States 541 Increase 12 points
12  Netherlands 540 Increase 5 points
13  Denmark 537 Increase 14 points
14  Lithuania 534 Increase 4 points
15  Portugal 532 N/A
16  Germany 528 Increase 3 points
17  Ireland 527 N/A
18  Serbia 516 N/A
18  Australia 516 Steady
20  Hungary 515 Increase 5 points
21  Slovenia 513 Increase 11 points
22  Czech Republic 511 Increase 25 points
23  Austria 508 Increase 3 points
23  Italy 508 Increase 1 point
25  Slovakia 507 Increase 11 points
26  Sweden 504 Increase 1 point
27  Kazakhstan 501 Decrease 48 points
International average 500 Steady
28  Malta 496 N/A
29  Norway 495 Increase 22 points
30  Croatia 490 N/A
31  New Zealand 486 Decrease 6 points
32  Spain 482 N/A
32  Romania 482 N/A
34  Poland 481 N/A
35  Turkey 469 N/A
36  Azerbaijan 463 N/A
37  Chile 462 N/A
38  Thailand 458 N/A
39  Armenia 452 Decrease 48 points
40  Georgia 450 Increase 12 points
41  Bahrain 436 N/A
42  United Arab Emirates 434 N/A
43  Iran 431 Increase 29 points
44  Qatar 413 Increase 117 points
45  Saudi Arabia 410 N/A
46  Oman 385 N/A
47  Tunisia 359 Increase 32 points
48  Kuwait 342 Increase 26 points
49  Morocco 335 Decrease 6 points
50  Yemen 248 Increase 24 points
Sixth grade participants
 Botswana[a] 419 N/A
 Honduras[a] 396 N/A
 Yemen[a] 348 N/A
Benchmarking participants
North Carolina North Carolina (United States) 554 N/A
Florida Florida (United States) 545 N/A
Quebec Quebec (Canada) 533 Increase 14 points
Ontario Ontario (Canada) 518 Increase 6 points
Alberta Alberta (Canada) 507 Increase 2 points
Emirate of Dubai Dubai (United Arab Emirates) 468 Increase 24 points
Emirate of Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) 417 N/A
Science[22]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1  South Korea 587 N/A
2  Singapore 583 Decrease 4 points
3  Finland 570 N/A
4  Japan 559 Increase 11 points
5  Russia 552 Increase 6 points
5  Chinese Taipei 552 Decrease 5 points
7  United States 544 Increase 5 points
8  Czech Republic 536 Increase 21 points
9  Hong Kong 535 Decrease 19 points
10  Hungary 534 Decrease 2 points
11  Sweden 533 Increase 8 points
12  Slovakia 532 Increase 6 points
12  Austria 532 Increase 6 points
14  Netherlands 531 Increase 8 points
15  England 529 Decrease 13 points
16  Denmark 528 Increase 11 points
16  Germany 528 Steady
18  Italy 524 Decrease 11 points
19  Portugal 522 N/A
20  Slovenia 520 Increase 2 points
21 Northern Ireland 517 N/A
22  Ireland 516 N/A
22  Croatia 516 N/A
22  Australia 516 Decrease 11 points
22  Serbia 516 N/A
26  Lithuania 515 Increase 1 point
27  Belgium (Flemish) 509 N/A
28  Romania 505 N/A
28  Spain 505 N/A
28  Poland 505 N/A
International average 500 Steady
31  New Zealand 497 Decrease 7 points
32  Kazakhstan 495 Decrease 38 points
33  Norway 494 Increase 17 points
34  Chile 480 N/A
35  Thailand 472 N/A
36  Turkey 463 N/A
37  Georgia 455 Increase 37 points
38  Iran 453 Increase 17 points
39  Bahrain 449 N/A
40  Malta 446 N/A
41  Azerbaijan 438 N/A
42  Saudi Arabia 429 N/A
43  United Arab Emirates 428 N/A
44  Armenia 416 Decrease 68 points
45  Qatar 394 Increase 100 points
46  Oman 377 N/A
47  Kuwait 347 Decrease 1 point
48  Tunisia 346 Increase 28 points
49  Morocco 264 Decrease 33 points
50  Yemen 209 Increase 12 points
Sixth grade participants
 Honduras[a] 432 N/A
 Botswana[a] 367 N/A
 Yemen[a] 345 N/A
Benchmarking participants
Florida Florida (United States) 545 N/A
Alberta Alberta (Canada) 541 Decrease 2 points
North Carolina North Carolina (United States) 538 N/A
Ontario Ontario (Canada) 528 Decrease 8 points
Quebec Quebec (Canada) 516 Decrease 1 point
Emirate of Dubai Dubai (United Arab Emirates) 461 Increase 1 point
Emirate of Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) 411 N/A
  1. ^ a b c d e f Sixth grade students

TIMSS 2007[edit]

In TIMSS 2007,[23] 43 educational systems participated in the fourth grade and 56 educational systems in the eighth grade.

Eighth grade[edit]

Mathematics[24]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1  Chinese Taipei 598 Increase 13 points
2  South Korea 597 Increase 8 points
3  Singapore 593 Increase 12 points
4  Hong Kong 572 Decrease 14 points
5  Japan 570 Steady
6  Hungary 517 Decrease 12 points
7  England 513 N/A
8  Russia 512 Increase 4 points
9  United States 508 Increase 4 points
10  Lithuania 506 Increase 4 points
11  Czech Republic 504 N/A
12  Slovenia 501 Increase 8 points
International average 500 Increase 33 points
13  Armenia 499 Increase 21 points
14  Australia 496 Decrease 9 points
15  Sweden 491 Decrease 8 points
16  Malta 488 N/A
17  Scotland 487 Decrease 11 points
18  Serbia 486 Increase 9 points
19  Italy 480 Decrease 4 points
20  Malaysia 474 Decrease 34 points
21  Norway 469 Increase 8 points
22  Cyprus 465 Increase 6 points
23  Bulgaria 464 Decrease 12 points
24  Israel 463 Decrease 33 points
25  Ukraine 462 N/A
26  Romania 461 Decrease 14 points
27  Bosnia and Herzegovina 456 N/A
28  Lebanon 449 Increase 16 points
29  Thailand 441 N/A
30  Turkey 432 N/A
31  Jordan 427 Increase 3 points
32  Tunisia 420 Increase 10 points
33  Georgia 410 N/A
34  Iran 403 Decrease 8 points
35  Bahrain 398 Decrease 3 points
36  Indonesia 397 Decrease 14 points
37  Syria 395 N/A
38  Egypt 391 N/A
39  Algeria 387 N/A
40  Morocco 381 Decrease 6 points
41  Colombia 380 N/A
42  Oman 372 N/A
43  Palestine 367 Decrease 23 points
44  Botswana 364 Decrease 2 points
45  Kuwait 354 N/A
46  El Salvador 340 N/A
47  Saudi Arabia 329 Decrease 3 points
48  Ghana 309 Increase 33 points
49  Qatar 307 N/A
Benchmarking participants
Massachusetts Massachusetts (United States) 547 N/A
Minnesota Minnesota (United States) 532 N/A
Quebec Quebec (Canada) 528 Decrease 15 points
Ontario Ontario (Canada) 517 Decrease 4 points
British Columbia British Columbia (Canada) 509 N/A
Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country (Spain) 499 Increase 12 points
Emirate of Dubai Dubai (United Arab Emirates) 461 N/A
Science[25]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1  Singapore 567 Decrease 11 points
2  Chinese Taipei 561 Decrease 10 points
3  Japan 554 Increase 2 points
4  South Korea 553 Decrease 5 points
5  England 542 N/A
6  Hungary 539 Decrease 4 points
6  Czech Republic 539 N/A
8  Slovenia 538 Increase 18 points
9  Hong Kong 530 Decrease 26 points
9  Russia 530 Increase 16 points
11  United States 520 Decrease 7 points
12  Lithuania 519 Steady
13  Australia 515 Decrease 12 points
14  Sweden 511 Decrease 13 points
International average 500 Increase 26 points
15  Scotland 496 Decrease 16 points
16  Italy 495 Increase 4 points
17  Armenia 488 Increase 27 points
18  Norway 487 Decrease 7 points
19  Ukraine 485 N/A
20  Jordan 482 Increase 7 points
21  Malaysia 471 Decrease 39 points
21  Thailand 471 N/A
23  Serbia 470 Increase 2 points
23  Bulgaria 470 Decrease 9 points
25  Israel 468 Decrease 20 points
26  Bahrain 467 Increase 29 points
27  Bosnia and Herzegovina 466 N/A
28  Romania 462 Decrease 8 points
29  Iran 459 Increase 6 points
30  Malta 457 N/A
31  Turkey 454 N/A
32  Syria 452 N/A
32  Cyprus 452 Increase 11 points
34  Tunisia 445 Increase 41 points
35  Indonesia 427 Increase 7 points
36  Oman 423 N/A
37  Georgia 421 N/A
38  Kuwait 418 N/A
39  Colombia 417 N/A
40  Lebanon 414 Increase 21 points
41  Egypt 408 N/A
41  Algeria 408 N/A
43  Palestine 404 Decrease 31 points
44  Saudi Arabia 403 Increase 5 points
45  Morocco 402 Increase 6 points
46  El Salvador 387 N/A
47  Botswana 355 Decrease 10 points
48  Qatar 319 N/A
49  Ghana 303 Increase 48 points
Benchmarking participants
Massachusetts Massachusetts (United States) 556 N/A
Minnesota Minnesota (United States) 539 N/A
Quebec Quebec (Canada) 526 Decrease 5 points
Ontario Ontario (Canada) 526 Decrease 7 points
British Columbia British Columbia (Canada) 507 N/A
Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country (Spain) 498 Increase 9 points
Emirate of Dubai Dubai (United Arab Emirates) 489 N/A

Fourth grade[edit]

Mathematics[24]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1  Hong Kong 607 Increase 32 points
2  Singapore 599 Increase 5 points
3  Chinese Taipei 576 Increase 12 points
4  Japan 568 Increase 3 points
5  Kazakhstan 549 N/A
6  Russia 544 Increase 12 points
7  England 541 Increase 10 points
8  Latvia 537 Increase 1 point
9  Netherlands 535 Decrease 5 points
10  Lithuania 530 Decrease 4 points
11  United States 529 Increase 11 points
12  Germany 525 N/A
13  Denmark 523 N/A
14  Australia 516 Increase 17 points
15  Hungary 510 Decrease 19 points
16  Italy 507 Increase 4 points
17  Austria 505 N/A
18  Sweden 503 N/A
19  Slovenia 502 Increase 23 points
International average 500 Increase 5 points
20  Armenia 500 Decrease 44 points
21  Slovakia 496 N/A
22  Scotland 494 Increase 4 points
23  New Zealand 492 Decrease 1 point
24  Czech Republic 486 N/A
25  Norway 473 Increase 22 points
26  Ukraine 469 N/A
27  Georgia 438 N/A
28  Iran 402 Increase 13 points
29  Algeria 378 N/A
30  Colombia 355 N/A
31  Morocco 341 Decrease 6 points
32  El Salvador 330 N/A
33  Tunisia 327 Decrease 12 points
34  Kuwait 316 N/A
35  Qatar 296 N/A
36  Yemen 224 N/A
Benchmarking participants
Massachusetts Massachusetts (United States) 572 N/A
Minnesota Minnesota (United States) 554 N/A
Quebec Quebec (Canada) 519 Increase 13 points
Ontario Ontario (Canada) 512 Increase 1 point
Alberta Alberta (Canada) 505 N/A
British Columbia British Columbia (Canada) 505 N/A
Emirate of Dubai Dubai (United Arab Emirates) 444 N/A
Science[25]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1  Singapore 587 Increase 22 points
2  Chinese Taipei 557 Increase 6 points
3  Hong Kong 554 Increase 12 points
4  Japan 548 Increase 5 points
5  Russia 546 Increase 20 points
6  Latvia 542 Increase 10 points
6  England 542 Increase 2 points
8  United States 539 Increase 3 points
9  Hungary 536 Increase 6 points
10  Italy 535 Increase 19 points
11  Kazakhstan 533 N/A
12  Germany 528 N/A
13  Australia 527 Increase 6 points
14  Slovakia 526 N/A
14  Austria 526 N/A
16  Sweden 525 N/A
17  Netherlands 523 Decrease 2 points
18  Slovenia 518 Increase 28 points
19  Denmark 517 N/A
20  Czech Republic 515 N/A
21  Lithuania 514 Increase 2 points
22  New Zealand 504 Decrease 16 points
23  Scotland 500 Decrease 2 points
International average 500 Increase 11 points
24  Armenia 484 Increase 47 points
25  Norway 477 Increase 11 points
26  Ukraine 474 N/A
27  Iran 436 Increase 22 points
28  Georgia 418 N/A
29  Colombia 400 N/A
30  El Salvador 390 N/A
31  Algeria 354 N/A
32  Kuwait 348 N/A
33  Tunisia 318 Increase 4 points
34  Morocco 297 Increase 7 points
35  Qatar 294 N/A
36  Yemen 197 N/A
Benchmarking participants
Massachusetts Massachusetts (United States) 571 N/A
Minnesota Minnesota (United States) 551 N/A
Alberta Alberta (Canada) 543 N/A
British Columbia British Columbia (Canada) 537 N/A
Ontario Ontario (Canada) 536 Decrease 4 points
Quebec Quebec (Canada) 517 Increase 17 points
Emirate of Dubai Dubai (United Arab Emirates) 460 N/A

TIMSS 2003[edit]

In TIMSS 2003,[26] there were 26 educational systems for the fourth grade and 48 for the eighth grade.[27]

Eighth grade[edit]

Mathematics[28]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1  Singapore 605 Increase 1 point
2  South Korea 589 Increase 2 points
3  Hong Kong 586 Increase 4 points
4  Chinese Taipei 585 Steady
5  Japan 570 Decrease 9 points
6  Belgium (Flemish) 537 Decrease 21 points
7  Netherlands 536 Decrease 4 points
8  Estonia 531 N/A
9  Hungary 529 Decrease 3 points
10  Malaysia 508 Decrease 11 points
10  Latvia 508 N/A
10  Russia 508 Decrease 18 points
10  Slovakia 508 Decrease 26 points
14  Australia 505 Decrease 20 points
15  United States 504 Increase 2 points
16  Lithuania 502 Increase 20 points
17  Sweden 499 N/A
18  Scotland 498 N/A
19  Israel 496 Increase 30 points
20  New Zealand 494 Increase 3 points
21  Slovenia 493 Decrease 37 points
22  Italy 484 Increase 5 points
23  Armenia 478 N/A
24  Serbia 477 N/A
25  Bulgaria 476 Decrease 35 points
26  Romania 475 Increase 3 points
International average 467 Decrease 20 points
27  Norway 461 N/A
28  Moldova 460 Increase 9 points
29  Cyprus 459 Decrease 17 points
30  Macedonia 435 Decrease 12 points
31  Lebanon 433 N/A
32  Jordan 424 Decrease 4 points
33  Iran 411 Decrease 11 points
33  Indonesia 411 Increase 8 points
35  Tunisia 410 Decrease 38 points
36  Egypt 406 N/A
37  Bahrain 401 N/A
38  Palestine 390 N/A
39  Chile 387 Decrease 5 points
39  Morocco 387 Increase 50 points
41  Philippines 376 Increase 31 points
42  Botswana 366 N/A
43  Saudi Arabia 332 N/A
44  Ghana 276 N/A
45  South Africa 264 Decrease 11 points
Ninth grade participants
 England[a] 498 N/A
Benchmarking participants
Quebec Quebec (Canada) 543 N/A
Ontario Ontario (Canada) 521 N/A
Indiana Indiana (United States) 508 N/A
Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country (Spain) 487 N/A
Science[29]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1  Singapore 578 Increase 10 points
2  Chinese Taipei 571 Increase 2 points
3  South Korea 558 Increase 9 points
4  Hong Kong 556 Increase 26 points
5  Estonia 552 N/A
5  Japan 552 Increase 2 points
7  Hungary 543 Decrease 9 points
8  Netherlands 536 Decrease 9 points
9  United States 527 Increase 12 points
9  Australia 527 Decrease 13 points
11  Sweden 524 N/A
12  Slovenia 520 Decrease 13 points
12  New Zealand 520 Increase 10 points
14  Lithuania 519 Increase 31 points
15  Slovakia 517 Decrease 18 points
16  Belgium (Flemish) 516 Decrease 19 points
17  Russia 514 Decrease 15 points
18  Latvia 512 N/A
18  Scotland 512 N/A
20  Malaysia 510 Increase 18 points
21  Norway 494 N/A
22  Italy 491 Decrease 2 points
23  Israel 488 Increase 20 points
24  Bulgaria 479 Decrease 39 points
25  Jordan 475 Increase 25 points
International average 474 Decrease 14 points
26  Moldova 472 Increase 13 points
27  Romania 470 Decrease 2 points
28  Serbia 468 N/A
29  Armenia 461 N/A
30  Iran 453 Increase 5 points
31  Macedonia 449 Decrease 9 points
32  Cyprus 441 Decrease 19 points
33  Bahrain 438 N/A
34  Palestine 435 N/A
35  Egypt 421 N/A
36  Indonesia 420 Decrease 15 points
37  Chile 413 Decrease 7 points
38  Tunisia 404 Decrease 26 points
39  Saudi Arabia 398 N/A
40  Morocco 396 Increase 73 points
41  Lebanon 393 N/A
42  Philippines 377 Increase 32 points
43  Botswana 365 N/A
44  Ghana 255 N/A
45  South Africa 244 Increase 1 point
Ninth grade participants
 England[a] 544 N/A
Benchmarking participants