Mary Poppins (film)
|Directed by||Robert Stevenson|
|Produced by||Walt Disney|
|Based on||Mary Poppins|
by P. L. Travers
|Edited by||Cotton Warburton|
|Distributed by||Buena Vista Distribution|
|Box office||$103.1 million|
Mary Poppins is a 1964 American musical fantasy film directed by Robert Stevenson and produced by Walt Disney, with songs written and composed by the Sherman Brothers. The screenplay is by Bill Walsh and Don DaGradi, based on P. L. Travers's book series Mary Poppins. The film, which combines live-action and animation, stars Julie Andrews in her feature film debut as Mary Poppins, who visits a dysfunctional family in London and employs her unique brand of lifestyle to improve the family's dynamic. Dick Van Dyke, David Tomlinson, and Glynis Johns are featured in supporting roles. The film was shot entirely at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California using painted London background scenes.
Mary Poppins was released on August 27, 1964, to critical acclaim. It received a total of 13 Academy Awards nominations, including Best Picture – a record for any film released by Walt Disney Studios – and won five: Best Actress for Andrews, Best Film Editing, Best Original Music Score, Best Visual Effects, and Best Original Song for "Chim Chim Cher-ee". In 2013, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". Mary Poppins is considered Walt Disney's crowning live-action achievement, and is the only one of his films which earned a Best Picture nomination during his lifetime.
- 1 Plot
- 2 Cast
- 3 Production
- 4 Storyline differences
- 5 Music
- 6 Release
- 7 Reception
- 8 Legacy
- 9 Sequel
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Afterwards, he directly addresses the audience and gives them a tour of Cherry Tree Lane, stopping outside the Banks family's home. George Banks returns home to learn from his wife, Winifred, that Katie Nanna has left their service after their children, Jane and Michael, have run away, "For the fourth time this month," ("Life I Lead"). They are returned shortly after by Constable Jones, who reveals the children were chasing a lost kite. The children ask their father to help build a better kite, but he dismisses them. Taking it upon himself to hire a new nanny, Mr. Banks advertises for a stern, no-nonsense nanny. To contrast, Jane and Michael present their own advertisement for a kinder, sweeter nanny. Winifred tries to keep the peace. Mr. Banks rips up the letter and throws the scraps in the fireplace, but the remains of the advertisement magically float up and out into the air.
The next day, a number of elderly, sour-faced nannies wait outside the Banks' home, but a strong gust of wind blows them away, and Jane and Michael witness a young nanny descending from the sky using her umbrella. Presenting herself to Mr. Banks, Mary Poppins calmly produces the children's restored advertisement and agrees with its requests but promises the astonished banker she will be firm with his children. As Mr. Banks puzzles over the advertisement's return, Mary Poppins hires herself, and she convinces him it was originally his idea. She meets the children and helps them magically tidy their nursery by snapping, before heading out for a walk in the park ("Spoonful of Sugar").
Outside, they meet Bert, working as a screever; Mary Poppins uses her magic to transport the group into one of his drawings. While the children ride on a carousel, Mary Poppins and Bert go on a leisurely stroll. Together, they sing "Jolly Holiday", and Bert flirts with Mary Poppins. After the duo meets up with the children, Mary Poppins enchants the carousel horses; they rescue a fox from a fox hunt followed by a horse race which Mary wins. Describing her victory, Mary Poppins uses the nonsense word "Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious." The outing is ended when a thunderstorm dissolves Bert's drawings, returning the group to London.
The next day, the four meet odd Uncle Albert, who has floated up in the air because of his uncontrollable laughter; they join him for a tea party on the ceiling and tell jokes ("I Love to Laugh"). Afterward, Mr. Banks becomes annoyed by the household's cheery atmosphere, and he threatens to fire Mary Poppins, but she manipulates him into taking the children to his workplace, the bank, the next day ("Feed The Birds"). Mr. Banks does so, and the children meet Mr. Dawes Sr. and his son. Mr. Dawes aggressively urges Michael to invest his tuppence in the bank, ultimately snatching the coins from Michael. ("Fidelity Fiduciary Bank") Michael demands them back; other customers overhear the conflict, and they all begin demanding their own money back, causing a bank run.
Jane and Michael flee the bank, getting lost in the East End until they run into Bert, now working as a chimney sweep, who escorts them home. The three and Mary Poppins venture onto the rooftops, where they have a song-and-dance number with other chimney sweeps, which spills out into the Banks' home ("Step in Time"). An enraged Mr. Banks returns and receives a phone call from his employers. He speaks with Bert, and Bert tells him he should spend more time with his children before they grow up ("A Man Has Dreams"). Jane and Michael give their father Michael's tuppence in the hope to make amends.
Mr. Banks walks through London to the bank, where he is given a humiliating cashiering and is dismissed. Looking to the tuppence for words, he blurts out "Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious," tells a joke, and happily heads home. Dawes Sr. mulls over the joke and, finally understanding it, floats up into the air, laughing.
The next day, the wind changes, meaning Mary Poppins must leave. A happier Mr. Banks is found at home, having fixed his children's kite, and takes the family out to fly it. In the park, the Banks family meets Mr. Dawes Jr, who reveals his father died laughing from the joke ("Let's Go Fly a Kite"). Although initially sorry, Mr. Banks soon becomes happy for him since Mr. Dawes Jr. had never seen his father happier in his life and re-employs Mr. Banks as a junior partner. With her work done, Mary Poppins flies away; Bert bids her farewell, telling her not to stay away too long.
- Julie Andrews as Mary Poppins, a magical and loving woman who descends from the clouds in response to the Banks children's advertisement for a nanny. She is firm in her use of authority but gentle and kind as well, a major departure from the original books, in which the character was strict and pompous.
- Dick Van Dyke as Bert, a cockney jack-of-all-trades and Mary Poppins's closest friend, who is completely accustomed to her magic. Their playful interactions imply that they have known each other for a long time and that this kind of story has repeated itself many times. Bert has at least four jobs throughout the film: a one-man band, a pavement chalk artist, a chimney sweep, and a kite seller.
- Van Dyke also portrays Mr. Dawes Sr., the old director of the bank where Mr. Banks works. During the film's end titles, "Navckid Keyd", an anagram of Dick Van Dyke, is first credited as playing the role before the letters unscramble to reveal Van Dyke's name.
- David Tomlinson as George Banks, Mary Poppins' employer and father of Jane and Michael. He works at the Dawes Tomes Mousley Grubbs Fidelity Fiduciary Bank in London. He is a driven and disciplined man.
- Glynis Johns as Winifred Banks, the easily distracted wife of George Banks and the mother of Jane and Michael. She is depicted as a member of Emmeline Pankhurst's "Votes for Women" suffragette movement. Mrs. Banks was originally named Cynthia, but this was changed to the more English-sounding Winifred per Travers.
- Hermione Baddeley as Ellen, the maid of the Banks residence.
- Karen Dotrice as Jane Banks, daughter of Mr and Mrs Banks and Michael’s older sister.
- Matthew Garber as Michael Banks, son of Mr and Mrs Banks and Jane’s younger brother.
- Elsa Lanchester as Katie Nanna, the disgruntled nanny who quits the Banks family.
- Arthur Treacher as Constable Jones, a police officer.
- Reginald Owen as Admiral Boom, the Banks' eccentric neighbor and a naval officer. He has his first mate, Mr. Binnacle, fire a cannon from his roof every 8 a.m. and 6 p.m.
- Ed Wynn as Uncle Albert, a jolly gentleman who suffers from an unknown condition where he floats in the air during fits of uncontrollable laughter. Although he likes having company over, he becomes very sad and cries when his guests have to leave (he falls back to the ground, since it is the inversion of laughing).
- Reta Shaw as Mrs. Brill, the cook of the Banks residence.
- Don Barclay as Mr. Binnacle, Admiral Boom's first mate.
- Marjorie Bennett as Miss Lark, owner of the dog named Andrew, who frequently runs away.
- Arthur Malet as Mr. Dawes Jr., the director's son and member of the board.
- Jane Darwell as the "Bird Woman", an old woman who sells breadcrumbs for the pigeons on the steps of St Paul's Cathedral.
- Marjorie Eaton as Miss Persimmon
- James Logan as a doorman who chases after the children in the bank.
- Alma Lawton as Mrs. Corry, an old shopkeeper of a gingerbread shop and mother of two daughters.
- Betty Lou Gerson as Old Crone (uncredited)
- Kay E. Kuter as Man in Bank (uncredited)
- Doris Lloyd as Depositor (uncredited)
- Queenie Leonard as Depositor (uncredited)
- Julie Andrews as Robin, Female Pearly
- Marc Breaux as Cow
- Daws Butler as Penguin Waiter, Turtles
- Peter Ellenshaw as Penguin Waiter
- Paul Frees as Barnyard Horse
- Bill Lee as Ram
- Sean McClory as Bloodhound, Reporter #4
- Dallas McKennon as Fox, Bloodhound, Penguin Waiter, Horse, Carousel Guard
- Alan Napier as Huntsman, Reporter #3, Bloodhound
- Marni Nixon as Geese
- J. Pat O'Malley as Bloodhound, Hunting Horse, Master of Hounds, Pearly Drummer, Penguin Waiter, Photographer, Reporter #2
- George Pelling as Bloodhound, Reporter #1
- Thurl Ravenscroft as Hog
- Richard M. Sherman as Penguin Waiter, Male Pearly
- Robert B. Sherman as the "Bird Woman", Pearly Banjo Player
- David Tomlinson as Penguin Waiter, Jockey, Race Track Stewards, Mr. Binnacle, Mary Poppins' Parrot Umbrella
- Ginny Tyler as the Lambs
The first novel in the Mary Poppins series was the film's main basis. According to the 40th Anniversary DVD release of the film in 2004, Disney's daughters fell in love with the Mary Poppins books and made him promise to make a film based on them. Disney first attempted to purchase the film rights to Mary Poppins from P. L. Travers as early as 1938 but was rebuffed because Travers did not believe a film version of her books would do justice to her creation.
In addition, Disney was then known primarily as a producer of cartoons and had yet to produce any major live-action work. For more than 20 years, Disney periodically made efforts to convince Travers to allow him to make a Poppins film. He finally succeeded in 1961 although Travers demanded and got script approval rights. The Sherman Brothers composed the music score and were also involved in the film's development, suggesting the setting be changed from the 1930s to the Edwardian era. Pre-production and song composition took about two years.
Travers was an adviser to the production. However, she disapproved of the dilution of the harsher aspects of Mary Poppins' character, felt ambivalent about the music, and hated the use of animation so much that she ruled out any further adaptations of the later Mary Poppins novels. She objected to a number of elements that made it into the film. Rather than original songs, she wanted the soundtrack to feature known standards of the Edwardian period in which the story is set. Disney overruled her, citing contract stipulations that he had final say on the finished print.
Much of the Travers–Disney correspondence is part of the Travers collection of papers in the Mitchell Library of New South Wales, Australia. The relationship between Travers and Disney is detailed in Mary Poppins She Wrote, a biography of Travers by Valerie Lawson. The biography is the basis for two documentaries on Travers: The Real Mary Poppins and Lisa Matthews' The Shadow of Mary Poppins. Their relationship during the development of the film was also dramatized in the 2013 Disney film Saving Mr. Banks.
Julie Andrews, who was making her feature film acting debut after a successful stage career, got the prime role of Mary Poppins soon after she was passed over by Jack L. Warner and replaced with Audrey Hepburn for the role of Eliza Doolittle in his screen adaptation of My Fair Lady even though Andrews had originated that role on Broadway. When Disney first approached Andrews about taking on the role, Andrews was three months pregnant and therefore was not sure she should take it. Disney assured her that the crew would be fine with waiting to begin filming until after she had given birth so that she could play the part. Disney considered the actor Stanley Holloway for the role of Admiral Boom, during the pre-production stage, but the role went to Reginald Owen instead.
Andrews also provided the voice in two other sections of the film: during "A Spoonful of Sugar," she provided the whistling harmony for the robin, and she was also one of the Pearly singers during "Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious." David Tomlinson, besides playing Mr. Banks, provided the voice of Mary's talking umbrella and numerous other voice-over parts (including that of Admiral Boom's first mate). During the "Jolly Holiday" sequence, the three singing Cockney geese were all voiced by Marni Nixon, a regular aural substitute for actresses with substandard singing voices. Nixon later provided the singing voice for Hepburn in My Fair Lady and played one of Andrews' fellow nuns in The Sound of Music. Andrews later beat Hepburn for the Best Actress Award at the Golden Globes for their respective roles. Andrews also won the Oscar for Best Actress for her role. Hepburn did not receive a nomination. Richard Sherman, one of the songwriters, also voiced a penguin as well as one of the Pearlies. Robert Sherman dubbed the speaking voice for Jane Darwell because Darwell's voice was too weak to be heard in the soundtrack. Sherman's voice is heard saying the only line: "Feed the Birds, Tuppence a bag."
Disney cast Dick Van Dyke in the key supporting role of Bert after seeing his work on The Dick Van Dyke Show. After winning the role of Bert, Van Dyke lobbied to also play the senior Mr. Dawes, but Disney originally felt he was too young for the part. Van Dyke eventually won Disney over after a screen test. Although he is fondly remembered for this film, Van Dyke's attempt at a Cockney accent is regarded as one of the worst film accents in history, cited as an example by actors since as something that they wish to avoid. In a 2003 poll by Empire magazine of the worst film accents of all time, he came second. Van Dyke claims that his accent coach was the English (of Irish extraction) J. Pat O'Malley, who "didn't do an accent any better than I did". In 2017, Van Dyke was selected to receive an award for television excellence from the British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA), at which time he said "I appreciate this opportunity to apologise to the members of BAFTA for inflicting on them the most atrocious cockney accent in the history of cinema." A chief executive of BAFTA responded, "We look forward to his acceptance speech in whatever accent he chooses on the night. We have no doubt it will be "supercalifragilisticexpialidocious."
The film changed the book's storyline in a number of places. For example, Mary Poppins, when approaching the house, controlled the wind rather than the other way around. Also, the father, rather than the mother, interviewed Mary Poppins for the nanny position.
A number of other changes were necessary to condense the story into feature length. In the film, there are only two Banks children, Jane and Michael. The satirical and mysterious aspects of the original book gave way to a cheerful and "Disney-fied" tone. Mary Poppins' character as portrayed by Andrews in the film is much less vain and more sympathetic towards the children compared to the stern, cross, intimidating nanny of the original book. Bert, as played by Van Dyke, was a composite of several characters from Travers' stories. Travers demanded any suggestions of romance between Mary Poppins and to Bert be eliminated and so lyrics were written for "Jolly Holiday" that clearly indicated that their friendship was purely platonic, but some subtle hints of romance, however, remained in the finished film.
The film's music features music and lyrics by Richard M. Sherman and Robert B. Sherman. The Shermans took inspiration from Edwardian British music hall music. Irwin Kostal arranged and conducted the film's score. Buena Vista Records released the original motion picture soundtrack in 1964 on LP and reel-to-reel tape.
A number of other songs were written for the film by the Sherman Brothers and either rejected or cut for time. Richard Sherman, on the 2004 DVD release, indicated that more than 30 songs were written at various stages of the film's development. No cast recordings of any of these songs have been released to the public, only demos or later performances done by the songwriters — with the exception of the rooftop reprise of "Chim Chim Cher-ee" and the "smoke staircase yodel" mentioned below.
- "The Chimpanzoo", was originally to follow "I Love to Laugh" during the Uncle Albert "ceiling tea party" sequence, but it was dropped from the soundtrack just before Julie Andrews and company were to record it. The fast-paced number was not unveiled to the public until Richard Sherman, aided by recently uncovered storyboards, performed it on the 2004 DVD edition. The re-creation suggests it was to have been another sequence combining animation and live action.
- "Practically Perfect" was intended to introduce Mary but instead the melody of the piece was used for "Sister Suffragette" (used to introduce Mrs. Banks). A different song with the same name was written for the stage musical.
- "The Eyes of Love", a romantic ballad intended for Bert and Mary, but according to Richard Sherman, Andrews suggested privately to Disney that this song was unsuitable. In response, "A Spoonful of Sugar" was written.
- "Mary Poppins Melody" was to be performed when Mary introduces herself to the children. Elements of the song later became part of "Stay Awake". The melody was the basis for a couple of other songs that were ultimately cut from the film.
- "A Name's a Name". Heard on a recording taken of a meeting between the Sherman Brothers and Travers, this song was originally intended for the nursery scene that later became "A Spoonful of Sugar". The melody was reused for "Mary Poppins Melody".
- "You Think, You Blink" was a short piece that Bert was to sing just before entering the chalk painting (and starting the "Jolly Holiday" sequence). In the film, Dick Van Dyke simply recites the lyric instead of singing it.
- "West Wind" was a short ballad to be sung by Mary. The song was later retitled "Mon Amour Perdu" and used in the later Disney film, Big Red.
- "The Right Side" was to be sung by Mary to Michael after he gets out of bed cranky. It was recycled for the Disney Channel television series Welcome to Pooh Corner as Winnie the Pooh's personal theme song.
- "Measure Up" was to accompany the scene in which Mary takes the tape measure to Jane and Michael.
- "Admiral Boom" was to be the theme song for the cannon-firing neighbor of the Banks Residence, but it was cut by Walt Disney as being unnecessary. The melody of the song remains in the film, and the bombastic theme is heard whenever Boom appears onscreen. One line from this song ("The whole world takes its time from Greenwich, but Greenwich, they say, takes its time from Admiral Boom!") is spoken by Bert early in the film.
- "Sticks, Paper and Strings" was an early version of "Let's Go Fly a Kite."
- "Lead the Righteous Life", an intentionally poorly written hymn, was to have been sung by Katie Nanna (Elsa Lanchester) along with Jane and Michael prior to Mary Poppins' arrival. The melody was later reused for a similar song in The Happiest Millionaire
- "The Pearly Song" was not deleted per se, but was instead incorporated into "Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious".
The Compass Sequence, a precursor to "Jolly Holiday", was to be a multiple-song sequence. A number of possible musical components have been identified:
- "South Sea Island Symphony"
- "Chinese Festival Song"
- "Tim-Buc-Too" – elements of this were reused for "The Chimpanzoo" which was also cut
- "Tiki Town" – the melody was reused for "The Chimpanzoo"
- "North Pole Polka"
- "Land of Sand" – later rewritten as "Trust in Me" for the animated version of The Jungle Book
- "The Beautiful Briny" – later used in Bedknobs and Broomsticks
- "East is East" – another variation on the unused "Mary Poppins Melody".
Deleted scores and music
- The "Step in Time" sequence ends with the chimney sweeps being scattered by an onslaught of fireworks fired from Admiral Boom's house. In the final film, the scene plays out with sound effects and no music. The DVD release included the original version of the scene, which was accompanied by a complex instrumental musical arrangement that combined "Step in Time," the "Admiral Boom" melody (see above), and "A Spoonful of Sugar". This musical arrangement can be heard on the film's original soundtrack.
- Andrews recorded a brief reprise of "Chim Chim Cher-ee," which was to have accompanied Mary, Bert, and the children as they marched across the rooftops of London (an instrumental reprise of "A Spoonful of Sugar" was used as a march instead; however, Andrews and Dick Van Dyke can still be seen and heard singing a reprise of "Chim Chim Cher-ee" in that sequence, just before the other chimney sweeps appear for the "Step in Time" number).
- The robin Mary Poppins whistles with in "A Spoonful of Sugar" originally sang a lyric as well.
- Andrews also recorded a brief yodel, which breaks into the first line of "A Spoonful of Sugar" which was to have been used to "activate" the smoke staircase prior to the "Step in Time" number. Although cut from the film, footage of Andrews performing it exists and was included on the 2004 DVD. The DVD also indicates that an alternate version of the yodel performed by Dick Van Dyke may also exist.
Mary Poppins premiered on August 27, 1964, at Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Los Angeles. The film's poster was painted by artist Paul Wenzel. Travers was not extended an invitation to the event, but managed to obtain one from a Disney executive. It was at the after-party that Richard Sherman recalled her walking up to Disney and loudly announcing that the animated sequence had to go. Disney responded, "Pamela, the ship has sailed" and walked away.
Mary Poppins was first released in late 1980 on VHS, Betamax, CED and LaserDisc. On October 28, 1994, August 26, 1997, and March 31, 1998, it was re-released three times as part of the Walt Disney Masterpiece Collection. In 1998, this film became Disney's first DVD. On July 4, 2000, it was released on VHS and DVD as part of the Gold Classic Collection. On December 14, 2004, it had a 2-Disc DVD release in a Digitally Restored 40th Anniversary Edition as well as its final issue in the VHS Format. The film's audio track featured an "Enhanced Home Theater Mix" consisting of replaced sound effects (to make the soundtrack more "modern") and improved fidelity and mixing and some enhanced music (this version was also shown on 2006–2012 ABC Family airings of the movie), though the DVD also included the original soundtrack as an audio option.
On January 27, 2009, the film was released on DVD again as a 45th anniversary edition, with more language tracks and special features (though the film's "Enhanced Home Theater Mix" was not included.) Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment released the film on Blu-ray as the 50th Anniversary Edition on December 10, 2013.
The film received universal acclaim from film critics. Film review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reports a 100% approval rating, based on 49 reviews with an average rating of 8.39/10. The site's consensus reads, "A lavish modern fairy tale celebrated for its amazing special effects, catchy songs, and Julie Andrews's legendary performance in the title role." On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 88 out of 100 based on 13 critics, indicating "universal acclaim".
Variety praised the film's musical sequences and the performances of Julie Andrews and Dick Van Dyke, in particular. Time lauded the film, stating, "The sets are luxuriant, the songs lilting, the scenario witty but impeccably sentimental, and the supporting cast only a pinfeather short of perfection."
Critic Drew Casper summarized the impact of Mary Poppins in 2011:
Disney was the leader, his musical fantasies mixing animation and truly marvelous f/x with real-life action for children and the child in the adult. Mary Poppins (1964) was his plum. ... the story was elemental, even trite. But utmost sophistication (the chimney pot sequence crisply cut by Oscared "Cotton" Warburton) and high-level invention (a tea party on the ceiling, a staircase of black smoke to the city's top) characterized its handling.
The film earned $31 million in North American rentals during its initial run. The film was re-released theatrically in 1973, in honor of Walt Disney Productions' 50th anniversary, and earned an estimated additional $9 million in North American rentals. It was released once more in 1980 and grossed $14 million. It returned a total lifetime rental of $45 million to Disney from a gross of over $102 million from its North American theatrical releases.
The film was the twentieth most popular sound film of the twentieth century in the UK with admissions of 14 million.
The film was very profitable for Disney. Made on an estimated budget of $4.4–6 million, it was reported by Cobbett Steinberg to be the most profitable film of 1965, earning a net profit of $28.5 million. Walt Disney used his huge profits from the film to purchase land in central Florida and finance the construction of Walt Disney World.
The newly constructed Walt Disney World Monorail System benefited from the film because of the profits the movie generated. Some profits from this movie were taken to help fund the Disney World Monorail system. Disney’s monorail system pays homage to this film by naming the MAPO (MAry POppins) safety system included on all Disney monorails.
The film also inspired the eighth season episode of The Simpsons entitled "Simpsoncalifragilisticexpiala(Annoyed Grunt)cious", featuring a parody of Mary called "Shary Bobbins" who helps out the Simpson family after Marge loses her hair due to stress, and spoofs of the songs "The Perfect Nanny", "A Spoonful of Sugar", "Feed the Birds" and "The Life I Lead".
Never at ease with the handling of her property by Disney or the way she felt she had been treated, Travers never agreed to another Poppins/Disney adaptation. So fervent was Travers' dislike of the Disney adaptation and of the way she felt she had been treated during the production that when producer Cameron Mackintosh approached her about the stage musical in the 1990s, she acquiesced on the conditions that he use only English-born writers and that no one from the film production be directly involved.
- American Film Institute
- AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Songs:
- AFI's 100 Years of Musicals – #6
On December 19, 2018, Walt Disney Pictures released the film Mary Poppins Returns. The film takes place 25 years after the original, Mary Poppins, and features a standalone narrative based on the remaining seven books in the series. Rob Marshall directed, while John DeLuca and Marc Platt served as producers, with Emily Blunt starring as Poppins, co-starring Broadway actor, Lin-Manuel Miranda. Dick Van Dyke returned to portray Mr. Dawes Jr. Karen Dotrice also appeared in a cameo role.
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