Peak of Puncak Jaya
|Motto: Karya Swadaya (Sanskrit)
(Work with one's own might)
Location of Province of Papua in Indonesia
|Coordinates (Jayapura): Coordinates:|
|• Governor||Lukas Enembe (PD & Golkar)|
|• Vice Governor||Klemen Tinal|
|• Total||319,036.05 km2 (123,180.51 sq mi)|
|• Density||11/km2 (28/sq mi)|
|Health Ministry 2014 Estimate|
|• Ethnic groups||Papuan, Melanesian (including Aitinyo, Aefak, Asmat, Agast, Dani, Ayamaru, Mandacan Biak, Serui), Javanese, Bugis, Mandar, Minangkabau, Batak, Minahasan, Chinese.|
|• Religion||Protestantism (65.48%), Roman Catholicism (17.67%), Islam (15.89%), Hinduism (0.09%), Buddhism (0.05%)|
|• Languages||Indonesian (official), 269 indigenous Papuan and Austronesian languages|
|Time zone||EIT (UTC+09)|
Papua (Indonesian: Provinsi Papua) is the largest and easternmost province of Indonesia. It lies in West Papua region, which comprises the Indonesian, western, half of the island of New Guinea and nearby islands. Papua is bordered by the nation of Papua New Guinea to the east, and by West Papua province to the west. Its capital is Jayapura. It was formerly called Irian Jaya (before that West Irian or Irian Barat) and comprised all of Indonesian New Guinea. In 2002 the current name was adopted and in 2003 West Papua province was created within West Papua region from western parts of Papua province.
"Papua" is the official Indonesian and internationally recognised name for the province.
During the Dutch colonial era the region was known as part of "Dutch New Guinea" or "Netherlands New Guinea". Since its annexation in 1969, it became known as "West Irian" or "Irian Barat" until 1973, and thereafter renamed "Irian Jaya" (roughly translated, "Glorious Irian") by the Suharto administration. This was the official name until the name "Papua" was adopted in 2002. Today, the indigenous inhabitants of this province prefer to call themselves Papuans.
The name "West Papua" was adopted in 1961 by the New Guinea Council until the United Nations Temporary Executive Authority (UNTEA) transferred administration to the Republic of Indonesia in 1963. "West Papua" has since been used by Papuans as a self-identifying term, especially by those demanding self-determination, and usually refers to the whole of the Indonesian portion of New Guinea. The other Indonesian province that shares New Guinea, West Irian Jaya, has been officially renamed as West Papua, or Papua Barat.
Within Indonesia and West Papua itself, 'Papua' usually refers to the entire western half of New Guinea despite its division into separate provinces. Western New Guinea is generally referred to as 'West Papua' internationally – especially among networks of international solidarity with the West Papuan independence movement.
The province of Papua is governed by a directly elected governor (currently Lukas Enembe) and a regional legislature, DPRP (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Papua). A government organisation that only exists in Papua is the MRP (Majelis Rakyat Papua / Papuan People's Council), which was formed by the Indonesian Government in 2005 as a coalition of Papuan tribal chiefs, tasked with arbitration and speaking on behalf of Papuan tribal customs.
Indonesian sovereignty over Papua dates back to 1969, when Indonesia conducted a referendum (referred to by the Indonesian government as the Act of Free Choice) on the self-determination of the peoples of Papua under an agreement with the United Nations to respect any result. Instead of conducting a democratic referendum amongst the general population, Indonesian security forces forcibly coerced a small number of tribal elders to vote to join Indonesia; some elders were not even made aware that a referendum was to be conducted beforehand. Nevertheless, the agreement with the UN was nominally upheld, and was recognised by the international community in spite of protests. This intensified the independence movement among indigenous West Papuans, deepening the Papua conflict, which began when the Dutch withdrew from the East Indies in 1963. The conflict has continued to the present, with Indonesian security forces being accused of numerous human rights abuses in their suppression of the independence movement. The Indonesian government maintains tight control over the region, barring foreign journalists or rights monitors from entering; those who do must do so covertly.
In 1999 it was proposed to split the province into three government-controlled sectors, sparking Papuan protests. In January 2003 President Megawati Sukarnoputri signed an order dividing Papua into three provinces: Central Irian Jaya (Irian Jaya Tengah), Papua (or East Irian Jaya, Irian Jaya Timur), and West Papua (Irian Jaya Barat). The formality of installing a local government for Jaraka in Irian Jaya Barat (West) took place in February 2003 and a governor was appointed in November; a government for Irian Jaya Tengah (Central Irian Jaya) was delayed from August 2003 due to violent local protests. The creation of this separate Central Irian Jaya Province was blocked by Indonesian courts, who declared it to be unconstitutional and in contravention of the Papua's special autonomy agreement. The previous division into two provinces was allowed to stand as an established fact.
As of 2010 (following the separation of West Papua Province in 2003), the residual Papua Province consisted of 28 regencies (kabupaten) and one autonomous city (kota); these regencies and the city are together subdivided into 385 districts (kecamatan), and thence into "villages" (kelurahan and desa). In Papua, as well as in the province of West Papua, kelurahan are commonly referred to as distrik.
The regencies (kabupaten) and the city (kota) are listed below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 Census and according to the latest official (January 2014) Estimates.
|Jayapura (city)||935.92||197,396||256,705||315,872||Jayapura City||5|
|Biak Numfor Regency||2,602.00||99,204||126,798||156,023||Biak||19|
|Boven Digoel Regency||27,108.00||*||55,784||68,641||Tanah Merah||20|
|Intan Jaya Regency||3,922.02||#||40,490||49,822||Sugapa||6|
|Lanny Jaya Regency||2,248.00||#||148,522||182,754||Tiom||10|
|Mamberamo Raya Regency
|Mamberamo Tengah Regency
|Pegunungan Bintang Regency
(Bintang Mountains Regency)
|Puncak Jaya Regency||4,989.51||111,488||101,148||124,461||Mulia||8|
|Yapen Islands Regency
- * The 2005 estimated population of Boven Digoel Regency is included in the figure quoted for Merauke Regency, from which Boven Digoel was divided.
- # The 2005 estimated population of this regency are included in the figures quoted for the existing regency from which the newer regency was divided in 2007 or 2008.
In 2000 the present area of Papua Province consisted of nine regencies: Biak Numfor, Jayapura, Jayawijaya, Merauke, Mimika, Nabire, Paniai, Puncak Jaya, and Yapen Waropen. On 12 November 2002, Keerom and Sarmi Regencies were split from Jayapura Regency; Bintang Mountains (Pegunungan Bintan), Tolikara and Yahukimo Regencies were split from Jayawijaya Regency; Asmat, Boven Digoel and Mappi Regencies were split from Merauke Regency; and Yapen Waropen Regency was split into Yapen Islands Regency (Kepulauan Yapen) and Waropen Regency. Supiori Regency was split from Biak Numfor Regency on 8 January 2004.
Mamberamo Raya Regency was formed from parts of Sarmi Regency and Waropen Regency on 15 March 2007 under Law No. 19/2007. The Dogiyai Regency was similarly formed from the southern districts of Nabire Regency in 2007, and five other new regencies were created on 4 January 2008 by Home Affairs Minister Mardiyanto who also installed five temporary regents. These five new regencies were:
- 4 formerly from part of Jayawijaya Regency:
- Central Mamberamo Regency with five districts, with Kobakma as the regental seat. Created by the Law No. 3/2008, the first regent was David Pagawak.
- Yalimo Regency also has five districts, with Elelim as the regental capital. Created by the Law No. 4/2008, the first regent was Elia Ibrahim Loupatty.
- Lanny Jaya Regency was created by the Law No.5/2008 and has 10 districts. Its first regent was Pribadi Sukartono. The regental capital is Tiom.
- Law No. 6/2008 creates Nduga Regency with eight districts and Kenyam as the administrative center. Hans Dortheus was the first regent.
- 1 formerly from part of Puncak Jaya Regency:
- Puncak Regency also has eight districts with Ilaga as the regental seat being created by the Law No. 7/2008. The first regent was Simon Alom.
Intan Jaya Regency and Deiyai Regency were formed during 2008 from parts of Paniai Regency.
Proposed new regencies, cities and provinces
On 25 October 2013 the Indonesian House of Representatives (DPR) began reviewing draft laws on the establishment of 57 prospective regencies/cities (and 8 new provinces). This included two new provinces to be formed from parts of the existing Papua Province (and one new province from West Papua Province), as well as the creation of seventeen new regencies and two new cities (independent municipalities). The new regencies will be Gili Menawa, Moyo, Balin Senter, Bogaga, Puncak Trikora, Muara Digul, Admi Korbay, Katengban, Okika, Northwest Yapen, East Yapen, Numfor Island, Yalimek, Mambera Hulu, Southwest Yahukimo, East Yahukimo, North Yahukimo amd Ghondumi Sisare, and the new cities will be the municipalities of Merauke and Lembah Baliem (Baliem Valley).
The two new provinces from parts of the existing Papua province have recently been approved by Indonesia's House of Representatives: South Papua and Central Papua. Another new province, to be split from West Papua will be Southwest Papua.
The proposed South Papua (Papua Selatan) Province would cover an area of 119,749 square km, which is rich in natural resources. It will encompass four existing regencies – Asmat, Boven Digoel, Mappi, and Merauke (including Merauke City, scheduled to become a municipality) and will thus equate closely to the original Merauke Regency prior to the splitting of that entity in 2002. Within the existing regencies, new regencies to be added are those of Moyo (from Boven Digoel Regency), Muara Digul and Admi Korbay (both from Mappi Regency).
According to a 20 January 2012 report in the Cenderawasih Pos Jakarta, the central government is moving forward with the creation of "Central Papua". At that time it was envisaged that the new province would comprise ten existing regencies: Supiori, Biak Numfor, Yapen Islands, Waropen, Nabire, Dogiyai, Deiyai, Intan Jaya, Paniai and Mimika.
The new Central Papua Province, and the residual Papua Province, would together include the new regencies of Gili Menawa (from Jayapura Regency), Balin Senter (from Lanny Jaya Regency and Tolikara Regency), Boboga (from Tolikara Regency), Puncak Trikora (from Lanny Jaya Regency), Katengban (from Bintang Mountains Regency), Okika (from Jayawijaya Regency), Northwest Yapen and East Yapen (both from Yapen Islands Regency), Numfor Island (from Biak Numfor Regency), Yalimek, Ser Yahukimo Western Mountains, Mambera Hulu, Southwest Yahukimo, East Yahukimo and North Yakuhimo (all six from Yahukimo Regency) and Ghondumi Sisare (from Waropen Regency), and a new municipality of Lembah Baliem (Baliem Valley) created from Jayawijaya Regency.
The city of Jayapura also has the status of an autonomous city, equal to a regency. It was founded on 7 March 1910 as Hollandia and is the capital. Since Indonesian administration the name of the city has been changed to Kotabaru, then to Sukarnopura before its current name, Jayapura. Jayapura is also the largest city of Papua Province, with a small but active tourism industry.[clarification needed] It is built on a slope overlooking the bay. Cenderawasih University (UNCEN) campus at Abepura houses the University Museum where some of the Asmat artifacts collected by Michael Rockefeller is stored. Both Tanjung Ria beach, near the market at Hamadi – site of the 22 April 1944 Allied invasion during World War II – and the site of General Douglas MacArthur's World War II headquarters at Ifar Gunung have monuments commemorating the events.
A central east–west mountain range dominates the geography of the island of New Guinea, over 1,600 km (1,000 mi) in total length. The western section is around 600 km (400 mi) long and 100 km (60 mi) across. The province contains the highest mountains between the Himalayas and the Andes, rising up to 4,884 metres (16,024 ft) high, and ensuring a steady supply of rain from the tropical atmosphere. The tree line is around 4,000 metres (13,000 ft) elevation and the tallest peaks contain permanent equatorial glaciers, increasingly melting due to a changing climate. Various other smaller mountain ranges occur both north and west of the central ranges. Except in high elevations, most areas possess a hot humid climate throughout the year, with some seasonal variation associated with the northeast monsoon season.
The southern and northern lowlands stretch for hundreds of kilometres and include lowland rainforests, extensive wetlands, savanna grasslands, and expanses of mangrove forest. The southern lowlands are the site of Lorentz National Park, also a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The province's largest river is the Mamberamo located in the northern part of the province. The result is a large area of lakes and rivers known as the Lakes Plains region. The Baliem Valley, home of the Dani people, is a tableland 1,600 metres (5,200 ft) above sea level in the midst of the central mountain range. Puncak Jaya, also known by its Dutch colonial name, "Carstensz Pyramid", is a limestone mountain peak 4,884 metres (16,024 ft) above sea level. It is the highest peak of Oceania.
The following are some of the most well-known ethnic groups of Papua:
The Yei (pronounced Yay) are sometimes known as the Jei, Je, Yei-nan people.
There are approximately 2,500 speakers of the Yei language. 40% Ethno Religionists- animistic tribal religion 60% Catholics and other Christians (blended with animistic beliefs & customs): The Yei language is believed to have two dialects observed by a Wycliffe, SIL language survey in 2001. At home the Yei people speak their own language but use Indonesian for trade, wider communication and at school. Most Yei are literate in Indonesian.
There are elementary schools in each village. About 10–30% of children continue in middle school. Very few go to high school. The nearest high school is in Merauke city. They live primarily by hunting, fishing, and gardening short and long term crops in the lowlands. The Yei diet mainly consists of rice, vegetables, fish and roasted sago. With their land at an altitude of less than 100 meters above sea level, the Yei people can best be accessed by vehicle on the road from Merauke or by motorized canoe up the Maro River. There is no airstrip or airplane access other than float plane which is currently available from Merauke through MAF by about a 15-minute flight to Toray. The Poo and Bupul villages have a clinic but people still use traditional medicines. There is very little infrastructure in the area: no telephones or toilets. At night electricity is run from a generator. There are single side-band radios (SSBs) in Bupul, Tanas, Poo, and Erambu villages, mainly used by the police and military force. Most villages get their drinking water from the Maro River, but some get it from wells or by collecting rain.
The population of Papua province has a fertility rate of 2.9 children per woman The population grew from the 1.9 million recorded in the 2000 Indonesia Census, to 2.9 million as recorded by the 2010 Census, and is officially estimated to be at about 3.5 million in 2014. Since the early 1990s Papua has had the highest population growth rate of all Indonesian provinces at over 3% annually. This is partly a result of birth rates, but mainly due to migration from other parts of Indonesia. While indigenous Papuans formed the near-totality of the population in 1961, they are now roughly 50% of the population, the other half being composed of non-Papuan migrants coming from other parts of Indonesia. An overwhelming percentage of these migrants came as part of a government-sponsored transmigration program.
According to the 2010 census, 83.15% of the Papuans identified themselves as Christian with 65.48% being Protestant and 17.67% being Roman Catholic. 15.89% of the population was Muslim and less than 1% were Buddhist or Hindu. There is also substantial practice of animism by Papuans.
The densest population center, other than the large coastal cities that house Indonesian bureaucratic and commercial apparatus, is located in and around the town of Wamena in the Baliem Valley of the Central Highlands.
|Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2010, 2014 Health Ministry Estimate|
In 2011, Papuan caretaker governor Syamsul Arief Rivai claimed Papua's forests cover 42 million hectares with an estimated worth of Rp.700 trillion ($78 billion) and that if the forests were managed properly and sustainably, they could produce over 500 million cubic meters of logs per annum.
The island has an estimated 16,000 species of plant, 124 genera of which are endemic. Papua's known forest fauna includes; marsupials (including possums, wallabies, tree-kangaroos, cuscuses); other mammals (including the endangered long-beaked echidna); bird species such as birds of paradise, cassowaries, parrots, and cockatoos; the world's longest lizards (Papua monitor); and the world's largest butterflies.
The waterways and wetlands of Papua are also home to salt and freshwater crocodile, tree monitors, flying foxes, osprey, bats and other animals; while the equatorial glacier fields remain largely unexplored.
In February 2006, a team of scientists exploring the Foja Mountains, Sarmi, discovered new species of birds, butterflies, amphibians, and plants, including possibly the largest-flowered species of rhododendron.
Ecological threats include logging-induced deforestation, forest conversion for plantation agriculture (including oil palm), smallholder agricultural conversion, the introduction and potential spread of alien species such as the Crab-eating Macaque which preys on and competes with indigenous species, the illegal species trade, and water pollution from oil and mining operations.
- King, Peter, West Papua Since Suharto: Independence, Autonomy, or Chaos?. University of New South Wales Press, 2004, ISBN 0-86840-676-7.
- "Lukas-Klemen, Gubernur dan Wakil Gubernur Papua Terpilih". 13 February 2013.
- Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (2005). "Languages of Indonesia (Papua)". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Retrieved 15 March 2009.
- Simpson, Brad (9 July 2004). "Indonesia's 1969 Takeover of West Papua Not by "Free Choice"". National Security Archive. Retrieved 15 March 2009.
- "Undang-2, Inpres, dll. – Laws, Decrees, etc.". Cenderawasih University. 23 February 2005. Retrieved 15 March 2009.
- "Goodbye Indonesia". People and Power. Al Jazeera English. 31 January 2013. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
- external article
- King, 2004, p. 91
- Jakarta Post, 14 November 2013
- Papua province – Population by Region and Religion
- http://www.depkes.go.id/downloads/Penduduk%20Kab%20Kota%20Umur%20Tunggal%202014.pdf Estimasi Penduduk Menurut Umur Tunggal Dan Jenis Kelamin 2014 Kementerian Kesehatan
- "Forests in Papua are valued at $78 billion". 24 August 2011.
- Jane Perlez and Raymond Bonner (2005): Below a Mountain of Wealth, a River of Waste. The New York Times, 27 December 2005. Accessed 6 December 2011.
- Kirby, Terry (7 February 2006). "Scientists hail discovery of hundreds of new species in remote New Guinea". The Independent. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
||West Papua||Pacific Ocean||Pacific Ocean|
|West Papua|| West Sepik
|Arafura Sea||Arafura Sea||Torres Strait|