Al-Mujaydil

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al-Mujaydil
al-Mujaydil is located in Mandatory Palestine
al-Mujaydil
al-Mujaydil
Arabic المْجيدل
Subdistrict Nazareth
Coordinates 32°40′40.29″N 35°14′30.53″E / 32.6778583°N 35.2418139°E / 32.6778583; 35.2418139Coordinates: 32°40′40.29″N 35°14′30.53″E / 32.6778583°N 35.2418139°E / 32.6778583; 35.2418139
Population 1,900 (1945)
Area 18,836 dunams

18.8 km²

Date of depopulation 15 July 1948[1]
Cause(s) of depopulation Military assault by Yishuv forces
Current localities Migdal HaEmek, Yifat

Al-Mujaydil (Arabic: المْجيدل‎ (also: al-Mujeidil[2]) was a former Palestinian village located 6 km southwest of Nazareth. Al-Mujaydil was one of a few towns that achieved local council status by the Mandatory Palestine government. In 1945, the village had a population of 1,900 and total land area of 18,836 dunams – mostly Arab-owned. The population was almost entirely Christian and the town contained a Roman Catholic church and monastery.

History[edit]

Traces of a Roman road was found close to the village, which may indicate that the region was opened to intensive settlements as early as Roman times.[3]

In 1596, Al-Mujaydil was part of the Ottoman Empire, nahiyah (subdistrict) of Tabariyya under the Sanjak Safad, with a population of 4 Muslim families. It paid taxes on wheat and barley, fruit trees, as well as on goats and beehives.[4]

C.R. Conder, of The Survey of Western Palestine, camped by the place in the 1870s, and described the village as a place being visited by missionaries.[5] The village was also described as being "flourishing", and built of stone and mud. It was on the northern side of a small plateau, and olive groves were cultivated to the south and to the east. The population size was estimated at 800 (in 1859), and they cultivated 100 faddans.[6]

In 1882, Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia, the brother of the Russian Tsar, visited the village, and donated money for the construction of a Russian Orthodox Church there in the hope that local Christians would be converted to the Orthodox faith.[7] However, the Patriarch of Jerusalem Nikodim opened the church to all denominations in the village and ensured it functioned most of the time as a village school.[8]

In 1903, a Roman Catholic church was built in the village. It housed on its first floor a trilingual school for boys and girls, (teaching was in Arabic, Italian and French). It also housed a local clinic for the benefit of the villagers.[8]

In 1930, the al-Huda mosque was built in the village, it was 12 meters high and 8 meters wide. A kuttab was nearby. The mosque was famous for the elaborate system it used to collect rainfall from its roof into a well. A tall minaret was added in the 1940s.[7]

1948 and aftermath[edit]

Al-Mujaydil was captured by the Haganah's Golani Brigade during second half of Operation Dekel the 1948 Arab–Israeli War on 15 July 1948. The attack included a bombing raid by Israeli planes.[9] Most of the population fled to the nearby city of Nazareth, where they live as internal refugees.

In August 1948, a Jezreel Battalion Golani patrol encountered "groups of Arab women working fields" near Al-Mujaydil, and they reported that: "I [squad OC Shalom Lipman] ordered the machine-gun to fire three bursts over their heads, to drive them off. They fled in the direction of the olive grove...". But after the patrol left, the villagers returned. The patrol came back and encountered "a group of Arab men and women... I opened fire at them and as a result one Arab man died and one Arab man and one woman were injured. In the two incidents, I expended 31 bullets." The following day, 6 August, the same patrol encountered two Arab funeral processions. The commander remarked dryly that "one can only assume that one of yesterday ´s wounded died." A day or two after, the patrol again encountered "a large group of Arab women in the fields of Mujeidil. When we approached them to drive them off, an Arab male [was found] hiding near them, [and] he was executed by us. The women were warned not to return to this area of Mujeidil." The company commander´s commented: "Arab women repeatedly attempt to return to Mujeidil, and they are usually accompanied by men. I gave firm orders to stymie every attempt [lehasel kol nisayon] to return to the village of Mujeidil."[10]

However, in 1950, after intervention from the Pope Pius XII, the Christians of the village were offered the opportunity to move back to the village, but refused to do so without their Muslim neighbours. Israel then destroyed half of the houses and one of the village mosques.[7]

The Israeli town of Migdal HaEmek was founded by Iranian Jews in 1952 on village land, less than 1 km southwest of the village site. Yifat, established in 1926 on what were traditionally village land, is 2 km to the west of the site of Al-Mujaydil.[11]

The Palestinian historian Walid Khalidi, described the remains of the village in 1992: "Most of the site is covered with a pine forest that serves as an Israeli park. The monastery and parts of the ( destroyed) church are the only remaining buildings on the site; monks still live in the monastery. Remnants of destroyed houses and the walls of a cemetery are visible. Cactuses and pomegranate, olive, and fig trees grow around the site, which is dotted with wells."[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Morris, 2004, p xvii, village #137. Also gives the cause of depopulation.
  2. ^ Morris, 2004
  3. ^ Khalidi, 1992, p. 349
  4. ^ Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter and Kamal Abdulfattah (1977), Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft. p. 187.
  5. ^ Conder, 1878, p.158
  6. ^ Conder, Claude Reignier and H.H. Kitchener: The Survey of Western Palestine. London:Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund, 1881, I, p.275. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p.348
  7. ^ a b c Pappé, 2006, p. 153
  8. ^ a b Pappé, 2006, p. 154
  9. ^ Pappe, Ilan (2006) The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine. Oneworld. ISBN 1-85168-467-0. p.172.
  10. ^ Jezreel Battalion HQ to Golani\Intelligence, 8 August 1948, IDFA 128\51\\32. The report says that the executions occurred on "3.8.48",- but this would seem to be an error; it should probably read "7.8.48." The use of the word lehasel , literally, "to liquidate" -is indicative. Also typical is the shift to passive mode when reporting the executions. Noted by Morris, 2004, p. 445-6, 460.
  11. ^ a b Khalidi, 1992, p 350

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]