Simsim, Gaza

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Simsim
Simsim is located in Mandatory Palestine
Simsim
Simsim
Arabic سمسم
Name meaning "Sesame"
Also spelled Sumsum, Semsem
Subdistrict Gaza
Coordinates 31°34′02″N 34°36′26″E / 31.56722°N 34.60722°E / 31.56722; 34.60722Coordinates: 31°34′02″N 34°36′26″E / 31.56722°N 34.60722°E / 31.56722; 34.60722
Population 855 (1931)
Area 16,797 dunams
Date of depopulation 12 May 1948[1]
Cause(s) of depopulation Expulsion by Yishuv forces
Current localities Gevar'am, Or HaNer

Simsim (Arabic: سمسم‎), known to the Crusaders as Semsem, was a Palestinian village, located 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) northeast of Gaza. It was depopulated just prior to the outbreak of 1948 Arab-Israeli war.[2] On 12 May 1948, pre-state Israeli forces expelled the villagers, along with those of the neighboring village of Najd.[3]

History[edit]

Simsim contained two archaeological sites known locally as ar-Ras and Sha'fat al-Mughur (the latter of which contained a Roman cemetery).[2]

Ottoman period[edit]

Simsim was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517, and by 1596 it was part of the nahiya (subdistrict) of Gaza under the liwa' (district) of Sanjak of Gaza, and it had a population of 110. It paid taxes on a number of crops, including wheat, barley and fruit trees, as well as on goats and beehives.[4]

In A Handbook for Travellers in Syria and Palestine (1858), Josias Leslie Porter describes the village as standing "amidst a little grove of trees, about a 1/4 mile north of the road."[5]

An Ottoman village list of about 1870 indicated 69 houses and a population of 119, though the population count included only men.[6] In the late nineteenth century, Simsim was surrounded by gardens. It had a well, a pool, and an olive grove that was planted to the north.[7]

Karl Baedeker and his travelling companions writing in 1894 are more specific, noting that the village is located in an olive grove and that tobacco and sesame are the principal crops grown there.[8]

British Mandate of Palestine period[edit]

In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Semsem had a population of 760, all Muslims,[9] increasing in the 1931 census, when Sumsum had a population of 855 Muslims in 195 houses.[10]

1948 war and after[edit]

During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War the villagers of Simsim, together with the surrounding villages, were driven out by soldiers from the Negev Brigade on 12-13 May 1948 as part of Operation Barak. In Simsim the occupying troops found only a handful of old people. They blew up five houses and warned that if the village's weapons were not handed over the following day, they would blow up the rest.[11] But the inhabitants repeatedly returned to the village, either to resettle or to cultivate crops. At the end of May, a Negev Brigade unit, with orders to expel "the Arabs from Sumsum and Burayr and burn their granaries and fields", swept through the villages, encountering resistance in Sumsum, and killed "5" (or, according to another report, "20") and blew up granaries and a well.[12] The Israeli troops returned to Simsim yet again, on 9 or 10 June 1948, again burning houses and skirmishing with Arabs.[13]

The present Jewish locality of Gevar'am was established in 1942 on land traditionally belonging to the village. Or HaNer lie less than one km south of the village site, on land formerly belonging to Najd, Gaza.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Morris, 2004, p. xix, village #316. Also gives cause of depopulation.
  2. ^ a b "Welcome to Simsim". Palestine Remembered. Retrieved 2007-12-03. 
  3. ^ Morris, 2004, p. 258
  4. ^ Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 147. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p. 136
  5. ^ Porter, 1858, p. 262.
  6. ^ Socin, 1879, p. 161
  7. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1883, p. 260. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p.136
  8. ^ Baedeker et al., 1894, p. 154.
  9. ^ Barron, 1923, Table V, Sub-district of Gaza, p. 8
  10. ^ Mills , 1932, p. 6
  11. ^ ´Ephraim´to Sarig, ´Summary for 14.5.48´, IDFA 922\75\\1220; and HGS\Operations Logbook, entry for 14 May 1948, IDFA 922\75\\1176. Cited in Morris, 2004, p. 258
  12. ^ ´Yisrael´, "Report of the Search through Burayr and Sumsum´, 2 Jun. 1948. IDFA 2090\50\\10; unsigned, "Daily Report for 31.5.48", IDFA 922\75\\1220; and HGS Logbook, entry for 1 June 1948, IDFA 922\75\\1176. Cited in Morris, 2004, p. 258
  13. ^ Unsigned, "Daily Summary -11.6.48", IDFA 922\75\\1220. Cited in Morris, 2004, p. 258
  14. ^ Khalidi, 1992, p. 136

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]