Demographics of Cyprus

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Population distribution by ethnicity (1960 census)

The people of Cyprus are broadly divided into two main ethnic communities, Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, who share many cultural traits but maintain distinct identities based on ethnicity, religion, language, and close ties with their respective motherlands. Before the dispute started in 1964 the peoples of Cyprus (then 77% Greek Cypriots, 18% Turkish Cypriots, 5% other nationalities, including Armenians and Maronites)[1] were dispersed over the entire island.

The Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974 de facto partitioned the island into two political areas: 99.5% of Greek Cypriots now live in the Republic of Cyprus, while 98.7% of Turkish Cypriots live in Northern Cyprus (of other nationalities, 99.2% live in the Greek Cypriot area in the south).[2] Greek is predominantly spoken in the South, where the majority are Greek Cypriots, Turkish in the north, where the majority are Turkish Cypriots. English is widely used over all of the island.

The total population of Cyprus as of the end of 2006 is slightly over 1 million, comprising 789,300 in the territory controlled by the government of the Republic of Cyprus[3] and 265,100 in Northern Cyprus. The population of Northern Cyprus includes some 150,000-160,000 Turkish immigrants who are regarded as "illegal settlers" by the Republic of Cyprus government and are not included in the population statistics of the Republic of Cyprus Statistical Service.[4][5]

Population[edit]

838,897 in Republic of Cyprus controlled area (October 2011 census preliminary result) [6]
265,100 in Republic of Northern Cyprus (2006 population census).[7]
1,103,997 total population of Cyprus (sum of population in Government controlled area and Northern Cyprus, 2006-2007 data)

Population by citizenship

Republic of Cyprus government controlled area:

1992 census: 95.8% Cypriot, 4.2% Non-Cypriot [8]
2001 census: 90.6% Cypriot, 9.4% Non-Cypriot [8]
2011 census: 78.6% Cypriot, 21.4% Non-Cypriot (preliminary)[6]

Republic of Northern Cyprus government controlled area:[7]

2006 census (de facto population): 66.7% TRNC, 29.3% Turkey, 4.0% other

Vital statistics[edit]

Cyprus (1901–1990)[edit]

Cyprus: population growth 1961-2003 (numbers for the entire island, excluding in recent years some 150,000 Turkish immigrants residing in Northern Cyprus).

Historical data about main demographic indicators from 1901 to 1990, for the entire island:[9][10][11]

Average population (x 1000) Live births1 Deaths1 Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000)
1901 238 7 300 4 300 3 000 30.6 18.1 12.5
1902 241 6 700 3 500 3 200 28.0 14.6 13.4
1903 245 7 000 3 600 3 400 28.6 14.6 14.0
1904 249 7 600 3 700 3 900 30.4 14.8 15.6
1905 253 7 500 4 500 3 000 29.6 17.7 11.9
1906 257 7 900 4 100 3 800 30.7 15.8 14.9
1907 260 8 200 4 600 3 600 31.4 17.7 13.7
1908 264 8 700 5 200 3 500 32.9 19.7 13.2
1909 268 8 000 4 500 3 500 29.8 16.9 12.9
1910 271 8 700 4 100 4 600 32.1 15.2 16.9
1911 275 8 700 4 500 4 200 31.6 16.2 15.4
1912 279 8 000 4 900 3 100 28.5 17.7 10.8
1913 283 8 700 5 300 3 400 30.7 18.8 11.9
1914 287 9 500 5 100 4 400 33.1 17.6 15.5
1915 291 10 000 5 800 4 200 34.3 19.8 14.5
1916 294 5 900 5 300 600 20.0 17.9 2.1
1917 297 8 800 5 400 3 400 29.5 18.2 11.3
1918 301 9 900 6 900 3 000 32.9 22.9 10.0
1919 305 8 900 5 200 3 700 29.2 17.2 12.0
1920 309 9 100 7 400 1 700 29.5 23.9 5.6
1921 312 8 400 6 200 2 200 26.8 20.0 6.8
1922 315 9 000 6 200 2 800 28.6 19.6 9.0
1923 318 8 100 5 700 2 400 25.5 18.0 7.5
1924 322 8 800 5 600 3 200 27.3 17.4 9.9
1925 326 8 300 4 700 3 600 25.6 14.4 11.2
1926 330 8 500 5 600 2 900 25.9 17.1 8.8
1927 333 8 400 5 200 3 200 25.2 15.6 9.6
1928 337 9 700 5 100 4 600 28.9 15.2 13.7
1929 341 10 400 4 600 5 800 30.4 13.5 16.9
1930 345 11 100 5 700 5 400 32.1 16.4 15.7
1931 349 10 500 5 900 4 600 30.2 17.0 13.2
1932 352 10 100 5 740 4 360 28.7 16.3 12.4
1933 356 9 750 4 910 4 840 27.4 13.8 13.6
1934 360 10 852 4 757 6 095 30.1 13.2 16.9
1935 363 11 735 4 976 6 759 32.3 13.7 18.6
1936 367 12 727 4 656 8 071 34.7 12.7 22.0
1937 371 10 954 6 334 4 620 29.5 17.1 12.5
1938 376 11 804 5 445 6 359 31.4 14.5 16.9
1939 393 12 214 5 519 6 695 31.1 14.0 17.0
1940 401 13 254 4 678 8 576 33.1 11.7 21.4
1941 409 11 402 5 058 6 344 27.9 12.4 15.5
1942 412 9 221 6 747 2 474 22.4 16.4 6.0
1943 416 12 405 5 155 7 250 29.8 12.4 17.4
1944 425 14 330 4 263 10 067 33.7 10.0 23.7
1945 435 13 269 4 111 9 158 30.5 9.5 21.1
1946 447 14 482 3 793 10 689 32.4 11.0 23.9
1947 458 15 158 3 875 11 283 33.1 11.0 24.6
1948 477 15 078 5 250 9 828 31.6 11.0 20.6
1949 485 13 234 5 290 7 944 27.3 11.0 16.4
1950 494 14 517 5 340 9 187 29.4 11.0 18.6
1951 502 14 403 5 370 9 043 28.7 10.5 18.0
1952 508 13 358 5 380 7 968 26.3 10.5 15.7
1953 515 13 446 5 410 8 036 26.1 10.5 15.6
1954 523 13 893 5 490 8 403 26.6 10.5 16.1
1955 530 13 747 5 570 8 177 25.9 10.5 15.4
1956 536 13 875 5 630 8 215 25.9 10.5 15.3
1957 546 14 100 5 730 8 350 25.8 10.5 15.3
1958 558 14 320 5 860 8 480 25.7 10.5 15.2
1959 567 14 411 5 950 8 491 25.4 10.5 15.0
1960 573 14 500 6 020 8 510 25.3 10.5 14.9
1961 575 15 059 6 206 8 853 26.2 10.8 15.4
1962 577 14 787 6 101 8 686 25.6 10.6 15.0
1963 582 14 602 6 079 8 523 25.1 10.4 14.6
1964 587 14 224 6 206 8 018 24.2 10.6 13.7
1965 591 13 707 6 061 7 646 23.2 10.3 12.9
1966 595 13 250 5 991 7 259 22.3 10.1 12.2
1967 599 12 788 5 971 6 817 21.3 10.0 11.4
1968 604 12 403 5 958 6 445 20.5 9.9 10.7
1969 609 12 046 5 946 6 100 19.8 9.8 10.0
1970 614 11 801 5 998 5 803 19.2 9.8 9.4
1971 620 11 641 5 983 5 658 18.8 9.7 9.1
1972 627 11 620 6 043 5 577 18.5 9.6 8.9
1973 634 11 600 6 047 5 553 18.3 9.5 8.8
1974 630 10 578 6 900 3 678 16.8 11.0 5.8
1975 610 9 768 4 823 4 945 16.0 7.9 8.1
1976 599 11 194 5 148 6 046 18.7 8.6 10.1
1977 599 10 951 5 445 5 506 18.3 9.1 9.2
1978 601 11 299 5 048 6 251 18.8 8.4 10.4
1979 605 11 920 5 083 6 837 19.7 8.4 11.3
1980 611 12 464 5 682 6 782 20.4 9.3 11.1
1981 618 12 111 5 190 6 921 19.6 8.4 11.2
1982 625 12 985 5 307 7 678 20.8 8.5 12.3
1983 632 13 078 5 433 7 645 20.7 8.6 12.1
1984 640 13 182 5 119 8 063 20.6 8.0 12.6
1985 648 12 622 5 502 7 120 19.5 8.5 11.0
1986 654 12 753 5 494 7 259 19.5 8.4 11.1
1987 660 12 331 5 869 6 462 18.7 8.9 9.8
1988 665 12 753 5 845 6 908 19.2 8.8 10.4
1989 671 12 141 5 702 6 439 18.1 8.5 9.6

1 The numbers of births and deaths 1901-1932 are estimates calculated from the birth and death rates.

South[edit]

Population map of Cyprus. Darker colors represent more residents.
Population density map of Cyprus (2001 census)

Historical data about main demographic indicators from 1990 to 2013, for the southern part of the island:[11]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate Infant mortality rate
1990 581 10 622 4 844 5 778 18.3 8.3 9.9 2.4 11.0
1991 594 9 486 4 455 5 031 16.0 7.5 8.5
1992 610 9 240 4 386 4 854 15.2 7.2 8.0
1993 626 10 514 4 789 5 725 16.8 7.6 9.1
1994 639 10 379 4 924 5 455 16.2 7.7 8.5
1995 651 9 869 4 935 4 934 15.2 7.6 7.6 2.0 8.5
1996 661 9 638 4 958 4 680 14.6 7.5 7.1 2.0 8.3
1997 671 9 275 5 173 4 102 13.8 7.7 6.1 1.9 8.0
1998 679 8 879 5 432 3 447 13.1 8.0 5.1 1.8 7.0
1999 687 8 505 5 070 3 435 12.4 7.4 5.0 1.7 6.0
2000 694 8 447 5 355 3 092 12.2 7.7 4.5 1.6 5.6
2001 702 8 167 4 827 3 340 11.6 6.9 4.8 1.6 4.9
2002 710 7 883 5 168 2 715 11.1 7.3 3.8 1.5 4.7
2003 718 8 088 5 200 2 888 11.2 7.2 4.0 1.51 4.1
2004 728 8 309 5 225 3 084 11.2 7.1 4.2 1.52 3.5
2005 739 8 243 5 420 2 823 10.9 7.2 3.7 1.48 4.6
2006 751 8 731 5 127 3 604 11.3 6.6 4.7 1.52 3.1
2007 767 8 575 5 380 3 195 10.9 6.9 4.1 1.44 3.1
2008 787 9 205 5 194 4 011 11.6 6.5 5.1 1.48 3.5
2009 808 9 608 5 182 4 426 12.0 6.5 5.5 1.48 3.3
2010 829 9 801 5 103 4 698 11.7 6.1 5.6 1.44 3.2
2011 851 9 622 5 504 4 118 11.2 6.4 4.8 1.35 3.1
2012 865 10 151 5 665 4 486 11.8 6.6 5.2 1.39 3.5
2013 858 9 290 5 257 4 033 10.8 6.1 4.7

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

Estimates for 2004/05
Total population: 79.35 years
Males: 77.00 years
Females: 81.7 years

Historical population[edit]

Distribution of Turkish Cypriots (1891, 1911, 1931)
Distribution of Turkish Cypriots (1946, 1960, 1973)
Distribution of Turkish Cypriots (1891–1973)
Population of Cyprus according to ethnicity (1881–1960)
Ethnic
group
1881 census[12] 1891 census[12] 1901 census[12] 1911 census[12] 1921 census[12] 1931 census[12] 1946 census 1960 census
Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  %
Greeks 137,631 73.9 158,585 75.8 182,739 77.1 214,480 78.2 244,887 78.8 276,572 79.5 361,199 80.2 442,363 77.1
Turks 45,458 24.4 47,926 22.9 51,309 21.6 56,428 20.6 61,339 19.7 64,238 18.5 80,548 17.9 104,333 18.2
Armenians 174 0.1 280 0.1 517 0.2 558 0.2 1,197 0.4 3,377 1 3,686 0.8 3,630
Maronites 830 0.4 1,131 0.5 1,130 0.5 1,073 1,350 1,704 2,083 2,752
Others 1,738 0.9 1.364 0.7 1,327 0.6 1,569 1,942 2,068 2,598 20,488
Total 186,173 209,286 237,022 274,108 310,715 347,959 450,114 573,566

In the census from 1881 to 1960, all Muslims are counted as Turks, only Greek Orthodox are counted as Greeks. There were small populations of Greek speaking Muslims and Turkish speaking Greek Orthodox.[13]

During (1955-1960) 6,759 Turks and 31,844 Greeks emigrated.[14] During (1961-1973) 9,760 Turks and 39,192 Greeks emigrated.[14] In total, during (1955-1973) 16,519 Turks and 71,036 Greeks emigrated.[14] Of the emigrated Turkish Cypriots in this period, only 290 went to Turkey.[14]

Immigration[edit]

Large-scale demographic changes have been caused since 1964 by the movements of peoples across the island and the later influx of settlers from Turkey to Northern Cyprus. According to the 2011 Census there are 170,383 non-citizens living in Cyprus, of whom 106,270 are EU citizens and 64,113 are from third countries. The largest EU groups by nationality are Greeks (29,321), British (24,046), Romanians (23,706) and Bulgarians (18,536). The largest non-EU groups are Filipinos (9,413), Russians (8,164), Sri Lankans (7,269) and Vietnamese (7,028).[1]. There are an estimated 20-25,000 undocumented migrants from third countries also living in the Republic, though migrant rights groups dispute these figures. [2].The demographic changes in society have led to some racist incidents,[15][16][17] and the formation of the charity KISA in response.

The demographic character of Northern Cyprus changed after the Turkish invasion in 1974 and especially during the last 10–15 years. The TRNC census carried out in April 2006 showed that out of a total population of 256,644 in Northern Cyprus, 132,635, or 52%, were Turkish Cypriots in the sense that they were born in Cyprus of at least one Cyprus-born parent (for 120,007 of these both parents were Cyprus-born). In addition, 43,062 TRNC citizens (17%) had at least one non-Cypriot Turkish-born parent, 2,334 TRNC citizens (1%) had parents born in other countries, 70,525 residents (27%) had Turkish citizenship, and 8,088 (3%) were citizens of other countries (mainly UK, Bulgaria, and Iran).[7]

Based on these census data, it can be argued that 113,687 TRNC residents, or 44% of the population, are not Turkish Cypriots properly speaking, but are in fact "Turkish immigrants" or "Turkish settlers" from Anatolia. Alternative sources suggest that there are 146,122 Turkish settlers from Anatolia in TRNC (2007 figures)[18][not in citation given] and that the Turkish Cypriots in Northern Cyprus are today outnumbered by the Turkish settlers,[19] contrary to the picture presented by the 2006 TRNC census.

Almost one-third of the Turkish settlers in Northern Cyprus have been granted TRNC citizenship by the authorities of Northern Cyprus and have thus been naturalized.[20][not in citation given] Settlement in Northern Cyprus, especially if accompanied by naturalization, is a violation to the Geneva Conventions Protocol of 1977, since the Turkish occupation has been declared illegal by the UN. The Republic of Cyprus government regards these Turkish immigrants as "illegal settlers" and does not include them in the population estimates for the entire island published by the Republic of Cyprus Statistical Service.[5]

Ethnic groups[edit]

According to the 2011 census, combined with 2006 Northern Cyprus data, the ethnic composition for the entire island was 60% Greek, 24% Turkish, and 16% other.

Largest foreign ethnic groups (2011)[6]
Ethnic group  % Inhabitants
Greeks (from Greece) 17.3 31,044
British 14.8 26,659
Russian 13.6 24,376
Filipinos 10.7 19,197
Romanian 4.8 8,663
Bulgarian 5.4 9,744
Sri Lankan 4.1 7,350
Vietnamese 4 7,102
Syrian 1.8 3,235
Ukrainian 1.7 3,023
Polish 1.6 2,951
Indian 1.6 2,955
Georgian 1.2 2,113
German 0.6 1,162
Other EU countries 4 7,035
Other non-EU countries 12 22,938

Languages[edit]

Main article: Languages of Cyprus

Greek and Turkish are the official languages according to Article 3 of the Constitution of Cyprus. In Northern Cyprus, the official language is Turkish (Article 2 of the 1983 Constitution of Northern Cyprus). English is widely spoken on the island, and Russian has become fairly widespread in recent years due to the influx of immigrants and investors from CIS countries.

Religion[edit]

Main article: Religion in Cyprus

The Greek Cypriot community adheres to the Autocephalous Greek Orthodox Church of Cyprus and the Turkish Cypriot community adheres to Islam. The religious groups of Armenians, Maronites and Latins (about 9,000 people in total) opted, in accordance with the 1960 constitution, to belong to the Greek Cypriot community.[4]

According to the 2001 census carried out in the Government controlled area,[8] 98.2% of the population are Christians of various denominations. 94.8% of the population are Christian Orthodox, 0.9% Armenians and Maronites, 1.5% Roman Catholics, 1.0% Church of England, and 0.6% Muslims. The remaining 1.3% adhere to other religious denominations or did not state their religion.

Education[edit]

Further information: Cyprus § Education

Cyprus has a well-developed system of primary and secondary education. The majority of Cypriots earn their higher education at Greek, Turkish, British, or American universities, while there are also sizeable emigrant communities in the United Kingdom and Australia. Private colleges and state-supported universities have been developed by both the Turkish and Greek communities.

Demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[21]

The data in subsections Age structure through Divorce rate are for the area controlled by the Republic of Cyprus government only. The estimates are for 2007 from the Republic of Cyprus Statistical Abstract 2007 (pp. 63–88)[5] unless indicated otherwise.

Age structure[edit]

Age structure of the population of Cyprus
0-14 years: 17.47% or 137,900 ( 70,700 males/67,200 females)
15-64 years: 70.07% or 553,100 ( 274,300 males/278,800 females)
65 years and over: 12.46% or 98,300 ( 44,600 males/53,700 females)

Population growth rate[edit]

1.4%[22]

Net migration rate[edit]

Total immigrants: 19,142
Total emigrants: 11,752
Net migration: +7,390
Net migration rate: 9.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population

Sex ratio[edit]

At birth: 1.087 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.99 male(s)/female

Marriage rates[edit]

Estimates for 2006

Number of marriages:

Marriages of residents of Cyprus: 5,252
Total marriages (including tourists): 12,617

Marriage rates:

Residents of Cyprus: 6.8/1,000 population
Total marriages (including tourists): 16.4/1,000 population

Mean age at marriage:

Groom 33.7
Bride 30.5

Divorce rates[edit]

Total Divorces: 200,000
Divorce Rate: 2.27/1,000 population

Nationality[edit]

Noun: Cypriot(s)
Adjective: Cypriot

HIV/AIDS[edit]

Adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2003 est.)
People living with HIV/AIDS: fewer than 1,000 (1999 est.); 518 cases reported between 1986 and 2006 (58% Cypriots, 42% foreigners/visitors);[23]
Deaths: 85 reported between 1986 and 2006.[23]

"The information presented here concerns only part of Cyprus, due to an absence of reliable information concerning the island as a whole".[23]

References[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2006 edition".

  1. ^ Eric Solsten, ed. Cyprus: A Country Study, Library of Congress, Washington, DC, 1991
  2. ^ Cyprus Facts on Worldpress.org. Retrieved 29 February 2009
  3. ^ Statistical Service of the Republic of Cyprus, DEMOGRAPHIC REPORT 2007 (p. 12)
  4. ^ a b Cyprus Government web portal: Towns and Population. Retrieved on 28 February 2009
  5. ^ a b c Statistical Abstract of the Republic of Cyprus 2007[dead link], Statistical Service of Cyprus, pp. 63-88
  6. ^ a b c Preliminary Results of the Census of Population, 2011 Preliminary Results of the Census of Population, 2011
  7. ^ a b c TRNC General Population and Housing Unit Census 2006
  8. ^ a b c Statistical Service of Cyprus: Population and Social Statistics, Main Results of the 2001 Census. Retrieved on 29 February 2009
  9. ^ B.R. Mitchell. European historical statistics. 1750-1975.
  10. ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dybsets/1948%20DYB.pdf United nations. Demographic Yearbook 1948
  11. ^ a b Statistical Service of Cyprus
  12. ^ a b c d e f http://books.google.com/books?id=6jH4Xy4KFrYC&pg=PA21&dq=cyprus+census+turks+greeks&hl=nl&sa=X&ei=mkPPUc2bGIvFswaIy4HQDA&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=cyprus%20census%20turks%20greeks&f=false
  13. ^ A Hanbook of Cyprus, Hutchinson, Joseph Turner, page 57, 1907
  14. ^ a b c d Is the Turkish Cypriot population shrinking?: an overview of the ethno-demography of Cypus in the light of the preliminary results of the 2006 Turkish-Cypriot census, Mete Hatay, International Peace Research Institute, 2007, page 64
  15. ^ "My girl thought she was going to die"[dead link]
  16. ^ "Why the Republic of Cyprus is institutionally racist"[dead link]
  17. ^ "Teen says beaten and mocked by police in racist incident"[dead link]</
  18. ^ Çalışma Sosyal Güvenlik Bakanlığı
  19. ^ "The Turkish Settlers in Northern Cyprus". www.cyprus-conflict.net.  , quoting "Fresh Tension for Cyprus: Counting the Newcomers" in The New York Times, January 23, 1991. Archived March 25, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ Today'S Zaman
  21. ^ CIA - The World Factbook -- Cyprus
  22. ^ Population of Cyprus: end of 2007, Statistical Service of the Republic of Cyprus, Press Release 06/10/2008. Retrieved 26 February 2009.
  23. ^ a b c Cyprus: Sexually transmitted infections/HIV/AIDS, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, June 2008.