Low German

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For other uses, see Low German (disambiguation).
Low German
Low Saxon
Plattdüütsch
Native to Germany, Denmark, Netherlands
Ethnicity Saxons
Native speakers
5 million  (date missing)[citation needed]
Early forms
Dialects
Official status
Official language in
 Germany[1]
 Schleswig-Holstein
 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern[2]
Recognised minority
language in
Mexico (100,000)[3]

Bolivia (70,000)[4]

Paraguay (30,000)[5]
Language codes
ISO 639-2 nds
ISO 639-3 nds (Dutch varieties and Westphalian have separate codes)
Glottolog lowg1239  (Low German)[6]
Linguasphere 52-ACB
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Approximate area in which Low German/Low Saxon dialects are spoken in Europe.
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdüütsch, Nedderdüütsch; Standard German: Plattdeutsch or Niederdeutsch; Dutch: Nedersaksisch in the wider sense, see Nomenclature below) is an Ingvaeonic[7] West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands. It is descended from Old Saxon in its earliest form.

The historical Sprachraum of Low German also included contemporary northern Poland, the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia, and a part of southern Lithuania. German speakers in this area were forcibly expelled after the post-World War II border changes. The former German communities in the Baltic states also spoke Low German. Moreover, Middle Low German was the lingua franca of the Hanseatic League, and it had a significant influence on the Scandinavian languages.

Geographical extent[edit]

Low German in Europe[edit]

City limits sign; this city is called Emlichheim in Standard German and Emmelkamp in Low German

Dialects of Low German are widely spoken in the northeastern area of the Netherlands (Dutch Low Saxon) and are written there with an orthography based on Standard Dutch orthography.

Variants of Low German were widely (and are still to a far lesser extent) spoken in most parts of Northern Germany, for instance in the states of Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Hamburg, Bremen, Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Saxony-Anhalt and Brandenburg. Small portions of northern Hesse and northern Thuringia are traditionally Low Saxon-speaking too. Historically, Low German was also spoken in formerly German parts of Poland as well as in East Prussia and the Baltic States of Estonia and Latvia. The language was also formerly spoken in the outer areas of what is now the city-state of Berlin, but in the course of urbanisation and national centralisation in that city, the language has vanished. (The Berlin dialect itself is a northern outpost of High German and typologically a Missingsch variety,[citation needed] although rarely recognized as the latter.[citation needed]) Under the name Low Saxon, there are speakers in the Dutch north-eastern provinces of Groningen, Drenthe, Stellingwerven (part of Friesland), Overijssel and Gelderland, in several dialect groups per province.

Today, there are still speakers outside of Germany and the Netherlands to be found in the coastal areas of present-day Poland (minority of ethnic German Pommersch speakers who were not expelled from Pomerania, as well as the regions around Braniewo).[citation needed] In the Southern Jutland region of Denmark there may still be some Low German speakers in some German minority communities, but the Low German and North Frisian dialects of Denmark can be considered moribund at this time.[citation needed]

Low German outside Europe and the Mennonites[edit]

Main article: Plautdietsch
A public school in Witmarsum Colony (Paraná, Southern Brazil), teaches in the Portuguese language and in Plautdietsch.[8]

There are also immigrant communities where Low German is spoken in the western hemisphere, including Canada, the United States, Mexico, Belize, Venezuela, Bolivia, Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. In some of these countries, the language is part of the Mennonite religion and culture.[9] There are Mennonite communities in Ontario, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, and Minnesota which use Low German in their religious services and communities. These Mennonites are descended from primarily Dutch settlers that had initially settled in the Vistula Delta region of Prussia in the 16th and 17th centuries before moving to newly acquired Russian territories in Ukraine in the late 18th and early 19th centuries and then to the Americas in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The type of Low German spoken in these communities and in the Midwest region of the United States has diverged since emigration. The survival of the language is tenuous in many places and has died out in many places where assimilation has occurred. Members and friends of the Historical Society of North German Settlements in Western New York (Bergholz, NY), a community of Lutherans who trace their immigration from Pommerania in the 1840s, hold quarterly "Plattdeutsch lunch" events, where remnant speakers of the language gather to share and preserve the dialect. Mennonite colonies in Paraguay, Belize, and Chihuahua, Mexico have made Low German a "co-official language" of the community.[citation needed]


Pommersch is also spoken in parts of Southern and Southeastern Brazil, in the latter especially in the state of Espírito Santo, being official in five municipalities, and spoken among its ethnically European migrants elsewhere, primarily in the states of Rio de Janeiro and Rondônia. Pommersch-speaking regions of Southern Brazil are often assimilated into the general German Brazilian population and culture, for example celebrating the Oktoberfest, and there can even be a language shift from it to Riograndenser Hunsrückisch in some areas. In Espírito Santo, nevertheless, Pomeranian Brazilians are more often proud of their language, and particular religious traditions and culture,[10] and not rarely inheriting the nationalism of their ancestors, being more likely to accept marriages of its members with Brazilians of origins other than a Germanic Central European one than to assimilate with Brazilians of Swiss, Austrian, Czech, and non-Pommersch-speaking German and Prussian heritage – that were much more numerous immigrants to both Brazilian regions (and whose language almost faded out in the latter, due to assimilation and internal migration), by themselves less numerous than the Italian ones (with only Venetian communities in areas of highly Venetian presence conserving Talian, and other Italian languages and dialects fading out elsewhere).

Nomenclature[edit]

In Germany, native speakers of Low German call it Plattdüütsch or Nedderdüütsch. In the Netherlands, native speakers refer to their language as dialect, plat, or the name of their village, town or district.

Officially, Low German is called Niederdeutsch (Nether/Low German) by the German authorities and Nedersaksisch (Nether/Low Saxon) by the Dutch authorities. Plattdeutsch/Niederdeutsch and Platduits/Nedersaksisch are seen in linguistic texts from the German and Dutch linguistic communities respectively.

In Danish it is called Plattysk, Nedertysk or, rarely, Lavtysk.

Mennonite Low German is called "Plautdietsch."

"Low" refers to the flat plains and coastal area of the northern European lowlands, contrasted with the mountainous areas of central and southern Germany, Switzerland, and Austria, where High German is spoken.[11]

The colloquial term "Platt" denotes both Low German dialects and any non-standard variety of German; this use is chiefly found in northern and western Germany and is considered not to be linguistically correct.[12] In Dutch, the word Plat can also mean improper, or rude, which is why the term isn't popular in the Netherlands.

The ISO 639-2 language code for Low German (Low Saxon) has been nds (nedersaksisch) since May 2000.

Disambiguation[edit]

There are different uses of the term "Low German":

  1. A specific name of any West Germanic varieties that neither have taken part in the High German consonant shift nor classify as Low Franconian or Anglo-Frisian; this is the scope discussed in this article.
  2. A broader term for the closely related, continental West Germanic languages unaffected by the High German consonant shift, nor classifying as Anglo-Frisian, and thus including Low Franconian varieties spoken in Germany such as Kleverlandish, but not those in the Netherlands, thus excluding Dutch.

Legal status[edit]

The question of whether Low German should be considered a separate language, rather than a dialect of German or Dutch, has been a point of contention. Linguistics offers no simple, generally accepted criterion to decide this question.

Scholarly arguments have been put forward in favour of classifying Low German as a German dialect.[13][14] As said, these arguments are not linguistic but rather socio-political and build mainly around the fact that Low German has no official standard form or use in sophisticated media. The situation of Low German may thus be considered a pseudo-dialectized abstand language.

In contrast, Old Saxon and Middle Low German are generally considered separate languages in their own rights. Since Low German has undergone a strong decline since the 18th century, the perceived similarities with High German or Dutch may often be direct High German/Dutch adaptations due to the growing incapability of speakers to speak correctly what was once Low German proper.

At the request of Schleswig-Holstein, the German government has declared Low German as a regional language.

German offices in Schleswig-Holstein are obliged to accept and handle applications in Low German on the same footing as Standard High German applications.[15] The Bundesgerichtshof ruled in a case that this was even to be done at the patent office in Munich, in a non–Low German region, when the applicant then had to pay the charge for a translator,[16] because applications in Low German are considered "nicht in deutscher Sprache abgefasst" (not written in the German language).

Low German has been recognised by the Netherlands and by Germany (since 1999) as a regional language according to the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Within the official terminology defined in the charter, this status would not be available to a dialect of an official language (as per article 1 (a)), and hence not to Low German in Germany if it were considered a dialect of German. Advocates of the promotion of Low German have expressed considerable hope that this political development will at once lend legitimacy to their claim that Low German is a separate language and help mitigate the functional limits of the language that may still be cited as objective criteria for a mere dialect (such as the virtually complete absence from legal and administrative contexts, schools, the media, etc.).[17]

Classification and related languages[edit]

Low German is a part of the continental West Germanic dialect continuum.

To the West, it blends into the Low Franconian languages which distinguish two plural verbal endings, as opposed to a common verbal plural ending in Low German.

To the South, it blends into the High German dialects of Central German that have been affected by the High German consonant shift. The division is usually drawn at the Benrath line that traces the maken – machen isogloss.

To the East, it abuts the Kashubian language (the only remnant of the Pomeranian language) and, since the expulsion of nearly all Germans from Pomerania following the Second World War, also by the Polish language. The Low German dialects of Pomerania are included in the Pommersch group.

To the North and Northwest, it abuts the Danish and the Frisian languages. Note that in Germany, Low German has replaced the Frisian languages in many regions. The Saterland Frisian is the only remnant of East Frisian language and is surrounded by Low German, as are the few remaining North Frisian varieties, and the Low German dialects of those regions have influences from Frisian substrates.

Some classify the northern dialects of Low German together with English, Scots, and Frisian as the North Sea Germanic or Ingvaeonic languages. However, most exclude Low German from that group often called Anglo-Frisian languages because some distinctive features of that group of languages are only partially observed in Low German, for instance the Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law (some dialects have us, os for ‘us’ whereas others have uns, ons), and because other distinctive features do not occur in Low German at all, for instance the palatalization of /k/ (compare palatalized forms such as English cheese, Frisian tsiis to non-palatalized forms such as Low German Kees or Kaise, Dutch kaas, German Käse).

Varieties of Low German[edit]

In Germany[edit]

In the Netherlands[edit]

The Dutch Low Saxon varieties, which are also defined as Dutch dialects, consist of:

History[edit]

Main article: History of Low German

Old Saxon[edit]

Main article: Old Saxon

Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, is a West Germanic language. It is documented from the 9th century until the 12th century, when it evolved into Middle Low German. It was spoken on the north-west coast of Germany and in Denmark by Saxon peoples. It is closely related to Old Anglo-Frisian (Old Frisian, Old English), partially participating in the Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law.

Only a few texts survive, predominantly in baptismal vows the Saxons were required to perform at the behest of Charlemagne. The only literary texts preserved are Heliand and the Old Saxon Genesis.

Middle Low German[edit]

Main article: Middle Low German

The Middle Low German language is an ancestor of modern Low German. It was spoken from about 1100 to 1500. The neighbouring languages within the dialect continuum of the West Germanic languages were Middle Dutch in the West and Middle High German in the South, later substituted by Early New High German. Middle Low German was the lingua franca of the Hanseatic League, spoken all around the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Based on the language of Lübeck, a standardized written language was developing, though it was never codified.

Contemporary[edit]

There is a distinction between the German and the Dutch Low Saxon/Low German situation. After mass education in Germany in the 19th and 20th centuries the slow decline which Low German was experiencing since the end of the Hanseatic League turned into a free fall. In the early 20th century, scholars in the Netherlands argued that speaking dialects hindered language acquisition, and it was therefore strongly discouraged. Many parents, however, continued to speak Low Saxon with their children, since they could not speak anything else, nor did they need to; many of the Eastern Dutch towns and villages were largely self-reliant, and located far from the economic heart of the country.

As education improved, and mass communication became more widespread, the Low Saxon dialects declined, but never disappeared. People in the Netherlands born up to the 1980s often have one of the Low Saxon dialects as one of their first languages, although decline has been greater in urban centres of the Low Saxon regions. When in 1975 dialect folk and rock bands such as Normaal and Boh Foi Toch became successful with their overt disapproval of what they experienced as "misplaced Dutch snobbery" and the western Dutch contempt for (speakers of) Low Saxon dialects, they quickly gained an enormous following among the more rurally oriented inhabitants of the Netherlands, launching Low Saxon as a vibrant sub-culture, which has been very lively right up to the present day. They inspired many contemporary dialect artists and rock bands, such as Daniël Lohues, Mooi Wark, Jovink en de Voederbietels, Hádiejan and many other less successful artists.

Today efforts are made in Germany and in the Netherlands to protect Low German as a regional language. Various Low German dialects are understood by 10 million people, and native to about 3 million people all around northern Germany. Most of these speakers are located in rural villages and are often elderly. In the Netherlands, Low Saxon is still spoken more widely than in Northern Germany. A 2005 study showed that in the Tweante region 62% of the inhabitants used Low Saxon daily, and up to 75% regularly.

The KDE project supports Low German (nds) as a language for its computer desktop environment,[18] as does the GNOME Desktop Project. Open source software is getting translated into Low German today and most of it is managed by the NDS umbrella Project nds.sourceforge.net.[19] Examples are the Linux distributions Ubuntu or Fedora.

Sound change[edit]

As with the Anglo-Frisian languages and the North Germanic languages, Low German has not been influenced by the High German consonant shift except for old /ð/ having shifted to /d/. Therefore a lot of Low German words sound similar to their English counterparts. One feature that does distinguish Low German from English generally is final devoicing of obstruents, as exemplified by the words 'good' and 'wind' below. This is a characteristic of Dutch and German as well and involves positional neutralization of voicing contrast in the coda position for obstruents (i.e. t = d at the end of a syllable.) This is not used in English except in the English county of Yorkshire, where there is a process known as Yorkshire assimilation.[20]

For instance: water [wɒtɜ, ˈwatɜ, ˈwætɜ], later [ˈlɒːtɜ, ˈlaːtɜ, ˈlæːtɜ], bit [bɪt], dish [dis, diʃ], ship [ʃɪp, skɪp, sxɪp], pull [pʊl], good [ɡou̯t, ɣɑu̯t, ɣuːt], clock [klɔk], sail [sɑi̯l], he [hɛi̯, hɑi̯, hi(j)], storm [stoːrm], wind [vɪˑnt], grass [ɡras, ɣras], hold [hoˑʊl(t)], old [oˑʊl(t)].

Low German is a West Germanic language of the lowlands and as such did not experience the High German consonant shift. The table below shows the relationship between English and Low German consonants which were unaffected by this chain shift and gives the modern German counterparts, which were affected by the sound shift.

Proto-Germanic High German Low German Dutch English German Frisian Swedish
k ch maken maken make machen meitsje maka (arch.)
k k Keerl (fellow) kerel churl Kerl * tsjirl (arch.) karl
d t Dag dag day Tag dei dag
t ss eten eten eat essen ite äta
t z (/t͡s/) teihn tien ten zehn tsien tio
t tz, z (/t͡s/) sitten zitten sit sitzen sitte sitta
p f, ff Schipp schip ship Schiff skip skepp ***
p pf Peper peper pepper Pfeffer piper peppar
β b Wief, Wiever wijf, wijven ** wife, wives Weib, Weiber ** wiif, wiven viv **

Notes: *German Kerl is a loanword from Low German; **The series Wief-wijf, etc. are cognates, not semantic equivalents. The meanings of some of these words have shifted over time. For example, the correct equivalent term for "wife" in modern Dutch, German and Swedish is vrouw, Frau and fru respectively; using wijf, Weib or viv for a human is considered archaic in German and Swedish and derogatory in Dutch, comparable to "wicked girl." No cognate to Frau/vrouw/fru has survived in English (cf. Old English frōwe "lady": the English word frow "woman, lady" rather being a borrowing of the Middle Dutch word). ***Pronounced shepp since the 17th century

Grammar[edit]

Generally speaking, Low German grammar shows similarities with the grammars of Dutch, Frisian, English, and Scots, but the dialects of Northern Germany share some features (especially lexical and syntactic features) with German dialects.

Nouns[edit]

Low German declension has only two morphologically marked noun cases, where accusative and dative together constitute an oblique case, and the genitive case has been lost.

Example case marking: Boom (tree), Bloom (flower), Land (land)
  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative en Boom, de Boom Bööm, de Bööm en Bloom, de Bloom Blomen, de Blomen en Land, dat Land Lannen, de Lannen
Oblique en Boom, den Boom Bööm, de Bööm en Bloom, de Bloom Blomen, de Blomen en Land, dat Land Lannen, de Lannen

Dative den/dän[edit]

In most modern dialects, the nominative and oblique cases are primarily distinguished only in the singular of masculine nouns. In some Low German dialects, the genitive case is distinguished as well (e.g. varieties of Mennonite Low German.) It is marked in the masculine gender by changing the masculine definite determiner 'de' from de to den/dän. By contrast, German distinguishes four cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, and dative. So, for example, the definite article of the masculine singular has the forms: der (nom), den (acc), des (gen), and dem (dat.) Thus case marking in Low German is simpler than German's.

Verbs[edit]

In Low German verbs are conjugated for person, number, and tense. Verb conjugation for person is only differentiated in the singular. There are five tenses in Low German: present tense, preterite, perfect, and pluperfect, and in Mennonite Low German the present perfect which signifies a remaining effect from a past finished action. For example "Ekj sie jekomen", "I am come", means that the speaker came and he is still at the place to which he came as a result of his completed action.

Example verb conjugation: slapen, "to sleep"
  Present Preterite Perfect
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st Person ik slaap wi slaapt/slapen ik sleep wi slepen ik heff slapen wi hebbt/hebben slapen
2nd Person du slöppst ji slaapt/slapen du sleepst ji slepen du hest slapen ji hebbt/hebben slapen
3rd Person he, se, dat slöppt se slaapt/slapen he, se, dat sleep se slepen he, se, dat hett slapen se hebbt/hebben slapen

Unlike Dutch, German, and southern Low German, the northern dialects form the participle without the prefix ge-, like the Scandinavian languages, Frisian and English. Compare to the German past participle geschlafen. This past participle is formed with the auxiliary verbs hebben "to have" and wesen/sien "to be". It should be noted that e- is used instead of ge- in most Southern (below Groningen in the Netherlands) dialects, though often not when the past participle ends with -en or in a few oft-used words like west (been).

The reason for the two conjugations shown in the plural is regional: dialects in the central area use -t while the dialects in East Frisia and the dialects in Mecklenburg[examples needed] and further east use -en. The -en suffix is of Dutch influence. The -t ending is however more often encountered, even in areas where -en endings were promininent due to the fact that these -t endings are seen as kennzeichnend Niederdeutsch, that is to say a well-known feature of Low German.

There are 26 verb affixes.

There is also a progressive form of verbs in present, corresponding to the same in the Dutch language. It is formed with wesen (to be), the preposition an (at) and "dat" (the/it).

  Low German Dutch English
Main form Ik bün an't Maken. Ik ben aan het maken. I am making.
Main form 2 Ik do maken.1 - -
Alternative form Ik bün an'n Maken.2 Ik ben aan het maken. -
Alternative form 2 Ik bün maken.3 Ik ben makende. I am making.

1 Instead of 'to wesen, sien (to be) Saxon uses doon (to do) to make to present continuous.
2 Many see the 'n as an old dative ending of dat which only occurs when being shortened after prepositions. This is actually the most frequently-used form in colloquial Low German.
3 This form is archaic and mostly unknown to Low German speakers. It is the same pattern as in the English example "I am making." The present participle has the same form as the infinitive: maken is either "to make" or "making".

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Since there is no standard Low German, there is no standard Low German consonant system. However, there is one thing that's present in the whole Low German speaking area,[21] and that is the retraction of /s z/ to [ ].[21] That of course doesn't mean that there aren't speakers with non-retracted [s z].

The table shows the consonant system of North Saxon, a West Low Saxon dialect.[22]

  Labial Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal-Velar Glottal
Plosive p  b t  d   k  ɡ  
Fricative f  v s  z ʃ x  ɣ h
Nasal m n   ŋ  
Approximant   r l    

Writing system[edit]

Low German is written using the Latin alphabet. There is no true standard orthography, only several locally more or less accepted orthographic guidelines, those in the Netherlands mostly based on Dutch orthography, and those in Germany mostly based on German orthography. There is a standard orthography which was invented by "Sass". It is mostly used by modern official publications and internet sites, especially the Low German Wikipedia. This diversity, a result of centuries of official neglect and suppression, has a very fragmenting and thus weakening effect on the language as a whole, since it has created barriers that do not exist on the spoken level. Interregional and international communication is severely hampered by this. Most of these systems aim at representing the phonetic (allophonic) output rather than underlying (phonemic) representations but trying to conserve many etymological spellings. Furthermore, many writers follow guidelines only roughly. This adds numerous idiosyncratic and often inconsistent ways of spelling to the already existing great orthographic diversity.

In 2011, writers of the Dutch Low Saxon Wikipedia developed a spelling that would be suitable and applicable to all varieties of Low Saxon in the Netherlands, although the semi-official dialect institutes have not picked up on this, or indicated that they[which?] believed that yet another writing system will only further confuse dialect writers, rather than suit them.[citation needed] The new spelling was introduced to the Dutch Low Saxon Wikipedia, to unify the spelling of categories, templates and comparable source code writings.

See also[edit]

Resources[edit]

There is a lot of information about Low German to be found online. A selection of these links can be found on this page, which will provide a good framework to understand the history, current situation and features of the language.

Online dictionaries:

Information:

Organizations:

If your organisation isn't listed here, feel free to add it.

Writers:

Musicians:

  • 3molPlaut (Ken Sawatzky, Vern and Christina Neufeld - Manitoba, Canada)
  • Skik (Drents/Dutch - Drenthe, the Netherlands)
  • Jan Cornelius (East Frisian - Ostfriesland, Germany)
  • Törf (Gronings - Groningen, the Netherlands)
  • Eltje Doddema (Veenkoloniaals - Groningen, the Netherlands)
  • Boh foi toch (Achterhoeks - Gelderland, the Netherlands)
  • Helmut Debus (Lower Saxony - Niedersachsen, Germany)
  • Wunnerwark (Lower Saxony - Niedersachsen, Germany)

Unorganized links:

References[edit]

  1. ^ § 23 Absatz 1 Verwaltungsverfahrensgesetz (Bund).
    Die Frage, ob unter deutsch rechtlich ausschließlich die hochdeutsche oder auch die niederdeutsche Sprache subsumiert wird, wird juristisch uneinheitlich beantwortet: Während der BGH in einer Entscheidung zu Gebrauchsmustereinreichung beim Deutschen Patent- und Markenamt in plattdeutscher Sprache das Niederdeutsche einer Fremdsprache gleichstellt („Niederdeutsche (plattdeutsche) Anmeldeunterlagen sind im Sinn des § 4a Abs. 1 Satz 1 GebrMG nicht in deutscher Sprache abgefaßt.“ – BGH-Beschluss vom 19. November 2002, Az. X ZB 23/01), ist nach dem Kommentar von Foerster/Friedersen/Rohde zu § 82a des Landesverwaltungsgesetzes Schleswig-Holstein unter Verweis auf Entscheidungen höherer Gerichte zu § 184 des Gerichtsverfassungsgesetzes seit 1927 (OLG Oldenburg, 10. Oktober 1927 – K 48, HRR 1928, 392) unter dem Begriff deutsche Sprache sowohl Hochdeutsch wie auch Niederdeutsch zu verstehen.
  2. ^ Unterschiedliche Rechtsauffassungen, ob Niederdeutsch in Deutschland insgesamt Amtssprache ist – siehe dazu: Amtssprache (Deutschland); zumindest aber in Schleswig-Holstein und Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
  3. ^ Cascante, Manuel M. (8 August 2012). "Los menonitas dejan México". ABC (in Spanish). Retrieved 19 February 2013. Los cien mil miembros de esta comunidad anabaptista, establecida en Chihuahua desde 1922, se plantean emigrar a la república rusa de Tartaristán, que se ofrece a acogerlos 
  4. ^ Los Menonitas en Bolivia CNN en Español
  5. ^ El Comercio: Menonitas cumplen 85 años en Paraguay con prosperidad sin precedentes
  6. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Low German". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  7. ^ Friedrich Maurer (1942), Nordgermanen und Alemannen: Studien zur germanischen und frühdeutschen Sprachgeschichte, Stammes- und Volkskunde, Strasbourg: Hünenburg.
  8. ^ "O trilinguismo no Colégio Fritz Kliewer de Witmarsum. (Paraná) (The trilingualism the College of Fritz Kliewer Witmarsum (Paraná))" (in Portuguese). Elvine Siemens Dück. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  9. ^ "Platdietsch". 2008-01-27. Retrieved 2008-02-29. 
  10. ^ (Portuguese) Claudio Vereza, Espírito Santo's state assemblyman by the Workers' Party | The Pomeranian people in Espírito Santo
  11. ^ See the definition of high in the Oxford English Dictionary (Concise Edition): ". . . situated far above ground, sea level, etc; upper, inland, as . . . High German".
  12. ^ Atlas zur deutschen Alltagssprache (AdA)
  13. ^ Sanders, W: "Sachsensprache — Hansesprache — Plattdeutsch. Sprachgeschichtliche Grundzüge des Niederdeutschen, Göttingen 1982
  14. ^ J. Goossens: Niederdeutsche Sprache. Versuch einer Definition, in: J. Goossens (ed.), Niederdeutsch. Sprache und Literatur, I, Neumünster 1973
  15. ^ http://www.schleswig-holstein.de/cae/servlet/contentblob/633574/publicationFile/SprachenchartaberichtDownload.pdf
  16. ^ de:Niederdeutsche Sprache#Stellung des Niederdeutschen
  17. ^ Institut für niederdeutsche Sprache - Zeitschriften
  18. ^ http://l10n.kde.org/stats/gui/trunk-kde4/nds/
  19. ^ http://nds.sourceforge.net
  20. ^ See John Wells, Accents of English, pages 366-7, Cambridge University Press, 1981
  21. ^ a b Adams (1975:289)
  22. ^ R.E. Keller, German Dialects. Phonology and Morphology, Manchester 1960

Bibliography[edit]

  • Adams, Douglas Q. (1975), "The Distribution of Retracted Sibilants in Medieval Europe", Language (Linguistic Society of America) 51 (2): 282–292, doi:10.2307/412855, JSTOR 412855