Voiced palatal fricative
|Voiced palatal fricative|
The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʝ⟩ (crossed-tail j), or in broad transcription ⟨j⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is j\.
The voiced palatal fricative is a very rare sound, occurring in only seven of the 317 languages surveyed by the original UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database. In four of the languages listed below (Kabyle, Margi, Modern Greek, and Scottish Gaelic) this sound occurs phonemically along with its voiceless counterpart and in several more as a result of phonological processes.
There's also a voiced post-palatal fricative (also called pre-velar, fronted velar etc.) in some languages.
Features of the voiced palatal fricative:
- Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Catalan||Majorcan||figuera||[fiˈʝeɾə]||'fig tree'||Occurs in complementary distribution with [ɟ]. Corresponds to [ɣ] in other varieties. See Catalan phonology|
|Dutch||Southern||geld||[ʝ̠ɛl̪t̪]||'money'||Post-palatal; more back in other dialects. See Hard and soft G in Dutch and Dutch phonology|
|Greek||Cypriot||ελιά||[e̞ˈʝːɐ]||'olive'||Allophone of /ʎ/|
|Standard Modern||γένος||[ˈʝ̠e̞no̞s̠ ] (help·info)||'gender'||Post-palatal. See Modern Greek phonology|
|Hungarian||dobj be||[dobʝ bɛ]||'throw (one/some) in'||An allophone of /j/. See Hungarian phonology|
|Irish||an ghrian||[ənʲ ˈʝɾʲiən̪ˠ]||'the sun'||See Irish phonology|
|Limburgish||Weert dialect||gèr||[ʝ̠ɛ̈ːʀ̝̊]||'gladly'||Post-palatal. Allophone of /ɣ/ before and after front vowels.|
|Pashto||Ghilji and Wardak dialects||موږ||[muʝ]||'we'|
|Scottish Gaelic||dhiubh||[ʝu]||'of them'||See Scottish Gaelic phonology|
|Spanish||sayo||[ˈsaʝo̞]||'smock'||More often is an approximant. May also be represented by ⟨ll⟩ in most dialects. See Yeísmo|
|Swedish||jord||[ʝuːɖ] (help·info)||'soil'||See Swedish phonology|
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