Pittsburgh metropolitan area
Pittsburgh, PA MSA
Pittsburgh – New Castle - Weirton, PA-WV-OH CSA
|Combined Statistical Area|
Map of metro area (MSA in green, CSA in yellow)
|• Metro||14,780 km2 (5,706 sq mi)|
|Elevation||−255 m (660-3,001 ft)|
|• Density||166/km2 (429/sq mi)|
|• GMP||$123.6 billion (23rd)|
|MSA/CSA = 2012,
Urban = 2010
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|ZIP codes||15xxx to 161xx|
|Area code(s)||304, 412, 681, 724, 740, 814, 878|
The Pittsburgh metropolitan area (also called Greater Pittsburgh, Southwestern Pennsylvania or the Pittsburgh Tri-State) is the largest population center in both the Ohio River Valley and Appalachia. The metropolitan area consists of the city of Pittsburgh in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and surrounding counties. By many definitions the area extends into the U.S. states of West Virginia and Ohio. The larger "tri-state" region is defined by the U.S. Census as the Combined Statistical Area (CSA) while definitions of the Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) are within Pennsylvania.
The area is renowned for its industries including steel, glass and oil; its economy also thrives on healthcare, education, technology, robotics, financial services and the film industry. The region is an emergent area for oil and natural gas companies' Marcellus shale production. The city is headquarters to major global financial institutions including PNC Financial Services (the nation's fifth-largest bank), Federated Investors and the regional headquarters of BNY Mellon. The region is also the 21st largest port in the United States with almost 34 million short tons of river cargo for 2011, the port ranked 9th largest in the U.S. when measured in domestic trade.
- 1 Definition
- 2 Communities
- 3 Townships
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Transportation
- 6 Sports
- 7 Education
- 8 Area codes
- 9 Regional identity
- 10 See also
- 11 External links
- 12 References
The U.S. Census Bureau defines the area as both a MSA consisting of seven Western Pennsylvania counties anchored by the city of Pittsburgh and a twelve county Pittsburgh–New Castle-Weirton CSA with 2 West Virginia counties and one in Ohio. The MSA definition includes the city proper and the Pennsylvania counties of Allegheny, Armstrong, Beaver, Butler, Fayette, Washington, and Westmoreland. The CSA definition also adds the two Western Pennsylvania counties of Lawrence and Indiana, West Virginia's Brooke and Hancock as well as Ohio's Jefferson.
The MSA had a 2012 population of 2,360,733 and has a land area of 5,343 sq. miles, while the CSA had a 2012 population of 2,661,369. Pittsburgh is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis containing an estimated 54 million people, while many residents also consider themselves part of the Mid-Atlantic coastal region of Virginia to New York. It is classified as Northeast by the U.S. Census with the West Virginia and Ohio components of the CSA being classified as South and Mid-west respectively. The entire MSA and CSA are within the Congressional Appalachian Regional Commission's definition of Appalachia.
The area's media market extends to 15 counties in Pennsylvania, Maryland and West Virginia. The region is also sometimes defined as reaching into the southwestern New York State county of Chautauqua the western Maryland counties of Garrett and Alleghany as well as the majority of West Virginia, all of Western Pennsylvania and the east-central counties of Ohio.
History of definition
Population MSA 1900-1990, CSA 2000–present
Since the U.S. Census officially began "metropolitan" definitions in 1950, the original counties included were: Allegheny, Westmoreland, Washington and Beaver.
In 1983 Fayette County was added, in 1993 Butler County was added, in 2003 Armstrong County was added with Lawrence County as a combined area.
2013 saw the combined area grow as both Indiana County, Pennsylvania was added and the counties of Jefferson in Ohio and Brooke and Hancock in West Virginia were added.
|Armstrong County Townships|
|Beaver County Townships|
|Butler County Townships|
|Fayette County Townships|
|Westmoreland County Townships|
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,431,087 people, 995,505 households, and 652,196 families residing within the MSA. The racial makeup of the MSA was 89.8% (2,182,444) White, 7.9% (191,103) African American, 0.1% (2,668) Native American, 1.1% (26,209) Asian, <0.1% (552) Pacific Islander, 0.3% (6,250) from other races, and 0.9% (21,861) from two or more races. 0.7% (17,408) were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
The median income for a household in the MSA was $35,908, and the median income for a family was $44,709. Males had a median income of $35,670 versus $23,993 for females. The per capita income for the MSA was $18,897.
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,525,730 people, 1,032,596 households, and 678,085 families residing within the CSA. The racial makeup of the CSA was 90.0% (2,272,338) White, 7.7% (194,519) African American, 0.1% (2,763) Native American, 1.1% (26,467) Asian, <0.1% (561) Pacific Islander, 0.3% (6,426) from other races, and 0.9% (22,656) from two or more races. 0.7% (17,937) were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
The median income for a household in the CSA was $35,563, and the median income for a family was $44,303. Males had a median income of $35,277 versus $23,713 for females. The per capita income for the CSA was $18,639.
Pittsburgh International Airport (to the west of downtown) and the smaller but less crowded Arnold Palmer Regional Airport (to the east of downtown) provide commercial service to the metro area. Other general aviation airports include:
- North Metro:
- South Metro:
- East Metro:
- West Metro:
The Pittsburgh area is served by four main-line Interstates including the Pennsylvania Turnpike (which is co-signed with I-76 and in the extreme eastern part of the region also co-signed with I-70):
As well as several Interstate spur routes:
- US 22 serving west area commuters from Steubenville, Ohio, through West Virginia and into the metro area of Washington County, Pennsylvania, and into Allegheny merging into I-376.
- US 30 in the Greensburg area and co-signed with I-376 through the city and western suburbs.
- US 119
- US 422
- SR 7 along the Ohio River in Jefferson County, Ohio.
- PA 28 serving the Allegheny Valley commuters in the Northeast and through suburban Armstrong County.
- Toll PA 43 (Mon–Fayette Expressway) a 70 mile long interstate grade route between the south hills and West Virginia.
- PA 65 serving commuters along the Ohio River valley to the northwest of the city.
- Toll PA 66 (Amos K. Hutchinson Bypass) as a partial east hills beltway for traffic from both Interstate 70 and the Pennsylvania Turnpike/Interstate 76.
- Fort Duquesne Boulevard serving as a downtown expressway between I-279 and I-579.
The Port Authority of Allegheny County (PAT) is the largest mass transit service in the metro area and includes a 26 mile subway/light rail system, all serving the central core. This system is complimented by BTA and Town & Country to north destinations, BCTA and NTC to northwest destinations, WCTA and IndiGo to eastern destinations, WCT, MMVTA and FACT serving southern destinations. The University of Pittsburgh Transportation System also provides services in the eastern core of the metropolitan area while Mountain Line Transit serves the city, western suburbs and an express route south to Morgantown, West Virginia.
A metro map of all fixed route transit routes for Pennsylvania counties can be found here.
The Pittsburgh area served as a launchpad for the professionalization of both American football and ice hockey in the 1890s and 1900s. The first professional player (William Heffelfinger) played for a Pittsburgh football team in 1892, which was followed by the first open professional (John Brallier), the first all-professional team (the Latrobe Athletic Association), and a participant in the first all-professional league (the Pittsburgh Stars of the first National Football League). In the case of ice hockey, the Western Pennsylvania Hockey League was the first hockey league to pay its players in 1901, eventually merging into the first fully pro league, the International Professional Hockey League, in 1904. Professional hockey in Pennsylvania predated the professionalization of the game in Canada (where it eventually came to dominate in the early 20th century) by four years.
As of 2013, the region is home to three "major league" franchises:
- Pittsburgh Pirates in Major League Baseball (founded 1882)
- Pittsburgh Steelers in the National Football League (founded 1933)
- Pittsburgh Penguins in the National Hockey League (founded 1967)
It also has several minor league teams including:
- Washington Wildthings Independent Baseball.
- Pittsburgh Power Arena Football
- Pittsburgh Riverhounds, a professional soccer team in the USL Pro League
Robert Morris University also fields Division I basketball and football teams as well as Division I ice hockey.
Golf in the metro area boasts such courses as Oakmont Country Club, which has hosted the U.S. Open a record eight times, and Foxburg Country Club the oldest continuous club in the U.S. Such tournaments as the 84 Lumber Classic, Pittsburgh Senior Open and the current Mylan Classic call the region home. Area courses have also hosted multiple PGA Championships, LPGA Championships, U.S. Women's Opens and Ryder Cup matches.
Annual sports events
The regions rivers have hosted the Bassmaster Classic and Forrest Wood Cup and the region has enjoyed having one of only two teams to host the Major League Baseball All Star Game a record eight times. The region has also hosted the NHL All Star Game, NHL Winter Classic, Senior Olympics, NHL Entry Draft, AHL All Star Game, NCAA Tournament and has been selected as the site of the 2012 Frozen Four.
Winter in the region sees sport continue at such rinks at PPG Place and North Park as well as area ski resorts like Boyce Park, Seven Springs Mountain Resort, Hidden Valley Four Seasons Resort, and Wisp.
The largest school district in the area is the Pittsburgh Public Schools with the school districts of Allegheny County also boasting large student bodies. Many private schools also serve the core county of Allegheny.
Several Pittsburgh area colleges and universities serve the region.
The following area codes serve the metropolitan area:
Pittsburgh anchors Northern Appalachia.
The Northeast, Midwest & South meet at the metro area.
The Great Lakes Megalopolis includes Pittsburgh.
"Cleve-burgh": an emerging metroplex.
Pittsburgh narrowly falls within the borders of the Northeastern United States as defined by multiple agencies of the US Government, but the Pittsburgh Combined Statistical Area extends into both the Southern United States (West Virginia) and the Midwestern United States (Ohio) due to the fact that the borders of these three regions meet only 30 miles (48 km) from the city proper. Pittsburgh also belongs to the Great Lakes Megalopolis, a collection of primarily Midwestern cities like Detroit, Chicago, and Cleveland, reflecting Pittsburgh's stronger socio-economic connections to Ohio than eastern Pennsylvania.
Pittsburgh also falls within the borders of Appalachia as defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The city has long been characterized as the "northern urban industrial anchor of Appalachia",:167 a designation which made it an anomaly compared to much of Appalachia in the 20th century, which was traditionally characterized as southern, rural, and economically distressed.:167 In its post-industrial state, Pittsburgh has now been characterized as the "Paris of Appalachia", recognizing the city's cultural resources such as the Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh, the Pittsburgh Symphony, and the Pittsburgh Opera, as well as its service economy built upon education, healthcare, and technology. Pittsburgh is by far the largest metropolitan area in Appalachia proper. The next largest metropolitan area is Birmingham, Alabama, which is about half of Pittsburgh's size.
While the city's status as an Appalachian city is largely undisputed, the city has been described as not belonging culturally to any of the major "regions" of the United States such as the Midwest or the East Coast.:13 Pittsburgh lies only a few dozen miles from the spot where the physical boundaries of three major regions of the United States converge ( ), namely the Northeastern United States, the Midwestern United States, and the Southern United States, and in straddling these boundaries, it borrows cultural influences from a variety of sources.
Joseph Scarpaci, professor emeritus of geography at Virginia Tech, has described Pittsburgh as having "one foot in the East...and the other in the Midwest".:1 In his 2009 book The Paris of Appalachia, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette writer Brian O'Neill meditates on this aspect of Pittsburgh's regional and cultural ambiguity. The title of the book is intentionally provocative:
"The Paris of Appalachia" some have called Pittsburgh derisively, because it's still the largest city along this gorgeous mountain chain that needs a better press agent. I've long felt we should embrace that title, though few are with me. Several tried to talk me out of slapping it on the cover, but were we called "The Paris of the Rockies," we wouldn't run from it. Sometimes we're so afraid of what others think, we're afraid to say who we are. This city is not Midwestern. It's not East Coast. It's just Pittsburgh, and there's no place like it. That's both its blessing and its curse.:13
Historically, Pittsburgh has been grouped in the "rust belt"; however, reflective of the rebound of the region within the last generation, the metro area has come to be associated with the newly rebranded "Great Lakes Basin" gaining representation in the Great Lakes Metro Chamber Coalition, while the "America 2050" organization claims that Pittsburgh is one of the "principal cities" of the Great Lakes Megalopolis despite the fact that the city is about 120 miles (190 km) from Lake Erie.
Pittsburgh's association with the Great Lakes region is due in part to its economic, demographic and commuter connections to Great Lakes cities like Cleveland, Erie, Toledo and even Detroit. Christopher Briem, an economist at the University of Pittsburgh's University Center for Social and Urban Research, has noted that southwestern Pennsylvania is "far more interconnected" with northeastern Ohio than it is with the eastern half of Pennsylvania, and that the industries of Pittsburgh are primarily linked to Ohioan cities such as Youngstown, Akron, and Cleveland, not to Pennsylvanian cities such as Allentown, Scranton, or Philadelphia. He notes that, conversely, the population centers of northeastern Ohio are primarily connected with Pittsburgh and only secondarily connected to the state capital of Columbus. Briem argues that "In so many ways the state boundaries we think of as important are no more than lines on a map." In recognizing their economic interdependence, Briem has popularized the term "Cleveburgh" to refer collectively to the cities of Cleveland and Pittsburgh, along with the smaller towns dotting the corridor of I-76 between the cities. Robert Lang and Arthur Nelson of the Metropolitan Institute at Virginia Tech also identify the region between Cleveland and Pittsburgh as being an interconnected "megapolitan area" and refer to it as the "Steel Corridor".
The scope of Pittsburgh's metropolitan influence on the surrounding area is of more than just academic interest. For example, the organization "Power of 32" focuses on addressing the issues of the 32-county metropolitan area roughly centered on Pittsburgh—a region which includes portions of Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland. Despite being divided into four states and three Census Bureau—defined regions, this area functions as an interdependent economic region. Power of 32 asserts that "[t]he 32-county region has common challenges and opportunities in the global economy, but is larger than the scope of any one single political entity, authority, or organization", and that "[t]he only thing we find at artificial boundaries are problems, not solutions." Power of 32 is supported in its efforts by "30 to 40 other foundations" and funded by several Pittsburgh-area endowments including the Richard King Mellon Foundation and The Heinz Endowments.
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- [dead link]
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- O'Neill, Brian (2009). The Paris of Appalachia: Pittsburgh in the Twenty-first Century. Carnegie Mellon University Press. ISBN 978-0-88748-509-1.
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