June 13, 1934 |
New York City
|Alma mater||City College of New York, MIT|
|Known for||Internet development|
|Awards||Marconi Prize (1986)
Harry H. Goode Memorial Award (1996)
National Medal of Science (2007)
IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal (2012)
BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award (2014)
|Doctoral advisor||Edward Arthurs|
|Doctoral students||Chris Ferguson|
Leonard Kleinrock (born June 13, 1934) is an American computer scientist. A professor at UCLA's Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science, he made several important contributions to the field of computer networking, in particular to the theoretical foundations of computer networking. He played an influential role in the development of the ARPANET, the precursor to the Internet, at UCLA.
Education and career
Kleinrock was born in New York City on June 13, 1934 to a Jewish family, and graduated from the noted Bronx High School of Science in 1951. He received a Bachelor of Electrical Engineering degree in 1957 from the City College of New York, and a master's degree and a doctorate (Ph.D.) in electrical engineering and computer science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1959 and 1963 respectively. He then joined the faculty at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), where he remains to the present day; during 1991–1995 he served as the Chairman of the Computer Science Department there.
Kleinrock's best-known and significant work is his early work on queueing theory, which has applications in many fields, among them as a key mathematical background to packet switching, one of the basic technologies of the Internet. His initial contribution to this field was his doctoral thesis at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1962, published in book form in 1964; he later published several of the standard works on the subject. He described this work as:
"Basically, what I did for my PhD research in 1961–1962 was to establish a mathematical theory of packet networks..."
In 2001 he received the Draper Prize "for the development of the Internet". However, Kleinrock's contribution to packet switching is disputed by some, including Robert Taylor, Paul Baran and Donald Davies.
The first message on the ARPANET was sent by UCLA student programmer Charley Kline, at 10:30 p.m, on October 29, 1969 from Boelter Hall 3420, the school's main engineering building. Supervised by Kleinrock, Kline transmitted from the university's SDS Sigma 7 host computer to the Stanford Research Institute's SDS 940 host computer. The message text was the word "login"; the "l" and the "o" letters were transmitted, but the system then crashed. Hence, the literal first message over the ARPANET was "lo". About an hour later, having recovered from the crash, the SDS Sigma 7 computer effected a full "login". The first permanent ARPANET link was established on November 21, 1969, between the IMP at UCLA and the IMP at the Stanford Research Institute. By December 5, 1969, the entire four-node network was established.
In 1988, Kleinrock was the chairman of a group that presented the report Toward a National Research Network to the U.S. Congress. This report was highly influential and was used to develop the High Performance Computing Act of 1991, that was influential in the development of the Internet as it is known today. Funding from the bill was used in the development of the 1993 web browser Mosaic, at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA).
Room 3420 at Boelter Hall was restored to its condition of 1969 and converted into the Kleinrock Internet Heritage Site and Archive. It opened to the public with a grand opening attended by Internet pioneers on October 29, 2011. Kleinrock claims to have committed the first illegal act on the Internet, having sent a request for return of his electric razor after a meeting in England in 1973. At the time, use of the Internet for personal reasons was unlawful.
He has received numerous professional awards. Kleinrock was selected to receive the prestigious National Medal of Science, the nation's highest scientific honor, from President George W Bush in the White House on September 29, 2008. "The 2007 National Medal of Science to Leonard Kleinrock for his fundamental contributions to the mathematical theory of modern data networks, and for the functional specification of packet switching, which is the foundation of Internet technology. His mentoring of generations of students has led to the commercialization of technologies that have transformed the world." In 2010 he shared the Dan David Prize. In 2012, Kleinrock was inducted into the Internet Hall of Fame by the Internet Society. Leonard Kleinrock was inducted into IEEE-Eta Kappa Nu (IEEE-ΗΚΝ) in 2011 as an Eminent Member. The designation of Eminent Member is the organization's highest membership grade and is conferred upon those select few whose outstanding technical attainments and contributions through leadership in the fields of electrical and computer engineering have significantly benefited society. In September 2014, Leonard Kleinrock was awarded the ACM SIGMOBILE Outstanding Contribution Award at MobiCom 2014.
Leonard Kleinrock has been granted with the 2014 BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award “for his seminal contributions to the theory and practical development of the Internet,” in the words of the jury’s citation.
- Internet pioneers
- Nerds 2.0.1 – 1998 documentary in which Kleinrock gives a lengthy interview
- Plan 55-A, a message switching system analyzed in Kleinrock's thesis.
- Kleinrock, Leonard (May 1961). "Information Flow in Large Communication Nets". Ph.D. Thesis Proposal. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
- Kleinrock, Leonard (July 1961). "Information Flow in Large Communication Nets". RLE Quarterly Progress Report. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
- Kleinrock, Leonard (April 1962). "Information Flow in Large Communication Nets". RLE Quarterly Progress Report. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
- Kleinrock, Leonard (December 1962). "Message Delay in Communication Nets with Storage" (PDF). (PhD thesis). Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-26.
- Kleinrock, Leonard (1964). Communication Nets: Stochastic Message Flow and Design. McGraw-Hill. p. 220. ISBN 978-0486611051.
- Kleinrock, Leonard (2 January 1975). Queueing Systems: Volume I – Theory. New York: Wiley Interscience. p. 417. ISBN 978-0471491101.
- Kleinrock, Leonard (22 April 1976). Queueing Systems: Volume II – Computer Applications. New York: Wiley Interscience. p. 576. ISBN 978-0471491118.
- Kleinrock, Leonard; Kamoun, Farok (January 1977). "Hierarchical Routing for Large Networks, Performance Evaluation and Optimization". Computer Networks. 1 (3): 155–174.
- Kleinrock, Leonard; Gail, Richard (12 April 1996). Queueing Systems: Problems and Solutions. Wiley-Interscience. p. 240. ISBN 978-0471555681.
- "Eight National Medals of Science Awardees Honored at Gala". NSF. 26 September 2008. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
- Leonard Kleinrock at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
- Rosenbaum, Philip (29 October 2009). "Web pioneer recalls 'birth of the Internet'". CNN. Retrieved October 30, 2009.
- "Jews in Computer & Information Science". The Jewish Contribution to World Civilization web site. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
- "Leonard Kleinrock's Profile". UCLA. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- "Draper Prize Honors Four 'Fathers of the Internet'". Wall Street Journal. February 12, 2001. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- Alex McKenzie (2009), Comments on Dr. Leonard Kleinrock's claim to be "the Father of Modern Data Networking", retrieved April 23, 2015 "...there is nothing in the entire 1964 book that suggests, analyzes, or alludes to the idea of packetization."
- Isaacson, Walter (2014). The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution. Simon & Schuster. p. 245. ISBN 9781476708690.
This led to an outcry among many of the other Internet pioneers, who publicly attacked Kleinrock and said that his brief mention of breaking messages into smaller pieces did not come close to being a proposal for packet switching
- Robert Taylor (November 22, 2001), "Birthing the Internet: Letters From the Delivery Room; Disputing a Claim", New York Times,
Authors who have interviewed dozens of Arpanet pioneers know very well that the Kleinrock-Roberts claims are not believed.
- Katie Hefner (November 8, 2001), "A Paternity Dispute Divides Net Pioneers", New York Times,
The Internet is really the work of a thousand people," Mr. Baran said. "And of all the stories about what different people have done, all the pieces fit together. It's just this one little case that seems to be an aberration.
- Donald Davies (2001), "A Historical Study of the Beginnings of Packet Switching", Computer Journal, British Computer Society,
I can find no evidence that he understood the principles of packet switching.
- Scantlebury, Roger (25 June 2013). "Internet pioneers airbrushed from history". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
- Savio, Jessica (1 April 2011). "Browsing history: A heritage site is being set up in Boelter Hall 3420, the room the first Internet message originated in". UCLA Daily Bruin. UCLA. Retrieved 1 April 2011.
- Sutton, Chris. "Internet Began 35 Years Ago at UCLA with First Message Ever Sent Between Two Computers". UCLA. Archived from the original on 8 March 2008. Retrieved 1 April 2011.
- Kleinrock tells the story of the first Internet connection (UCLA video)
- "Toward a National Research Network".
- "High-Performance Computing Act of 1991". Retrieved 21 March 2011.
- "A Bill of Rights for the Internet: What Should it Have Been at the Outset" (PDF). Retrieved 21 March 2011.
- Tuutti, Camille (23 September 2011). "R&D in IT essential to help US stay competitive". Federal Computer Week. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
- McCarty, Meghan (19 July 2011). "Beginning of the Internet commemorated in new UCLA museum". Southern California Public Radio. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
- Still, tapping into the ARPANET to fetch a shaver across international lines was a bit like being a stowaway on an aircraft carrier. The ARPANET was an official federal research facility, after all, and not something to be toyed with. Kleinrock had the feeling that the stunt he’d pulled was slightly out of bounds. 'It was a thrill. I felt I was stretching the Net'. – "Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet", Chapter 7.
- Wileen Wong Kromhout (March 15, 2010). "UCLA Internet pioneer Leonard Kleinrock looks toward future, helps students do the same". UCLA Engineering. Archived from the original on April 21, 2010. Retrieved March 30, 2011.
- "2012 Inductees". Internet Hall of Fame. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
- "Leonard Kleinrock's Home Page". UCLA. Retrieved 11 February 2004.
- "Leonard Kleinrock's Personal History/Biography: the Birth of the Internet". UCLA. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
- "KIHC: The Kleinrock Internet History Center at UCLA". UCLA. Retrieved 11 November 2004.
- "Bibliography". UCLA. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- "Network history links". Archived from the original on December 8, 2004. Retrieved 11 November 2004.
- "Oral history interview with Leonard Kleinrock". University of Minnesota, Minneapolis: Charles Babbage Institute. 3 April 1990. Retrieved 15 May 2008. Kleinrock discusses his work on the ARPANET.
Kleinrock discusses his dissertation work in queueing theory, and his move to the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). As one of the main contractors for the ARPANET, Kleinrock describes his involvement in discussions before the official DARPA request was issued, the people involved in the ARPANET work at UCLA, the installation of the first node of the network, the Network Measurement Center, and his relationships with Lawrence Roberts and the IPT Office, Bolt, Beranek and Newman, and the Network Analysis Corporation.
- "Oral history interview with Howard Frank". University of Minnesota, Minneapolis: Charles Babbage Institute. Retrieved 1 July 2008. Frank describes his work on the ARPANET, including his interaction with Roberts and the IPT Office.
- Video:Interview with Leonard Kleinrock. ACM. Retrieved 7 May 2006.
- Video:Leonard Kleinrock on the first Internet connection. Archived from the original on 1 January 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2008.
- Video:Leonard Kleinrock displays Internet's first router. Archived from the original on 1 January 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2008.
- Video:Leonard Kleinrock on packet-switching, early Internet. Archived from the original on 1 January 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2008.
- Biography of Leonard Kleinrock from the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences