Bhim Singh Rana

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Bhim Singh Rana
Maharaj Rana of Gohad
Reign 1717-1756 CE
Predecessor Jaswant Singh
Successor Girdhar Pratap Singh
Born 1707
Died 1756
House Bamraulia Dynasty
Religion Hindu

Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana (c. 1707–1756) was the most powerful ruler of princely state Gohad in northwestern Madhya Pradesh, India. According to Alexander Cunningham and William Crooke, Bamraulia gotra Jats from village Bamrauli (near Agra) in 1505 founded the city Gohad near Gwalior.[1][2] Singhandev was the founder of Gohad state. Later it developed into an important Jat State. The Jat rulers of Gohad were awarded the title of Rana.

Alliance with Maharaja Suraj Mal[edit]

Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana played an important role in keeping a power balance in Malwa. The Delhi Mughal ruler sent Jai Singh of Jaipur as satrap of Malwa in 1729. Malharrao Holkar, Udaji Panwar and Kanthaji Panwar encountered Jay Singh at the Mandavgarh fort. Jay Singh succeeded in defeating the Marathas, with the help of Maharaja Suraj Mal of Bharatpur state.

Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana helped Suraj Mal in this mission. This alliance made them the enemies of the Marathas.

Captures Gwalior fort[edit]

Bhim Singh Rana increased his powers and was planning to expand his territories. He marched to Malwa in 1736 but came back and targeted the Gwalior Fort. Marathas were also in race to win the Gwalior Fort. The weak and easy-going Mughal satrap Alikhan, looking to the power of Jats, surrendered the fort to Bhim Singh Rana. Meanwhile there was a severe fight between Marathas and Jats to win the Gwalior Fort but Jats won and the Gwalior fort came under Jats.

Bhim Singh Rana occupied the Gwalior fort from 1740-1756.[3]

Chhatri near Bhimtal in memory of Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana on the Gwalior Fort.


In 1756 Marathas attacked the Gwalior Fort under the leadership of Great Warrior Mahadji Rao Sahev Shinde, Yammaji Rahalkar and Motiram Bani with a huge army. There was a severe war between the Jat Army and the Maratha Army down below the fort. At one time Bhim Singh Rana was not riding horse at that time Maratha Atrao attacked Rana with sword. Bhim Singh Rana was wounded and carried out of the war site by his soldiers. He died after three days on Chaitra sudi navami (Ram navami) in 1756. His queen Roshani committed jauhar. The fort came in occupation of Marathas.[4]

Constructed historical monuments[edit]

Maharaja Bhim Singh had constructed a historical monument Bhimtal in 1754 on the Gwalior fort. His successor Maharaja Chhatra Singh Rana constructed a grand Chhatri near Bhimtal in memory of Maharaja Bhim Singh on the Gwalior Fort. Jat Samaj Kalyan Parishad Gwalior organizes a fair on Gwalior fort on Ram Navami every year in honour of Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana.[5]

Assessment by Maratha historian[edit]

The Maratha Historian Srimant Balwantrao Bhaiya Saheb Sindhia,[6] appreciated the bravery of Rana Bhim Singh and has written about Bhim Singh Rana in his book “History of Gwalior fort” as under:

“They (Kishwar Ali Khan and his people) decided to surrender the fort to Rana Bhim singh. Accordingly some 300 men of Rana were allowed to enter the fortress by the way of Kabootar Khana. They were soon followed by Rana Bhim Singh himself, who accompanied with soldiers on foot and on horse back and took up a position at the village of Goorganwan.
The Rana being armless in the midst of the field of battle performed prodigies of valour and receiving wounds retired to Citedal, where he expired and three days after was cremated near the great Tank built by him in accordance with Hindu rites.”[7]

His successor[edit]

Rana Bhim Singh had no son. Girdhar Pratap Singh became his successor in 1755. Girdhar Pratap Singh was son of Samant Rao Balju, a family friend of Rana Bhim Singh. Girdhar Pratap Singh could not rule Gohad for long as he died in 1757. His successor was Rana Chhatar Singh (1757–1785).[8]


  1. ^ Dr. Ajay Kumar Agnihotri (1985) : Gohad ke jaton ka Itihas (Hindi), Nav sahitya Bhawan, New Delhi, p.14-15
  2. ^ JN Sharma: Jaton ka navin Itihas,p.46
  3. ^ Dr Natthan Singh (2004) : Jat-Itihas, Jat Samaj Kalyan Parishad, Gwalior,p.359
  4. ^ Dr Natthan Singh (2004) : Jat-Itihas, Jat Samaj Kalyan Parishad, Gwalior,p.359
  5. ^ Dr Natthan Singh (2004) : Jat-Itihas, Jat Samaj Kalyan Parishad, Gwalior,p.360
  6. ^ Historian Balwantrao Bhaiya Saheb Sindhia,Gwalior ke Qile ka Itihas,Mumbai, 1890
  7. ^ Jat Vir Smarika 2005,p.6
  8. ^ Dr. Ajay Kumar Agnihotri (1985) : Gohad ke jaton ka Itihas (Hindi), Nav sahitya Bhawan, New Delhi,p.25

Further reading[edit]

  • Dr. Ajay Kumar Agnihotri (1985) : Gohad ke jaton ka Itihas (Hindi), Nav sahitya Bhawan, New Delhi.
  • Dr Natthan Singh (2004) : Jat-Itihas, Jat Samaj Kalyan Parishad, Gwalior.
  • Jat Samaj, Agra: October–November 2004
  • Dr Natthan Singh (2005): Sujas Prabandh (Gohad ke Shasakon ki Veer gatha – by Poet Nathan), Jat Veer Prakashan Gwalior
Bhim Singh Rana
Born: 1707 Died: 1756
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Jaswant Singh
Maharaj Rana of Gohad
Succeeded by
Girdhar Pratap Singh