October 1913

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The following events occurred in October 1913:

October 1, 1913 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • The Culebra Cut of the Panama Canal was completed, after nearly 32 years, with the waters of Gatun Lake flowing to the Gamboa Dike. Engineers from France had begun excavation on January 20, 1882, before halting the project, which was resumed later by American engineers.[1][2]
  • Died: Eugene O'Keefe, 85, Canadian brewer and philanthropist

October 2, 1913 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Well-known American author Ambrose Bierce decided, at the age of 71, that he wanted to conclude his life by leaving his Washington, D.C. home to participate in the Mexican Revolution, departing by train after writing to his niece that "being stood up against a Mexican stone wall and shot to rags... beats old age, disease, or falling down the cellar stairs". After reaching Mexico and sending a letter from the city of Chihuahua on December 26, Bierce vanished "without a trace".[3]
  • China's National Assembly passed a law limiting the President of China to a five-year term of office, with only one re-election.[2]
  • Flooding in Southern Texas caused $50,000,000 of property damage, though only 12 lives were lost.[2]
  • The Mexican city of Torreón fell to rebel invaders, led by Pancho Villa, a day after Mexican federal troops evacuated the area.[4]
  • Born: Roma Flinders Mitchell, Australian politician and the first woman to serve as a Governor of an Australian state, serving as Governor of South Australia from 1991 to 1996; in Adelaide (d. 2000)
  • Died: Patrick Higgins, Scottish murderer, by hanging after being convicted of the November 1911 murder of his two sons, based on by forensic evidence developed by Dr. Sydney Smith; Higgins, a habitual drinker, had admitted to the killings but had raised the defense of "insanity caused by epilepsy".[5]

October 3, 1913 (Friday)[edit]

  • At 9:10 pm, the Revenue Act of 1913, also known as the Underwood–Simmons Tariff Act, was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson, dropping or reducing many of the tariffs of the United States. An amendment to the bill also provided the first federal income tax authorized by the Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, though the initial rates were modest in comparison to the lowered cost of living provided by the tariff elimination.[6] The charges on imported meats, fish, dairy products, flour and potatoes were eliminated, as well as those for coal, iron ore and lumber from abroad, and farm machinery and office machinery made outside the United States. On the average the tariff rate was reduced from 37 percent to 27 percent. Wilson said afterwards, "We have set the business of this country free from those conditions which have made monopoly not only possible, but, in a sense, easy and natural."[7][8] The U.S. Senate had approved the bill, 36–17, the day before, and the House of Representatives had voted, 254–103, in its favor on September 30.
  • The government of Austria-Hungary passed a bill increasing the size of its army to 600,000 men, and authorizing an army of 2,000,000 men in the event of war; the Austro-Hungarian war against Serbia, less than nine months later, would escalate into enter World War One.[9]

October 4, 1913 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Oregon, though it was the second of the United States to pass an authorization for a minimum wage law (after Massachusetts), became the first state to have orders implementing a wage, beginning with a regulation for girls between the ages of 16 and 18. Later rules would extend coverage to experienced adult women in Portland (November 23) and to all women, regardless of experience (February 7);[10][11]
  • At Marion, Illinois, legendary sharpshooter Annie Oakley gave the last public performance of her shooting skills.[12]
  • Survivalist Joseph Knowles, who had gone into the forests of Maine on August 4 without clothing, food or tools, emerged after completing his two-month experiment. Not only had he survived, but he had fashioned "a bearskin robe, deerskin moccasins, and a knife, bow and arrows" from the materials in the wilderness.[13]
  • Mexican rebel leader Emiliano Zapata issued a widely circulated order to his troops, commanding them that "under no pretext nor for any personal cause should crimes be committed against lives and properties". Officers were directed to punish any soldiers who violated the order, or to face court-martial themselves.[14]
  • Born: Martial Célestin, the first Prime Minister of Haïti (1988), in Ganthier (d. 2011)
  • Died: Faisal bin Turki, Sultan of Muscat and Oman, 49[15]

October 5, 1913 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Taimur bin Feisal became the new Sultan of Oman. He would abdicate on February 10, 1932, in favor of his son, Said bin Taimur, who would become the new Sultan.[16][17]
  • Henry Spencer was arrested by Chicago police for the murder of Mrs. Mildred Rexroat nine days earlier. Spencer confessed to her murder, then told police that he had killed 13 other people over the years.[18]
  • Born: Rear Admiral Eugene B. Fluckey, U.S. Navy officer, Medal of Honor recipient and former Director of Naval Intelligence; in Washington, D.C. (d. 2007); Jack Mullin, American audio engineer who perfected high fidelity recordings by magnetic tape, in San Francisco; and Dan Smoot, American conservative political activist, in East Prairie, Missouri (d. 2003)
  • Died: Hans von Bartels, 56, German painter

October 6, 1913 (Monday)[edit]

  • Barely receiving the two-thirds majority required, Yuan Shihkai was formally elected by the National Assembly after three rounds of voting, to a five-year term as the President of China. A total of 759 of the 850 Chinese Senators and Representatives participated in Beijing. With a candidate needing 506 votes, Yuan received 507 on the third ballot. Li Yuan-Heng, who had already said that he would not be a candidate for the office, received 179 votes, while the other legislators abstained. The votes for Yan and Li were 471-153 on the first round, and 497-162 on the second.[19] After the second round, a mob of Yuan's supporters surrounded the legislative building and blocked the exits.[20] Li was elected Vice-President the next day.[2] President Yuan would dissolve the legislature four weeks later and assume dictatorial powers, then proclaim himself the Emperor.[21]
  • Chicago became the first major American city to pass a resolution declaring the immorality of the tango, a dance which had recently become popular in the United States after originating in Argentina. The tango differed from acceptable dances because of the contact between the upper thighs of the dancers.[22]
  • At his inauguration as the new American Governor-General of the Philippines, Francis Burton Harrison delivered a promise, from President Wilson, that Filipinos would be granted a majority of the seats on the Philippine Commission, the appointed group that had to approve bills passed by the Philippine legislature.[23]
  • Heavy rains killed more than 600 people in the Bosphorous straits around Istanbul, Turkey.[2]
  • Born: Inga Arvad, Denmark-based journalist who known for her romantic relationship with U.S. President John F. Kennedy, as Inga Petersen in Copenhagen; Alfred Harvey, American comic book publisher who founded Harvey Comics, in Brooklyn (d. 1994); and Richard Dyer-Bennet, English-born American folk singer, in Leicester (d. 1991)

October 7, 1913 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The Ford Motor Company factory in Highland Park, Michigan began use of the moving assembly line to manufacture its Model T automobiles. With 140 assemblers, each assigned a different task, the time to produce a single car was cut by more than half, from 12 1/2 hours to 5 1/2 hours.[24]
  • The Maryland Supreme Court struck down Baltimore's recently passed ordinance requiring segregation of neighborhoods and its retroactive application, which would have forced families to move.[25]
  • Died: Benjamin Altman, American merchant, philanthropist and art collector who founded B. Altman's Department Store

October 8, 1913 (Wednesday)[edit]

October 9, 1913 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The passenger ship Volturno, operated by the Uranium Line, caught fire while crossing the Atlantic Ocean. Although 125 passengers and crew died while trying to evacuate, the other 532 people were rescued by ten other steamers that traveled to the rescue after hearing the S.O.S. signal by wireless telegraph,[2][29] Popular Mechanics magazine would observe in its next issue that "The day of the 'mystery of the sea,' when a vessel might sail from port and never be heard from again, is past."[30]
  • The Russian Arctic Expedition arrived at St. Michael, Alaska, and delivered the first reports of the discovery of the previously unknown land mass which they had named Nicholas II Land.[31]
  • Born: George M. Foster, American anthropologist, in Sioux Falls, South Dakota (d. 2006)
  • Died: Robinson Ellis, 69, British professor described as "the greatest of English Latinists"

October 10, 1913 (Friday)[edit]

  • U.S. President Wilson pressed a telegraph key at his desk in the White House, sending the electrical charge that ignited dynamite to destroy the Gamboa Dike, thereby completing the Panama Canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. There was no ceremony; after Wilson pressed the button at 2:00 pm, he said, "There, it is all over. Gamboa is busted."[32]
  • Sixteen days before the legislative and presidential elections scheduled for October 26, Mexico's President Victoriano Huerta ordered the arrest of 110 members of the Chamber of Deputies. Soldiers of the Mexican Army surrounded the legislative building, then marched in to arrest the legislators, who had signed a resolution protesting the disappearance of Senator Belisario Dominguez.[33] Seventy-four of the legislators were later charged with conspiring to overthrow the Huerta government.[34]
  • At the inauguration ceremony for China's president Yuan Shihkai, the Chief of Beijing's mounted police was arrested and charged with plotting to assassinate Yuan. Police Chief Chen, who confessed that he had been bribed by leaders of the Southern provinces rebellion, had aroused suspicion because of his persistence in trying to be near President Yuan during the ceremony, and several bombs were found at Chief Chen's home.[35]
  • The body of Rudolf Diesel, inventor of the diesel engine, was found floating in the sea, 11 days after his September 28 disappearance from the passenger liner SS Dresden. The crew of the steamer Coertsen, from Belgium, found the body, which was identified by the items Diesel had been carrying.[36]
  • Born: Claude Simon, French novelist, and 1985 Nobel Prize in Literature laureate, in Tananarive, French Madagascar (d. 2005)
  • Died: Prince Katsura Tarō, 66, former Prime Minister of Japan; and Adolphus Busch, 76, St. Louis beer brewer.

October 11, 1913 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The Philadelphia Athletics won the deciding game of the 1913 World Series, over baseball's New York Giants, winning 3–1 to take the series in five games.[2][37]
  • Mayor of Boston John F. Fitzgerald issued an order banning the tango, the turkey trot, "and other dances of a similar character". The order required that "a matron and a policeman must stand guard in every public dance hall in Boston" to break up any attempts at the controversial dances, and pledged to revoke the license of any dance hall that failed to observe the rules.[38]
  • The day after President Huerta dissolved parliament in Mexico, Britain's Sir Lionel Carden greeted the President as the new British Minister to Mexico, which the U.S. inferred to be a British attempt to gain Huerta's alliance.[39]
  • Franz Rosenzweig, preparing to convert from Judaism to Christianity, decided at the last moment to reaffirm his Jewish faith. Rosenzweig would go on to become an Orthodox Jewish philosopher whose most famous work was The Star of Redemption.[40]
  • Born: Joe Simon, American comic book writer best known for creating, with Jack Kirby, the character of Captain America, in Rochester, New York (d. 2011); John T. Parsons, American computer scientist who pioneered numerical control for machinery, in Detroit; and Jake Pickle, U.S. Congressman for Texas (1963–1995), in Roscoe, Texas (d. 2005)

October 12, 1913 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The lineups were announced for an unprecedented round the world tour to be made by baseball's Chicago White Sox and New York Giants, managed, respectively, by Charles Comiskey and John McGraw.[41] The two teams, which included stars from other major league clubs, would begin their westward journey on October 18 with a game in Cincinnati, then set sail for Tokyo on November 19 and would return in March after playing exhibition games in ten foreign nations.[42]
  • Born: Alice Chetwynd Ley, British romance novelist, in Halifax, Yorkshire (d. 2004); and Leo Fleider, Polish-born Argentine film director, in Hermanowa (d. 1977)

October 13, 1913 (Monday)[edit]

October 14, 1913 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Senghenydd Colliery Disaster: In the worst mining disaster in British history the explosion of the Universal Colliery at Senghenydd, in Wales, killed 439 coal miners. At 6:00 a.m., 935 miners went underground into the pits, designated "Lancaster" and "York". Two hours later, there was an explosion in the Lancaster pit. There were 498 survivors. After 74 bodies had been removed and no survivors located by rescuers, the decision was made to leave the other 343 in the mine.[43][44]
  • British Prime Minister H. H. Asquith and Leader of the Opposition Bonar Law met secretly to discuss a bipartisan solution to the growing demand for Home Rule in Ireland. From their meetings, there would emerge the eventual separation of the mostly Protestant counties, in Northern Ireland, from the mostly Roman Catholic counties in the rest of the island.[45]
  • Edward Steininger, the owner of the St. Louis Terriers franchise in baseball's newly formed Federal League, announced that "We are going to invade the majors and we will take some of their players, too", beginning with the National League's St. Louis Cardinals and the American League's St. Louis Browns.[46]
  • New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art was announced as the recipient of the $10,000,000 art collection of the late Benjamin Altman, a New York City dry goods merchant, who had died on October 7.[47]
  • U.S. President Wilson notified Mexican President Huerta that the U.S. would not recognize the legitimacy of the results of the October 26 elections.[48]

October 15, 1913 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Four natives of the Philippines were appointed by U.S. President Wilson to the Philippine Commission, giving Filipinos a majority (five of nine) on the governing commission for the first time.[49][50]
  • China's President Yuan Shikai ordered the arrest of a list of his opponents, including former president Sun Yat-sen, Huang Hsing and Chang Chi.[20]

October 16, 1913 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The Republic of Central Albania was proclaimed by politician Essad Pasha Toptani, who installed himself as President with his capital at Durrës. Toptani, a rival of Albanian leader Ismail Qemali, disbanded the government three months later under pressure from the leaders of the Great Powers nations, shortly before the outbreak of World War I.[51]
  • The play Pygmalion, by George Bernard Shaw, was performed for the first time, albeit in the German language, at the Burgtheater in Vienna. The play, which would later become the basis for the musical My Fair Lady, would premiere in London on April 11, 1914.[52]
  • The New York State Senate voted 43-12 to convict Governor William Sulzer on three of the eight counts of impeachment against him, removing him permanently from office. Lieutenant-Governor Martin H. Glynn, who had served as Acting Governor since the impeachment was voted in September, was sworn in as Governor of New York.[49]
  • The British battleship HMS Queen Elizabeth, the first to use oil, rather than coal, for its fuel, was launched from Portsmouth. The new generation of British battleship had ten 15-inch guns.[53] After service during the First and Second World Wars, the ship would be dismantled in 1948.[54]
  • Died: Ralph Rose, 28, American athlete, holder of the world record for distance in the shot put, and gold medalist in 1904, 1908 and 1912 Olympics; of typhoid fever.

October 17, 1913 (Friday)[edit]

October 18, 1913 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Austria-Hungary, acting on its own without consultation with the other "Great Powers", delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia, demanding that Serbian troops be withdrawn within eight days from the territory set aside for Albania by the Great Powers.[56] The Serbians withdrew on October 25, but the unilateral action of the Austrian Emperor began the breakup of the Great Powers.[57]
  • The Italo-Turkish War was formally ended with the signing of a peace treaty at Lausanne in Switzerland, with Turkey ceding to Italy the territories of Cyrenaica and Tripoli (now Libya), as well as the Dodecanese Islands.[58]
  • Born: Evelyn Venable, American actress, in Cincinnati (d. 1993)
  • Died: Dinuzulu kaCetshwayo, 45, King of the Zulu Nation since 1884

October 19, 1913 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Twenty people, all U.S. Army soldiers, were killed, and another 102 injured, when the train they were riding on fell while crossing a high trestle over the Buckatunna river, near State Line, Mississippi.[59]
  • Patrick Ryan set a world record for the 12-pound hammer throw, hurling the item 213 feet and breaking the record of 207 feet, 7 3/4 inches, set by John Flanagan on October 24, 1910.[60]
  • Arthur Zimmermann, the Deputy Foreign Minister of Germany told the British Ambassador to Berlin, Edward Goschen, that the Germans had been surprised by Austria's ultimatum as a policy that "might lead to serious consequences", but (according to Goschen) added that "restraining advice at Vienna on the part of Germany was out of the question". Historian Martin Gilbert would write years later that "In these final fourteen words lay the seeds of a European war."[57]
  • Born: Dean S. Tarbell, American chemist (d. 1999), in Hancock, New Hampshire
  • Died: Charles Tellier, 85, scientist who invented the cold storage process, but died penniless and hungry; and William Garrott Brown, 45, American historian

October 20, 1913 (Monday)[edit]

October 21, 1913 (Tuesday)[edit]

October 22, 1913 (Wednesday)[edit]

October 23, 1913 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The first worldwide convention of the Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was held, with representatives of 50 nations assembling in Brooklyn.[49]
  • The U.S. Senate passed the "La Follette Seaman's Bill", which "ended the virtual enslavement of sailors" by outlawing one-year service contracts and allowing workers on private American ships to quit upon reaching port. The bill, sponsored by Robert M. La Follette, Sr., also required that before a ship could sail from an American port, it had to have sufficient lifeboats and rafts for all aboard, and training for the crew to permit two seamen for each boat.[68]
  • The Giacobini–Zinner comet, initially discovered by Michel Giacobini on December 20, 1900, was recovered by German astronomer Ernst Zinner, who confirmed that it had an orbital period of slightly more than 6.5 years. The comet would return to Earth's solar system in 1985 and would be explored by the International Cometary Explorer space probe.[69]

October 24, 1913 (Friday)[edit]

October 25, 1913 (Saturday)[edit]

  • One day before the expiration of the eight-day ultimatum given by Austria-Hungary on October 18, Serbian troops withdrew from Albania.[71]
  • Following a vote of no confidence, Prime Minister Romanones of Spain resigned, along with his cabinet.[49] Former Prime Minister Eduardo Dato would become the new premier on October 29.[72]
  • The restoration of Congress Hall in Philadelphia, where the U.S. Congress met from 1790 to 1800 before Washington, D.C. became the American capital, was completed, and the building returned to its 1776 appearance. at the dedication, President Wilson commented that "it has seemed to me that I saw ghosts crowding in, a great assemblage of spirits, no longer visible to us, but whose influence we still feel as we feel the molding power of history itself".[73]
  • Born: Klaus Barbie, German war criminal known as "The Butcher of Lyon", in Bad Godesberg (d. 1991); and Larry Itliong, Philippine-born American labor leader, in San Nicolas, Pangasinan (d. 1977)
  • Died: Frederick Rolfe, 53, British novelist who wrote under the pen name Baron Corvo; and Isabel Barrows, 68, American feminist

October 26, 1913 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Presidential and legislative elections were held as scheduled in Mexico, but the results were not announced. The Mexican Constitution required that at least one-third of the registered voters had to participate in order for an election to be valid, and it was estimated than less than one-eighth of the electorate turned out.[74]
  • Parliamentary elections were held in Italy, with the Liberal Party of Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti retaining its majority. "Bloodshed Attends Italian Elections", NYT 10.27 For the first time, there was no literacy requirement for voters and the secret ballot was used throughout the nation.[75]
  • Born: Charlie Barnet, American saxophonist and bandleader, in New York City (d. 1991)

October 27, 1913 (Monday)[edit]

  • The Emir of Kuwait signed a treaty with the United Kingdom, pledging that if oil were discovered in Kuwait, the British government would have to approve the granting of a concession to any company seeking drilling rights.[76]
  • In a foreign policy address made in Mobile, Alabama at the Southern Commercial Congress, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson announced a new direction. "I want to take this occasion to say", President Wilson told the delegates, "that the United States will never again seek one additional foot of territory by conquest. She will devote herself to showing that she knows how to make an honorable and fruitful use of the territory she has..."[77] Wilson's statement is sometimes misquoted, usually in stories about Mobile, as "the United States would never again wage a war of aggression".
  • A Russian surgeon, Dr. Yustin Djanelidze, became the first person to successfully fix a wound on the ascending aorta of the heart.[78]
  • Two people were killed by a tornado in Wales. As of 2007, this was the last instance of a fatality from a tornado in the United Kingdom.[79]
  • Eduardo Dato became the new Prime Minister of Spain.[80]
  • General Félix Díaz, who had been a candidate for President of Mexico in the elections the day before, was granted refuge at the American consulate in Veracruz, and transferred to the safety of the American battleship USS Louisiana.[81]
  • Born: Joe Medicine Crow, American Indian historian and chronicler of the history of the Crow Nation (died 2016)

October 28, 1913 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The classic American newspaper comic strip Krazy Kat, by George Herriman, made its debut, first appearing in the New York Evening Journal.[82] The last strip would be published on June 25, 1944, two months after Herriman's death.[83]
  • Menahem Mendel Beilis, a Jewish factory superintendent who had been falsely accused ("blood libel") of the ritualistic murder of a child, was acquitted by a jury in Kiev.[84]
  • Ten minutes before baseball's New York Giants and Chicago White Sox were preparing to start an exhibition game in Tulsa, Oklahoma, the bleachers over the right field collapsed, injuring more than 100 people. Seven hundred fans had crowded onto benches that were meant to hold 400. One spectator, U.S. Army Private Chester Taylor, was killed.[85]

October 29, 1913 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • After months of delay, Edwin H. Armstrong filed a patent application on his invention of the regenerative circuit. On the same day, Irving Langmuir applied for a patent on his own regenerative circuit. In the lawsuits that followed over nearly 20 years, Armstrong would be given priority on the strength of a diagram of the circuit, which he had had notarized on January 13, 1913[86] and would be granted U.S. Patent #1,113,149 on October 6, 1914.[87]

October 30, 1913 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Serbia and Montenegro signed a treaty defining the border between the two Balkan kingdoms. Serbian Minister of War Milos Bozanovic and Montenegrin Education Minister Mirko Mijuskovic executed the agreement on behalf of their monarchs.[88]

October 31, 1913 (Friday)[edit]

  • One of the great partnerships in the writing of history began when 15-year-old Ida Kaufman, a student at the Ferrer Modern School in New York, married her former history teacher, 28-year-old Will Durant, 28. Ida would take on the name Ariel Durant, and the Durants would go on to write the eleven-volume study of Western history, The Story of Civilization. According to some accounts, Ariel roller-skated to the New York City Hall to attend the civil ceremony.[89]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Water Turned into the Culebra Cut", New York Times, October 2, 1913
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Record of Current Events", The American Monthly Review of Reviews (November 1913), pp551-554
  3. ^ Mike Cox, Big Bend Tales (The History Press, 2011) pp126-127
  4. ^ Zuzana Pick, Constructing the Image of the Mexican Revolution (University of Texas Press, 2010) p220
  5. ^ Colin Evans, The Casebook of Forensic Detection: How Science Solved 100 of the World's Most Baffling Crimes (Penguin, 2007)
  6. ^ Ephraim P. Smith, et al., Federal Taxation: Comprehensive Topics (Commerce Clearing House, 2008) p. 113
  7. ^ "Wilson Signs New Tariff Law", New York Times, October 4, 1913, p. 1
  8. ^ "Personal Income Tax", in Encyclopedia of Tariffs and Trade in U.S. History, Cynthia Clark Northrup and Elaine C. Prange Turney, eds. (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003 p. 297
  9. ^ William Mulligan, The Origins of the First World War (Cambridge University Press, 2010) pp. 129–130
  10. ^ David Neumark and William L. Wascher, Minimum Wages (The MIT Press, 2008) p298
  11. ^ Willis J. Nordlund, The Quest for a Living Wage: The History of the Federal Minimum Wage Program (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1997) p14
  12. ^ Rachel A. Koestler-Grack, Legends of the Wild West: Annie Oakley (Infobase Publishing, 2010) pp71-72
  13. ^ Edward E. Leslie, Desperate Journeys, Abandoned Souls : True Stories of Castaways and Other Survivors (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1998) p327
  14. ^ Robert P. Millon, Zapata: The Ideology of a Peasant Revolution (International Publishers, 1995) p34
  15. ^ Hussein Ghubash, Oman – The Islamic Democratic Tradition (Taylor & Francis, 2006) p161
  16. ^ RoyalArk.net
  17. ^ "Oman (1912- present)", University of Central Arkansas Dynamic Analysis of Dispute Management (DADM) Project
  18. ^ "Admits He Killed Fourteen Persons", New York Times, October 6, 1913
  19. ^ "Yuan Is Elected President of China", New York Times, October 7, 1913
  20. ^ a b Jundu Xue, Huang Hsing and the Chinese Revolution (Stanford University Press, 1961) pp163-164
  21. ^ Denis Twitchett and John K. Fairbank, The Cambridge History of China (Cambridge University Press, 1983) p242
  22. ^ Perry Duis, Challenging Chicago: Coping With Everyday Life, 1837–1920 (University of Illinois Press, 1998) p234
  23. ^ "Promises Filipinos Ultimate Freedom", New York Times, October 7, 1913
  24. ^ Richard C. Huseman and Jon P. Goodman, Leading with Knowledge: The Nature of Competition in the 21st Century (SAGE, 1998) p6; "The Moving Assembly Line Debuted at the Highland Park Plant", Ford Motor Company; "Moving Assembly Line at Ford", This Day in History, history.com
  25. ^ John Wertheimer, Law and Society in the South: A History of North Carolina Court Cases (University Press of Kentucky, 2009) p53
  26. ^ "Champions at Play: Port Adelaide Defeat Fitzroy", The Advertiser (Port Adelaide, SA), October 9, 1913
  27. ^ "The History of the University of Glamorgan"
  28. ^ "Preferred Name Announced For New University" University for South Wales website
  29. ^ The Atlantic Transport Line, 1881–1931: A History with Details on All Ships (McFarland, 2012) pp. 124–125
  30. ^ "'Volturno' Rescue Latest Triumph of Wireless", Popular Mechanics magazine (December 1913) p. 809
  31. ^ "Great New Land Found in Arctic", New York Times, October 12, 1913
  32. ^ "Canal Is Opened by Wilson's Finger", New York Times, October 11, 1913; "Few Saw Button Pressed", New York Times, October 11, 1913
  33. ^ "Huerta Arrests 110 Legislators", New York Times, October 12, 1913; "Huerta Becomes Mexican Dictator", New York Times, October 12, 1913
  34. ^ Scott Mainwaring and Matthew Soberg Shugart, Presidentialism and Democracy in Latin America (Cambridge University Press, 1997) p. 230
  35. ^ "Plot to Kill Yuan at Inauguration", New York Times, October 11, 1913
  36. ^ Josh Tickell, Biodiesel America: How to Achieve Energy Security, Free America from Middle-east Oil Dependence And Make Money Growing Fuel (Yorkshire Press, 2006) p. 65
  37. ^ "Athletics Win World's Series on Bad Errors", New York Times, October 12, 1913
  38. ^ "Boston Bans the Tango", New York Times, October 12, 1913
  39. ^ Mark T. Gilderhus, The Second Century: U.S.–Latin American Relations Since 1889 (Rowman & Littlefield, 2000) p. 43
  40. ^ Norbert M. Samuelson, An Introduction to Modern Jewish Philosophy(SUNY Press, 1989) p. 212
  41. ^ "World's Tour Team Named by M'Graw", New York Times, October 13, 1913.
  42. ^ James E. Elfers, The Tour to End All Tours: The Story of Major League Baseball's 1913–1914 World Tour (University of Nebraska Press, 2003) pp xxi- xxiii
  43. ^ "400 Welsh Miners Are Probably Dead", New York Times, October 15, 1913; "Buried Miners Given up", New York Times, October 16, 1913
  44. ^ Geraint H. Jenkins, A Concise History of Wales (Cambridge University Press, 2007) p236
  45. ^ "Andrew Bonar Law", in Biographical Dictionary of British Prime Ministers, Robert Eccleshall and Graham Walker, eds. (Routledge, 2002) p266
  46. ^ Daniel R. Levitt, The Battle that Forged Modern Baseball: The Federal League Challenge and Its Legacy (Rowman & Littlefield, 2012) p45
  47. ^ "Altman Fortune to Charity Trust, Art to the City", New York Times, October 15, 1913
  48. ^ "Won't Recognize Mexican Election", New York Times, October 15, 1913
  49. ^ a b c d e "Record of Current Events", The American Monthly Review of Reviews (December 1913), pp671-674
  50. ^ "Natives on Filipino Board", New York Times, October 16, 1913
  51. ^ "Toptani, Essad Pasha", in A Biographical Dictionary of Albanian History, Robert Elsie, ed. (I.B.Tauris, 2012) p444
  52. ^ Pygmalion: A Romance in Five Acts, George B. Shaw, introduction by Richard H. Goldstone (Penguin, 1975) p1
  53. ^ "Ten 15-Inch Guns on British Warship", New York Times, October 17, 1913
  54. ^ John Ward, Ships of World War II (Zenith Imprint, 2000) p40
  55. ^ "Airship Explodes; 28 Men Are Killed", New York Times, October 18, 1913
  56. ^ "Austria Warns Servia", New York Times, October 19, 1913
  57. ^ a b Martin Gilbert, The First World War: A Complete History (Macmillan, 2004) pp11-12
  58. ^ "Colonialism", in Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreement: A to F, Edmund Jan Omanczyk and Anthony Mango, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 2003) p407
  59. ^ "20 U.S. Soldiers Killed in Wreck", New York Times, October 20, 1913
  60. ^ "Pat Ryan Makes a World's Record", New York Times, October 20, 1913
  61. ^ "Isaacs Is Made Lord Chief Justice", New York Times, October 21, 1913
  62. ^ Barbara Berliner, et al., The Book of Answers: The New York Public Library Telephone Reference Service's Most Unusual and Entertaining Questions (Simon and Schuster, 1992) pp236-237
  63. ^ "Sam S. Shubert", in The Golden Age of American Musical Theatre: 1943–1965 by Corinne J. Naden (Scarecrow Press, 2011) p199
  64. ^ "Whimsical History by English Players", New York Times, October 21, 1913
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