September 1913 (month)

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The following events occurred in September 1913:

September 1, 1913 (Monday)[edit]

  • French aviator Adolphe Pégoud demonstrated that he could fly upside an airplane upside-down on a sustained flight, traveling for 400 meters. He was using a specially constructed Bleriot monoplane, and after reaching 3,000 feet, put the plane in a quarter-loop and kept it in the upside down position.[1] Pégoud, who would fly a full vertical loop on September 21, also did a "vertical-S" trick, which was reported in the press as having "looped the loop".[2][3]
  • The anti-government rebellion in southern China was brought to an end, when all six rebellious provinces surrendered to the Beiyang Army, led by General Zhang Xun, retook Nanjing.[4]
  • George Bernard Shaw's satirical play, Androcles and the Lion, was performed for the first time.[5]
  • Born: Ludwig Merwart, Austrian painter and graphic artist, in Vienna (d. 1979); and Woody Stephens, American thoroughbred racehorse trainer, in Stanton, Kentucky (d. 1998)

September 2, 1913 (Tuesday)[edit]

September 3, 1913 (Wednesday)[edit]

September 4, 1913 (Thursday)[edit]

September 5, 1913 (Friday)[edit]

  • A fire in the city of Hot Springs, Arkansas, destroyed 55 city blocks of property, causing damages of six million dollars.[6] The blaze started "in a negro dwelling on Church Street", then spread southeast, destroying the county courthouse, the city high school, four hotels, the Iron Mountain railroad station and "a hundred or more business buildings and many residences".[13]
  • Sergei Prokofiev's Piano Concerto No. 2 was performed for the first time. The manuscript would be destroyed by fire in 1917 during the Russian Revolution, and Prokofiev would reconstruct it, introducing a new version on May 8, 1924.[14]
  • Born: George E. Valley, American nuclear physicist who developed the H2X radar for American bombers in World War II, and later conceptualized the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) missile defense system; in New York City (d. 1999); and Frank Thomas, American animator for Walt Disney's films, including Pinocchio, Bambi, 101 Dalmatians and The Fox and the Hound; in Fresno, California (d. 2004)

September 6, 1913 (Saturday)[edit]

September 7, 1913 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Outraged over the killing of Japanese nationals at Nanjing in China, 15,000 people protested outside the Foreign Ministry in Tokyo and demanded military action against China. Japan demanded an apology and payment of damages, a request which would initially be ignored.[19]
  • Born: Valerie Taylor, American lesbian pulp fiction novelist, as Velma Nacella Young, in Aurora, Illinois (d. 1997)

September 8, 1913 (Monday)[edit]

September 9, 1913 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • In Germany, BASF started the world's first plant for the production of fertilizer based on the Haber–Bosch process, feeding today about a third of the world's population.[22]
  • The Zeppelin L I, newly commissioned by the German Navy wrecked in the North Sea, 18 miles off of the coast of Heligoland, drowning 14 of the 21 crewmen on board.[23]
  • The U.S. Department of Agriculture reported an "unprecedented" yield in wheat production for 1913. "Never before in the history of the country has there been such a bountiful wheat harvest as has been gathered this year, the New York Times noted.[24]
  • In the skies near Kiev, Russian aviator Pyotr Nesterov became the first person to execute a loop. Nesterov, a pilot for the Imperial Russian Air Service took a Nieuport IV airplane aloft, and when he reached an altitude of 3,300 feet, shut off the engine, then took the plane on a vertical dive, restarted it at 2,000 feet, and "kept on pulling until the horizon slid up over his head", then came back to right-side up.[2] When he landed, he was arrested and spent ten days in jail for negligent use of government property.[25]
  • Robert Owen Jr. was awarded U.S. patent number 1,072,980 for his invention of the ratchet wrench, applied for on February 3.[26]
  • The Hudson River was dammed to create the Ashokan Reservoir, providing 250,000,000 gallons of water a day to New York City (in 1924, the Gilboa Dam would open, providing 500 million gallons a day to the city).[27]
  • Born: Harry Snyder, Jr., Canadian-born American fast-food entrepreneur who co-founded, in 1948, In-N-Out Burger; in Vancouver (d. 1976)
  • Died: Paul de Smet de Naeyer, 70, former Prime Minister of Belgium.

September 10, 1913 (Wednesday)[edit]

September 11, 1913 (Thursday)[edit]

September 12, 1913 (Friday)[edit]

September 13, 1913 (Saturday)[edit]

September 14, 1913 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The proposed route for the Lincoln Highway, which would become the first transcontinental paved highway in the United States, was announced in newspapers across the U.S.[33]
  • Baseball pitcher Larry Cheney of the Chicago Cubs, set a Major League record that still stands, for most hits allowed in a shutout. Although the Cubs got only 11 hits, and the New York Giants got 14, the Cubs still won 7-0.[34][35]
  • Born: Jacobo Árbenz, President of Guatemala, 1951–1954, until his ouster by a CIA-planned coup d'état; in Quetzaltenango (d. 1971)

September 15, 1913 (Monday)[edit]

  • The first successful four-wheel drive vehicle, the Jeffery Quad, was delivered to the United States Army by the Thomas B. Jeffery Company. With modifications, the Quad would become the transport vehicle of choice for the armies of France, Russia and the United States during World War One, and a civilian version would become popular following its debut in April 1914.[36]
  • Born: John N. Mitchell, U.S. Attorney General (1969–1972) who was convicted of conspiracy, obstruction of justice and perjury in 1975, and served 19 months in prison (1977–1978); in Detroit (d. 1988)

September 16, 1913 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • In Libya, Arab tribesmen fought with the occupying Italian Army, killing 33 officers and soldiers, including their leader, General Alfonso Torelli. Another 73 Italians were wounded, and the Libyan losses were unknown.[37]

September 17, 1913 (Wednesday)[edit]

September 18, 1913 (Thursday)[edit]

September 19, 1913 (Friday)[edit]

  • Mexican terrorists dynamited a railroad train, sixty miles south of Saltillo, killing 40 soldiers and 10 second-class passengers. Reportedly, the rebels had set on the track two land mines, which were "set off by electricity".[40]
  • Born: Frances Farmer, American film actress, in Seattle (d. 1970)

September 20, 1913 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Francis Ouimet, a 20-year-old American amateur, won golf's U.S. Open in a three-way playoff against five time British Open winner Harry Vardon and defending British Open champion Ted Ray. At the end of the regulation four rounds, all three had scores of 304 on 72 holes. In a major upset, the relatively unknown Ouimet scored a 72, compared to Vardon's 77 and Ray's 78 in the playoff.[41][42]
  • The foundation stone for the Goetheanum, center for the anthroposophical movement founded by Rudolf Steiner, was set at the building site in the Switzerland town of Dornach, though construction would not be finished for another nine years.[43]
  • U.S. Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan signed treaties in Washington with the Foreign Ministers of Panama, and Guatemala, joining El Salvador in signing the Convention for the Establishment of International Commissions of Inquiry, as a means of resolving disputes between the nations without war.[30][44]
  • With the Canadian exploration ship HMCS Karluk trapped in the Arctic ice, expedition leader Vilhjalmur Stefansson and a few shipmates set off on what was to be a ten-day hunt for food for the ship. Stefansson would return to find that the ice pack, and the trapped ship, had floated away.[45]

September 21, 1913 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Twelve days after Pyotr Nesterov's September 9 loop at Kiev, Adolphe Pégoud duplicated the feat. Because Nesterov's "misuse" of an airplane was not mentioned in the Russian press,[2] Pégoud was reported to have been the first person to perform the aerial maneuver of flying an airplane in a vertical circle[46] and inspired pilots worldwide to try similar stunts.

September 22, 1913 (Monday)[edit]

September 23, 1913 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Roland Garros made an unprecedented airplane trip across the sea, crossing the Mediterranean between Fréjus, France and landing in Bizerte in Tunisia on a 558-mile flight of slightly less than eight hours.[49] Garros took off at 5:27 in the morning and, though a cylinder head on the airplane motor breaking in mid-flight, avoided landing on the islands of Corsica or Sardinia. With "barely 5 liters of fuel left— enough for only a few more minutes of flying", Garros sighted the French naval base at Tunisia and landed at the parade ground.[50]
  • Albanian nationalist Isa Boletini led a revolt in Serbian-occupied Macedonia, with 6,000 fighters taking control of the western Macedonian towns of Debar and Ohrid, which would revert to Yugoslavian control after World War I.[51]
  • Born: Carl-Henning Pedersen, Danish painter, in Copenhagen (d. 2007)
  • Died: Patrick Ford, 76, Irish-born American newspaper publisher and editor of The Irish World; and Julius Preuss, 52, German-Jewish physician and Talmudic scholar who authored the 1911 pioneering textbook Biblical-Talmudic Medicine (Biblisch-Talmudisch Medizin)

September 24, 1913 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • At Melun, French airman Albert Moreau demonstrated the first airplane with an automatic pilot, winning a prize for the design for stability control. Moreau, taking a brave passenger with him, "flew 17 miles without touching the controls of the machine". "Throughout the flight", the New York Times wrote, "even when the machine banked over and rolled so much that the passenger asked him to take the controls, Moreau sat calmly, with his arms folded, and the machine always righted itself." [52]
  • A delegation of 500 Protestants in northern Ireland met in Belfast to organize resistance to the proposed Home Rule law, and pledged to resist any decrees made by an Irish Parliament.[30]
  • Born: Wilson Rawls, American author best known for 1961 children's book Where the Red Fern Grows; in Scraper, Oklahoma (d. 1984); and Herb Jeffries, African-American singer and actor, in Detroit (d. 2014)

September 25, 1913 (Thursday)[edit]

September 26, 1913 (Friday)[edit]

  • A tugboat became the first vessel to pass through the locks of the Panama Canal, sailing from the Atlantic Ocean and arriving at the Gatun Lake after being raised to the lake's level through three chambers.[55] The old tugboat was, appropriately, named the Gatún.[56]
  • Japan sent a three-day ultimatum to China, demanding reparations and an apology for the deaths of more Japanese citizens in Nanjing and for "insults to the flag".[57] General Chang Hsun, commander of government troops at Nanjing, apologized two days later, appearing before the Japanese consulate "accompanied by a bodyguard of 800 men".[58]
  • Died: H. G. Pelissier, 39, British comedian, of cirrhosis of the liver

September 27, 1913 (Saturday)[edit]

September 28, 1913 (Sunday)[edit]

  • General Félix Díaz was nominated as the Labor Party's candidate for President of Mexico in the upcoming October 26 elections.[61]
  • Born: Alice Marble, American women's tennis player who won 12 U.S. Open titles (including four women's singles), as well as six Wimbledon titles (1939 singles) between 1937 and 1940 (d. 1990); Warja Honegger-Lavater, Swiss illustrator, in Winterthur (d. 2007); and Richard M. Bohart, American entomologist (d. 2007)

September 29, 1913 (Monday)[edit]

  • The Treaty of Constantinople was signed between Turkey and Bulgaria, ending the last dispute in the Second Balkan War.[62] That day, Bulgaria released its casualty reports for the First and Second Balkan Wars, announcing that 44,892 of its soldiers had been killed, and another 104,586 wounded.[6]
  • Thomas Mott Osborne, the Chairman of New York's State Commission on Prison Reform, began his personal investigation of prison conditions by spending a week as prisoner "Tom Brown" at the Auburn State Prison. At a chapel service the day before, Osborne and Auburn's warden informed the prisoners of what he was doing, but did not let the guards know. After witnessing conditions from the inside for a week, Osborne recommended immediate reforms.[63]
  • Sir Thomas Bowater was elected as Lord Mayor of London.[30]
  • Maurice Prévost of France set a new speed record, traveling 125 miles per hour in an airplane at the International Aeroplane Cup race at Rheims.[30]
  • Born:
  • Died: Rudolf Diesel, the German engineer who invented the diesel engine, died at the age of 55 after jumping, or being thrown, from his cabin on the passenger steamer SS Dresden. His body would be found in the ocean on October 10.[64]

September 30, 1913 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The first classes were held at the new State Normal School in Minot, North Dakota. The institution is now Minot State University.[65]
  • The United Kingdom withdrew its support for the five-nation banking loan to China for railroad construction.[30]
  • All 54 passengers and crew of the British freighter Templemore were rescued after a wireless distress call was sent from the ship, sinking in the mid-Atlantic. The ship Arcadia received the signal and carried out the evacuation.[30]
  • Born: Bill Walsh, American film producer, in New York City (d. 1975); Robert Nisbet, American sociologist, in Los Angeles (d. 1996); and Cholly Atkins, American choreographer, as Charles Atkinson in Pratt City, Alabama (d. 2003)
  • Died: Dr. Reginald Heber Fitz, 70, Professor of the Harvard Medical School who was credited with identifying the inflammation of the appendix, which he referred to as appendicitis, and prescribing its treatment, the appendectomy.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Flies Upside Down a Quarter of a Mile", New York Times, September 2, 1913
  2. ^ a b c "European Correspondence", in Flying magazine (August 1992) pp48-50
  3. ^ "Aviator Loops Loop With Aeroplane 1500 Feet Up", Reno (NV) Evening Gazette, September 1, 1913, p1
  4. ^ "Second Revolution (1913)", in Historical Dictionary of Modern China (1800–1949), James Z. Gao, ed. (Scarecrow Press, 2009) p308
  5. ^ "Androcles and the Lion" in Encyclopedia of the Literature of Empire, Mary Ellen Snodgrass, ed. (Infobase Publishing, 2010) p12
  6. ^ a b c d e "Record of Current Events", The American Monthly Review of Reviews (October 1913), pp422-425
  7. ^ "Facts Held Back in Fatal Wreck", New York Times, September 4, 1913 "Arrest Engineer of Fatal Train", New York Times, September 5, 1913
  8. ^ "14 Dead in English Train", New York Times, September 3, 1913; Benedict Le Vay, Bradt Britain from the Rails: A Window Gazer's Guide (Bradt Travel Guides, 2009) pp89-90
  9. ^ Vladimir A. Volkov, Polar Seas Oceanography: An Integrated Case Study of the Kara Sea (Springer, 2002) pp4-5
  10. ^ "Severnaya Zemlya: The Last Major Discovery", by William Barr, The Geographical Journal (March, 1975), pp 59-71
  11. ^ "Taft Elected Head of Bar Association", New York Times, September 4, 1913, p8
  12. ^ "Mad Teacher Kills 15 and Wounds 16", New York Times, September 6, 1913 ; "Teacher Planned Murders", New York Times, September 7, 1913
  13. ^ "$6,000,000 Damage in Hot Springs Fire", New York Times, September 6, 1913
  14. ^ Michael Steinberg, The Concerto : A Listener's Guide: A Listener's Guide (Oxford University Press, 1998) p344
  15. ^ "Noguchi Isolates the Germ of Rabies", New York Times, September 7, 1913
  16. ^ "Canal Dry Digging Ends", New York Times, September 8, 1913
  17. ^ "Wilson Nearly Run Down", New York Times, September 7, 1913
  18. ^ "Helmer Wins British 'Pro' Mile", New York Times, September 7, 1913
  19. ^ "15,000 Japanese Storm the Ministry", New York Times, September 8, 1913
  20. ^ David Pierce, Yeats's Worlds: Ireland, England and the Poetic Imagination (Yale University Press, 1995) pp166-177
  21. ^ Neil Gould, Victor Herbert: A Theatrical Life (Fordham University Press, 2009) p450
  22. ^ John E. Lesch, The German Chemical Industry in the Twentieth Century (Springer, 2000) pp170-171
  23. ^ "German Airship Lost with 15 Men", New York Times, September 10, 1913
  24. ^ "Corn Crop Suffers; Bumper Wheat Year", New York Times, September 10, 1913
  25. ^ Jon Guttman, Pusher Aces of World War 1 (Osprey Publishing, 2009) p9
  26. ^ Tom Benford, Garage And Workshop Gear Guide (MotorBooks International, 2006) p67
  27. ^ Frances F. Dunwell, The Hudson: America's River (Columbia University Press, 2008)
  28. ^ "Luonnotar (Daughter of Nature)". Jean Sibelius - The music. Retrieved 2016-11-12. 
  29. ^ "MAYOR GAYNOR DIES IN DECK CHAIR ON LINER; STRICKEN WHILE ALONE; KLINE SWORN IN AS CITY'S HEAD", New York Times, September 12, 1913, p1
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h "Record of Current Events", The American Monthly Review of Reviews (November 1913), pp551-554
  31. ^ Paul Goldsmith and Michael Bassett, The Myers (David Ling Publishing, 2007) p107
  32. ^ Manjit Kumar, Quantum: Einstein, Bohr and the Great Debate about the Nature of Reality (Icon Books, 2008)
  33. ^ Thomas L. Karnes, Asphalt and Politics: A History of the American Highway System (McFarland, 2009); The Lincoln Highway: Main Street Across America (University of Iowa Press, 1999) p xxv
  34. ^ "Cheney, Laurance Russell 'Larry'", in Biographical Dictionary of American Sports: Baseball, Volume 1, by David L. Porter (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000) p253
  35. ^ "Giants Drop First Game to the Cubs; McGraw's Men Make Fourteen Hits, but Fail to Score a Run and Lose, 7–0", New York Times, September 15, 1913, p10
  36. ^ Charles Hyde, Storied Independent Automakers: Nash, Hudson, and American Motors (Wayne State University Press, 2009) pp17-18
  37. ^ "Italian General Slain", New York Times, September 18, 1913
  38. ^ "Jews in War on Ridicule", New York Times, September 18, 1913
  39. ^ Sean Dennis Cashman, America Ascendant: From Theodore Roosevelt to FDR in the Century of American Power, 1901–1945 (New York University Press, 1998) p44
  40. ^ "50 Are Blown up in Mexican Train", New York Times, September 23, 1913
  41. ^ "Ouimet World's Golf Champion", New York Times, September 21, 1913
  42. ^ Mark Frost, The Grand Slam: Bobby Jones, America, and the Story of Golf (HarperCollins, 2004)
  43. ^ Rudolf Grosse, The Christmas Foundation: Beginning of a New Cosmic Age (SteinerBooks, 1984) p30
  44. ^ Charles I. Bevans, ed., Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America, 1776–1949, Volume 2 (U.S. Department of State, 1968) p387
  45. ^ Richard Diubaldo, Stefansson and the Canadian Arctic (McGill-Queen's University Press, 1999) p82
  46. ^ "'Loops the Loop' 2,500 Feet in Air", New York Times, September 22, 1913
  47. ^ Sally Dumaux, King Baggot: A Biography and Filmography of the First King of the Movies (McFarland, 2002) p63
  48. ^ "Athletics Clinch American Pennant", New York Times, September 23, 1913
  49. ^ "Flies 558 Miles across the Sea", New York Times, September 24, 1913
  50. ^ Henry Serrano Villard, Contact!: The Story of the Early Aviators (Courier Dover Publications, 1987) p181
  51. ^ "Boletini, Isa Bey", in A Biographical Dictionary of Albanian History, Robert Elsie, ed. (I.B. Tauris, 2012) p46
  52. ^ "New Air Device Triumphs", New York Times, September 25, 1913
  53. ^ Kevin J. Hayes, ed., Charlie Chaplin: Interviews (University Press of Mississippi, 2005) p66
  54. ^ John R. Howard, The Shifting Wind: The Supreme Court and Civil Rights from Reconstruction to Brown (SUNY Press, 1999) p156
  55. ^ "First Boat Raised in Panama Locks", New York Times, September 27, 1913
  56. ^ Lesley A. Dutemple, The Panama Canal: Great Building Feats Series (Twenty-First Century Books, 2002) p79
  57. ^ "Japan Warns China", New York Times, September 28, 1913
  58. ^ "Gen. Hsun Apologizes", New York Times, September 29, 1913
  59. ^ Frank Chapelle, Wellsprings: A Natural History Of Bottled Spring Waters (Rutgers University Press, 2005) p3
  60. ^ "Giants Lose Game, But Win Pennant", New York Times, September 28, 1913
  61. ^ "Diaz Is Nominated after Party Split", New York Times, September 29, 1913
  62. ^ Handan Nezir-Akmese, The Birth of Modern Turkey: The Ottoman Military and the March to World War 1 (I.B. Tauris, 2005) p140
  63. ^ "Thomas Mott Osborne", in Encyclopedia of American Prisons , Marilyn D. McShane and Frank P. Williams, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 1996) p541
  64. ^ Ivan Berg and Nik Berg, Top Gear: Motor Mania (Random House, 2012)
  65. ^ Mark Timbrook, Minot State University (Arcadia Publishing, 2009) p14