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1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1996th year of the Common Era (CE) and (AD) designations, the 996th year of the Anno Domini 2nd millennium, the 96th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1990s decade.
1996 was designated as:
International Year for the Eradication of Poverty
January [ edit ]
January 3 – Motorola introduces the Motorola StarTAC Wearable Cellular Telephone, the first clamshell mobile phone. 
January 5 – Hamas operative Yahya Ayyash is assassinated by an Israeli Shabak-planted, bomb-laden cell phone.
January 7 – One of the worst blizzards in American history hits the eastern states, killing more than 150 people. Philadelphia receives a record 30.7 inches (78 cm) of snow, New York City's public schools close for the first time in eighteen years and the federal government in Washington, D.C. is closed for days.
January 8 – A Zairean cargo plane crashes into a crowded market in the center of the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kinshasa, killing 300 people.
January 9– 20 – Serious fighting breaks out between Russian soldiers and rebel fighters in Chechnya.
January 11 – Ryutaro Hashimoto, leader of the Liberal Democratic Party, becomes Prime Minister of Japan.
January 13 – Italy's Prime Minister, Lamberto Dini, resigns after the failure of all-party talks to confirm him. New talks are initiated by President Oscar Luigi Scalfaro to form a new government.
January 14 – Jorge Sampaio is elected President of Portugal.
January 16 – President of Sierra Leone Valentine Strasser is deposed by the chief of defence, Julius Maada Bio. Bio promises to restore power following elections scheduled for February.
occurs as an engine fire forces the tugboat North Cape oil spill Scandia ashore on Moonstone Beach in South Kingstown, Rhode Island. The North Cape Barge is pulled along with it and leaks 820,000 gallons of home heating oil. An Indonesian ferry sinks off the northern tip of Sumatra, drowning more than 100 people. January 20 – Yasser Arafat is re-elected president of the Palestinian Authority.
February [ edit ]
February 4 – The 6.6 M w earthquake near Lijiang in South-west China kills up to 322 people, injures 17,000, and leaves 300,000 homeless.
February 6 – Birgenair Flight 301, on a charter flight from the Caribbean to Germany, crashes into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of the Dominican Republic, killing all 189 passengers and crew.
February 7 – René Préval succeeds Jean-Bertrand Aristide as President of Haiti in the first peaceful handover of power since the nation achieved independence 192 years earlier, in 1804.
February 10 – Bosnian Serbs break off contact with the Bosnian government and with representatives of Ifor, the NATO localised force, in reaction to the arrest of several Bosnian Serb war criminals.
February 14 – Violent clashes erupt between Filipino soldiers and Vietnamese boat people, as the Filipino government attempts to forcibly repatriate hundreds of Vietnamese asylum seekers. February 15
The American Embassy in
Athens, Greece, comes under mortar fire. Begum
Khaleda Zia is re-elected as Prime Minister of Bangladesh. The country's second democratic election is marred by low voter turnout, due to several boycotts and pre-election violence, which has resulted in at least thirteen deaths. The UK government publishes the Scott Report.
March 1 – Iraq disarmament crisis: Iraqi forces refuse UNSCOM inspection teams access to five sites designated for inspection. The teams enter the sites only after delays of up to seventeen hours.
March 2 – 1996 Australian federal election: The Liberal/ National Coalition led by John Howard defeats the Labor Government led by Prime Minister Paul Keating. Howard was sworn in on March 11. 
March 3 – José María Aznar, leader of the Popular Party, is elected as Prime Minister of Spain, replacing Felipe González.
March 3– 4 – Two suicide bombs explode in Israel, killing 32 people. The Yahya Ayyash Units admit responsibility, and Palestinian president Yasser Arafat condemns the killings in a televised address. Israel warns of retaliation.
Mesut Yılmaz of ANAP forms the new government of Turkey (53rd government). A boat carrying market traders capsizes outside
Freetown harbour in Sierra Leone, killing at least 86 people. Chechen rebels attack the Russian government headquarters in Grozny; 70 Russian soldiers and policemen and 130 Chechen fighters are killed.
March 8 – China begins surface-to-surface missile testing and military exercises off Taiwanese coastal areas. The United States government condemns the act as provocation, and the Taiwanese government warns of retaliation.
March 9 – Jorge Sampaio is the new Portuguese president.
March 13 – Dunblane massacre: Unemployed former shopkeeper Thomas Hamilton walks into the Dunblane Primary School in Scotland and opens fire, killing sixteen infant school pupils and one teacher before committing suicide.
March 14 – An international peace summit is held in Egypt in response to escalating terrorist attacks in the Middle East.
March 15 – Fokker, a major small size aircraft manufacturing goes bankrupt in Netherlands.
March 16 – Robert Mugabe is re-elected as President of Zimbabwe, although only 32% of the electorate actually voted.
March 17 – Sri Lanka wins the Cricket World Cup by beating Australia in the final.
March 18 – The Ozone Disco Club fire in Quezon City, Philippines kills 163 people.
March 22 – Sweden's Finance Minister Göran Persson becomes the new Prime Minister of Sweden.
March 23 – Taiwan (Republic of China) holds its first direct elections for president; Lee Teng-hui is re-elected.
March 24 – The Marcopper mining disaster on the island of Marinduque, Philippines takes place.
March 25 – The 68th Academy Awards, hosted by Whoopi Goldberg, are held at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in Los Angeles with winning Braveheart Best Picture. March 26 – The International Monetary Fund approves a $10.2 billion loan to Russia for economic reform.
Iraq disarmament crisis: UNSCOM supervises the destruction of Al-Hakam, Iraq's main production facility of biological warfare agents.
May 11 – After takeoff from Miami, a fire started by improperly handled oxygen canisters in the cargo hold of Atlanta-bound ValuJet Flight 592 causes the Douglas DC-9 to crash in the Florida Everglades, killing all 110 people on board.
May 13 – Severe thunderstorms and a tornado in Bangladesh kill 600 people.
May 17– 28 – Atal Bihari Vajpayee, leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party, is elected as Prime Minister of India, replacing P. V. Narasimha Rao of the Indian National Congress. However, the party does not receive an overall majority and Vajpayee resigns thirteen days later rather than face a no confidence vote and is replaced by the United Front leader, Deve Gowda.
May 18 – The X Prize Foundation launches the $10,000,000 Ansari X Prize.
May 23 – Members of the Armed Islamic Group in Algeria kill seven French Trappist monks, after talks with French government concerning the imprisonment of several GIA sympathisers break down.
May 27 – First Chechnya War: Russian President Boris Yeltsin meets with Chechnyan rebels for the first time and negotiates a ceasefire for the dispute.
May 28 – Albania's general election of May 26 is declared unfair by international monitors, and the ruling Democratic Party under President Sali Berisha is charged by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe with rigging the elections. Several hundred protestors gather in Tirana to demonstrate against the election result. May 30 – The Likud Party, led by Benjamin Netanyahu, wins a narrow victory in the Israeli general election.
Iraq disarmament crisis: As Iraq continues to refuse inspectors access to a number of sites, the United States fails in its attempt to build support for military action against Iraq in the UN Security Council.
June 1– 3 – The Czech Republic's first general election ends inconclusively. Prime Minister Václav Klaus and his incumbent Civic Democratic Party emerge as the winners, but are unable to form a majority government. President Václav Havel refuses to invite Klaus to form a coalition.
June 4 – The space rocket Ariane 5 explodes forty seconds after takeoff in French Guiana. The project costs European governments $7,500,000,000 over eleven years.
June 6 – Leighton W. Smith, Jr. resigns as NATO commander in the face of increasing criticism.
June 8– 30 – England hosts the UEFA Euro 1996 football tournament, which is won by Germany.
An explosion in a
São Paulo suburban shopping centre kills 44 people and injures more than 100. A peace convoy carrying Chechen separatist leaders and international diplomats is targeted by a series of remotely controlled land mines; eight people are killed.
June 15 – In Manchester, UK, a massive IRA bomb injures over 200 people and devastates a large part of the city centre.
June 23 – The Nintendo 64 was released, along with his launch and most popular title . Super Mario 64
July 3 – Boris Yeltsin is re-elected as President of Russia after the second round of elections.
July 5 – Dolly the sheep, the first mammal to be successfully cloned from an adult cell, is born at the Roslin Institute in Midlothian, Scotland, UK.
July 11 – Arrest warrants are issued for Bosnian Serb war criminals Radovan Karadžić and Ratko Mladić by the Russell Tribunal in The Hague.
July 12 – Hurricane Bertha: made landfall in North Carolina as a Category 2 storm, causing $270 million in damage ($440 million in present-day terms ) to the United States and its possessions and many indirect deaths. 
July 16 – An outbreak of E. coli food poisoning in Japan results in 6,000 children being ill, including two deaths, after a group of school children eat contaminated lunches.
July 21 – The Saguenay Flood, one of Canada's most costly natural disasters, is caused by flooding on the Saguenay River in Quebec.
July 24 – The Dehiwala train bombing kills 56 commuters outside Colombo.
July 25 – The Tutsi-led Burundian army performs a coup and reinstalls previous president Pierre Buyoya, ousting current president Sylvestre Ntibantunganya.
July 28 – The remains of a man who lived 8,000 to 9,000 years ago are discovered in Kennewick, Washington and are named Kennewick Man.
The electron microscope reveals chain structures in meteorite fragment
August 4 – The 1996 Summer Olympics conclude.
August 6 – NASA announces that the Allan Hills 84001 meteorite, thought to originate from Mars, may contain evidence of primitive lifeforms; further tests are inconclusive.
August 7 – Heavy rains kill more than 80 campers near Huesca, Spain.
August 9 – Boris Yeltsin is sworn in at the Kremlin for a second term as President of Russia.
August 13 – Data sent back by the Galileo space probe indicates there may be water on one of Jupiter's moons.
August 14 – A rocket ignited during a fireworks display in Arequipa, Peru knocks down a high-tension power cable into a dense crowd, electrocuting 35 people.
August 15 – Bob Dole is nominated for President of the United States, and Jack Kemp for vice president, at the Republican National Convention in San Diego, California.
August 16 – Brookfield Zoo, Chicago. After a 3-year-old boy falls into the 20-foot (6.1 m) deep gorilla enclosure, Binti Jua, a female lowland gorilla sits with the injured boy until his rescue.
August 23 – Osama bin Laden writes "The Declaration of Jihad on the Americans Occupying the Country of the Two Sacred Places," a call for the removal of American military forces from Saudi Arabia.
August 28 – Their Royal Highnesses, the Prince and Princess of Wales, are formally divorced at the High Court of Justice in London. Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales is restyled Diana, Princess of Wales, due to the Queen's letters patent issued a week earlier.
August 31 – Iraq disarmament crisis: Iraqi forces launch an offensive into the northern No-Fly Zone and capture Arbil.
September [ edit ]
Tupac Shakur is shot and killed in Las Vegas.
October [ edit ]
November [ edit ]
December [ edit ]
Undated [ edit ]
January [ edit ]
January 1 – Andreas Pereira, Brazilian footballer
January 2 – Xiaoyu Yu, Chinese figure skater
January 3 – Florence Pugh, English actress
January 10 – Anna Sztankovics, Hungarian swimmer
January 12 – Ella Henderson, English singer
January 15 – Dove Cameron, American actress and singer
January 17 – Nile Wilson, British artistic gymnast 
January 21 – Marco Asensio, Spanish footballer
January 24 – Patrik Schick, Czech footballer
January 26 – Zakaria Bakkali, Belgian footballer January 31 – Joel Courtney, American actor
February [ edit ]
February 1 – Ahmad Abughaush, Jordanian taekwondo athlete 
February 2 – Harry Winks, English footballer
February 5 – Zeng Siqi, Chinese artistic gymnast
February 13 – Muhammad Rian Ardianto, Indonesian badminton player
February 17 – Sasha Pieterse, South African-born American actress
February 20 – Mabel, English singer
February 23 – D'Angelo Russell, American basketball player
February 25 – Emel Dereli, Turkish shot putter
February 27 – Ten, Thai singer February 28 – Shi Yuqi, Chinese badminton player
April 3 – Sarah Jeffery, Canadian actress
April 4 – Austin Mahone, American singer-songwriter and actor
April 9 – Giovani Lo Celso, Argentinian footballer
April 14 – Abigail Breslin, American actress
April 17 – Dee Dee Davis, American actress
April 21 – Tavi Gevinson, American fashion blogger
April 22 – Wendy Sulca, Peruvian singer
April 23 – Álex Márquez, Spanish motorcycle racer
April 24 – Ashleigh Barty, Australian tennis player
April 28 – Tony Revolori, American actor April 29
Alex Iwobi, Nigerian footballer Noah Munck, American actor, comedian, YouTube personality and music producer
May 8 – 6ix9ine, American rapper
May 9 – Noah Centineo, American actor
May 10 – Tyus Jones, American basketball player
May 11 – Andrés Cubas, Argentinian footballer
May 15 – Birdy, English singer and songwriter
May 18 – Violett Beane, American actress
May 18 – Yuki Kadono, Japanese snowboarder
May 23 – Katharina Althaus, German ski jumper
May 26 – Lukáš Haraslín, Slovak footballer
May 31 – Normani, American singer
June 1 – Tom Holland, English actor
June 3 – Han Tianyu, Chinese short track speed skater
June 4 – Maria Bakalova, Bulgarian actress
June 7 – Christian McCaffrey, American football player
June 10 – Wen Junhui, Chinese singer and actor
June 12 – Davinson Sánchez, Colombian footballer
June 15 – Aurora, Norwegian singer
June 16 – Lily Zhang, American table tennis player
June 17 – Godfred Donsah, Ghanese footballer
June 18 – Alen Halilović, Croatian footballer
June 19 – Larisa Iordache, Romanian artistic gymnast
June 24 – Harris Dickinson, English actor, writer, and director
June 27 – Lauren Jauregui, American singer
June 29 – Bart Ramselaar, Dutch footballer
September [ edit ]
September 1 – Zendaya, American actress and singer
September 3 – Joy, South Korean singer and actress
September 5 – Sigrid, Norwegian singer
September 9 – Jaïro Riedewald, Dutch footballer
September 12 – Colin Ford, American actor
September 13 – Lili Reinhart, American actress
September 16 – Baka Prase, Serbian YouTuber, rapper, gamer, and entertainer
September 19 – Pia Mia, Guamanian singer-songwriter and model
September 22 – Anthoine Hubert, French Racing Driver (d. 2019)
September 25 – Mie Nielsen, Danish swimmer
September 27 – Maxwel Cornet, French-Ivorian footballer September 28 – Michael Ronda, Mexican actor and singer
October [ edit ]
October 3 – Kelechi Iheanacho, Nigerian footballer
October 5 – Sevn Alias, Dutch rapper
October 7 – Lewis Capaldi, Scottish singer-songwriter
October 8 – Sara Takanashi, Japanese ski jumper
October 10 – Oscar Zia, Swedish singer and songwriter
October 12 – Riechedly Bazoer, Dutch footballer
October 15 – Zelo, Korean singer
October 20 – Anthony Sinisuka Ginting, Indonesian badminton player
October 27 – Nadiem Amiri, German footballer
October 28 – Lee June-hyoung, South Korean figure skater October 30
November [ edit ]
December [ edit ]
January [ edit ]
February [ edit ]
February 2 – Gene Kelly, American actor and dancer (b. 1912)
February 3 – Audrey Meadows, American actress (b. 1922)
February 4 – Alfredo Nobre da Costa, 106th Prime Minister of Portugal (b. 1923)
February 6 – Guy Madison, American actor (b. 1922)
February 7 – Boris Tchaikovsky, Russian composer (b. 1925)
February 9 – Adolf Galland, German general (b. 1912)
February 11 – Kebby Musokotwane, Prime Minister of Zambia (b. 1946)
February 13 – Martin Balsam, American actor (b. 1919)
February 21 – Morton Gould, American musician and composer (b. 1913)
February 25 – Haing S. Ngor, Cambodian activist and actor (b. 1940)
February 26 – Mieczysław Weinberg, Polish composer (b. 1919) February 27 – Sarah Palfrey Cooke, American tennis player (b. 1912)
March 4 – Minnie Pearl, American comedian (b. 1912)
March 9 – George Burns, American comedian and actor (b. 1896)
March 10 – Ross Hunter, American film producer (b. 1920)
March 11 – Vince Edwards, American actor (b. 1928)
March 12 – Gyula Kállai, 48th Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1910)
March 17 – René Clément, French film director (b. 1913)
March 18 – Odysseas Elytis, Greek writer (b. 1911)
March 25 – Lola Beltrán, Mexican singer, actress, and television presenter (b. 1932)
March 31 – Jeffrey Lee Pierce, American musician (b. 1958)
April 3 – Ron Brown, American politician (b. 1941)
April 4 – Barney Ewell, American athlete (b. 1918)
April 6 – Greer Garson, British-American actress (b. 1904)
April 8 – Ben Johnson, American actor and stuntman (b. 1918)
April 13 – James Burke, Irish-American gangster (b. 1931)
April 16 – Lucille Bremer, American actress and dancer (b. 1917)
April 18 – Bernard Edwards, American bass player (b. 1952)
April 20 – Christopher Robin Milne, English author and bookseller (b. 1920)
April 21 – Dzhokhar Dudayev, Chechen politician and President of Ichkeria (b. 1944)
April 22 – Erma Bombeck, American humorist and writer (b. 1927)
April 23 – P. L. Travers, British actress, journalist, novelist and writer (b. 1899)
April 25 – Saul Bass, American graphic designer (b. 1920)
April 26 – Stirling Silliphant, American screenwriter and producer (b. 1918) April 28 – Siti Hartinah, 2nd First Lady of Indonesia, wife of Suharto (b. 1923)
May 1 – David M. Kennedy, American politician, businessman (b. 1905)
May 2 – Emile Habibi, Palestinian Israeli writer (b. 1922)
May 3 – Jack Weston, American actor (b. 1924)
May 6 – Leo Joseph Suenens, Belgian cardinal (b. 1904)
Nnamdi Azikiwe, 1st President of Nigeria (b. 1904)
Scott Fischer, American mountaineer (b. 1955)
Rob Hall, New Zealand mountaineer (b. 1961)
Andrew Harris, New Zealand mountaineer (b. 1964)
Doug Hansen, American mountaineer (b. 1949)
Yasuko Namba, Japanese mountaineer (b. 1949)
Tsewang Samanla, Indo-Tibetan Border police officer and mountaineer (b. 1957)
Tsewang Paljor, Indo-Tibetan Border police officer and mountaineer (b. 1968)
Dorje Morup, Indo-Tibetan Border police officer and mountaineer (b. 1948) Ademir de Menezes, Brazilian footballer (b. 1922)
May 17 – Johnny "Guitar" Watson, American singer, songwriter and musician (b. 1935)
May 19 – John Beradino, American baseball player and actor (b. 1917)
May 20 – Jon Pertwee, British actor (b. 1919)
May 23 – Sim Iness, American Olympic athlete (b. 1930)
May 25 – Bradley Nowell, American musician (b. 1968)
May 29 – Tamara Toumanova, Russian-American dancer and actress (b. 1919) May 31 – Timothy Leary, American writer and social activist (b. 1920)
July 1 – Margaux Hemingway, American fashion model and actress (b. 1954)
July 3 – Raaj Kumar, Indian film actor (b. 1926)
July 13 – Pandro S. Berman, American film producer (b. 1905)
July 15 – Dana Hill, American actress (b. 1964)
July 20 – František Plánička, Czech footballer (b. 1904)
July 22 – Jessica Mitford, British-American author, journalist and political campaigner (b. 1917)
July 23 – Jean Muir, American actress (b. 1911)
July 27 – Jane Drew, English architect (b. 1911)
July 28 – Roger Tory Peterson, American naturalist and artist (b. 1908) July 30 – Claudette Colbert, French-born American Academy Award-winning actress (b. 1903)
August 6 – Hernán Siles Zuazo, Bolivian politician (b. 1914)
August 8 – Nevill Francis Mott, English Nobel physicist (b. 1905)
August 12 – Viktor Hambardzumyan, Armenian scientist (b. 1908)
August 14 – Camilla Horn, German actress (b. 1903)
August 20 – Rio Reiser, German musician and singer (b. 1950)
August 21 – Mary Two-Axe Earley, Canadian indigenous women's rights activist (b. 1911)
August 26 – Alejandro Agustín Lanusse, 37th President of Argentina (b. 1918)
August 27 – Greg Morris, American actor (b. 1933) August 30 – Christine Pascal, French actress, director and screenwriter (b. 1953)
September [ edit ]
September 1 – Vagn Holmboe, Danish composer (b. 1909)
September 7 – Bibi Besch, American actress (b. 1942)
September 10 – Joanne Dru, American actress (b. 1922)
September 13 – Tupac Shakur, American rapper (b. 1971)
September 14 – Juliet Prowse, American dancer and actress (b. 1936)
September 17 – Spiro Agnew, 39th Vice President of the United States (b. 1918)
September 18 – Annabella, French actress (b. 1907)
September 21 – Henri Nouwen, Dutch priest and author (b. 1932)
September 23 – Fujiko F. Fujio, Japanese cartoonist (b. 1933)
September 24 – Zeki Müren, Turkish singer, composer, songwriter, actor and poet (b. 1931)
September 27 – Mohammad Najibullah, President of Afghanistan (b. 1947) September 29 – Shūsaku Endō, Japanese author (b. 1923)
October [ edit ]
November [ edit ]
November 1 – J. R. Jayewardene, 2nd President of Sri Lanka (b. 1906)
November 2 – Eva Cassidy, American vocalist (b. 1963)
November 5 – Eddie Harris, American jazz musician (b. 1934)
November 6 – Tommy Lawton, English footballer and manager (b. 1919)
November 15 – Alger Hiss, American diplomat (b. 1904)
November 18 – Zinovy Gerdt, Russian actor (b. 1916)
November 21 – Abdus Salam, Pakistani Nobel physicist (b. 1926)
November 26 – Paul Rand, American graphic designer (b. 1914)
November 27 – Gertrude Blanch, American mathematician (b. 1897)
November 28 – Don McNeill, American tennis player (b. 1918) November 30 – Tiny Tim, American musician (b. 1932)
December [ edit ]
December 3 – Babrak Karmal, President of Afghanistan (b. 1929)
December 6 – Pete Rozelle, American football official (b. 1926)
December 7 – José Donoso, Chilean writer (b. 1924)
December 8 – Howard Rollins, American actor (b. 1950)
December 9 – Mary Leakey, British archaeologist (b. 1913)
December 10 – Faron Young, American singer (b. 1932)
December 11 – Willie Rushton, English comedian, actor and cartoonist (b. 1937)
December 13 – Cao Yu, Chinese playwright (b. 1910)
December 17 – Stanko Todorov, Bulgarian communist politician (b. 1920)
December 18 – Irving Caesar, American lyricist (b. 1895)
December 19 – Marcello Mastroianni, Italian actor (b. 1924)
December 21 – Margret Rey, American author and illustrator (b. 1906) December 30
Nobel Prizes [ edit ]
Right Livelihood Award [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
Tynan, Dan (December 24, 2005). "The 50 Greatest Gadgets of the Past 50 Years". . p. 2 PC World . Retrieved . September 10, 2006
"1996 Federal Election | AustralianPolitics.com". australianpolitics.com.
"July 17 1996 – Madras to be known as Chennai". www.mapsofindia.com . Retrieved . July 26, 2017
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Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–" . Retrieved . January 1, 2020
Tingley, Kim (June 27, 2014). "The Brave New World of Three-Parent I.V.F." – via NYTimes.com.
Goswami, Parismita (January 8, 2016). "Swaragini actress Swara aka Helly Shah celebrates birthday with co-actors". International Business Times . Retrieved . December 12, 2016
"Nile Wilson profile". British gymnastics . Retrieved . August 1, 2014
"Ahmad Abughaush". Olympic.org . Retrieved . November 1, 2020
"Noah Rubin | Overview | ATP Tour | Tennis". ATP Tour.
"Kendji Girac". Voice (in French) . Retrieved . November 1, 2020
"Ben Simmons". LSU . Retrieved . November 1, 2020
1996 at USA Swimming
Archives, Cycling. "Femke Van Den Driessche". www.cyclingarchives.com.
"Femke Van den Driessche banned for six years for mechanical doping". Eurosport UK. April 26, 2016.
Sibree, Bron (January 29, 2020). "In Unfree Speech, Joshua Wong writes, 'our struggle is your struggle. '" South China Morning Post . Retrieved . May 24, 2020
"Ella Fitzgerald | Biography, Music, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica . Retrieved . June 26, 2020