March 1912

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March 26, 1912: Cherry blossom trees arrive in D.C.
March 12, 1912: Daisy Low founds the Girl Guides of America, now the Girl Scouts of the USA
March 1, 1912: Albert Berry becomes first to parachute from an airplane
March 23, 1912: USS Maine victims interred at Arlington after 14 years

The following events occurred in March 1912:

March 1, 1912 (Friday)[edit]

  • Albert Berry became the first person to make a parachute jump from an airplane in flight, leaping from above the Jefferson Barracks near St. Louis, Missouri, after being taken aloft by pilot Tony Jannus.[1]
  • The British coal miners' strike, that had started earlier in the week at one company in Derbyshire, continued to spread across the United Kingdom, with one million workers walking off the job until a fair minimum wage could be guaranteed them.[2]
March 1, 1912: Emmeline Pankhurst arrested

March 2, 1912 (Saturday)[edit]

RMS Olympic (left) being maneuvered into drydock in Belfast for repairs on the morning of March 2, 1912 after throwing a propeller blade. RMS Titanic (right) is moored at the fitting-out wharf. Olympic would sail for Southampton on the 7th, concluding the last time the two ships would be photographed together.
  • As rioting broke out in response to the fall of the Manchu Dynasty in China, Beijing was placed under martial law. Foreign troops arrived the next day to protect the citizens of their respective nations.[6]
  • U.S. President Taft issued a proclamation, warning American citizens to avoid visiting Mexico, and advising those who were living there to be prepared to leave.[7]
  • Died: Edward Blake, 78, Canadian politician who led the Liberal Party from 1880 to 1887, but never served as Prime Minister

March 3, 1912 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Mexican General Pascual Orozco, who had helped Francisco I. Madero win the revolution of 1911 and become President of Mexico, declared a revolt against the Madero government after having been denied a major role. Orozco and his followers, the "Orozquistas", then assisted Victoriano Huerta in overthrowing Madero.[8]

March 4, 1912 (Monday)[edit]

March 5, 1912 (Tuesday)[edit]

King Vajiravudh

March 6, 1912 (Wednesday)[edit]

Vector Oreo.svg

March 7, 1912 (Thursday)[edit]

March 8, 1912 (Friday)[edit]

March 9, 1912 (Saturday)[edit]

March 10, 1912 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Yuan Shih-kai was sworn in as the provisional President of the Republic of China.[29] Described by one historian as "a traitor to the republic just as he had betrayed the Qing" Empire,[30] Yuan would move the capital of the republic from Nanjing back to Beijing, then re-establish the monarchy in 1915 with himself as the new Emperor. Yuan would die in 1916.[31]
  • Born: George C. McGhee, American diplomat, in Waco, Texas (d. 2005);

March 11, 1912 (Monday)[edit]

  • The University of Hong Kong held its first classes, starting with 70 students and a medical school. It now has more than 22,000 students.[32]
  • The provisional constitution of the Republic of China, with 56 articles, was promulgated, giving most executive power to a prime minister and cabinet. It would be replaced in 1914 with a new constitution giving more power to President Yuan.[33]
  • The Miners' Federation of Great Britain offered to meet with the Prime Minister.[12]
  • Coal miners in the German mining regions of Westphalia went on strike, with 200,000 walking off the job at Essen, Hamborn, Duisburg, Oberhausen, Bochum and Recklinghausen. The miners returned to work on March 16.[34]
  • The British submarine A-3 was raised from Portsmouth harbour, along with the remains of the 14 men who had gone down with it when it sank on February 2.[35]
  • Born: Xavier Montsalvatge, Spanish Catalan composer, in Girona (d. 2002)
  • Died: Stagger Lee Shelton, 57, American criminal who became the subject of the popular song "Stagger Lee"

March 12, 1912 (Tuesday)[edit]

March 13, 1912 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Mahlon Pitney was confirmed by the U.S. Senate, 50-26, to serve on the Supreme Court, and took office five days later.[38]
Quebec Bulldogs

March 14, 1912 (Thursday)[edit]

  • In Hillsville, Virginia, storekeeper Floyd Allen was found guilty of interfering with the arrest of his two nephews. As the jury foreman was announcing the recommended sentence of a year in jail and a fine, a gun battle in the courtroom. Dead were Carroll County Judge Thornton Massie, County Sheriff Lew Webb, County Prosecutor W. M. Foster, a juror, a witness, and a spectator, while eight others were wounded, including Allen, who would be executed the following year, along with his son Claud.[40]
  • Anarchist Antonio Dalba attempted to assassinate King Victor Emmanuel III and Queen Helena at Alba; had been partaking of 12th anniversary of assassination of King Humbert.[41]
  • Frederick Seddon was convicted of the 1911 poisoning murder of Eliza Barrow in a British court. He would be hanged on April 18.[12]
  • President Taft prohibited shipment of weapons to Mexico.[42] The embargo took effect on March 20.[43]
  • 1912 Lawrence Textile Strike: Striking textile workers in Lawrence, Massachusetts, returned to work, after approving the wage agreement with the city's mills.[44]
  • Born:

March 15, 1912 (Friday)[edit]

March 16, 1912 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The P&O Line ocean liner Oceana, bound from London to Bombay, sank after colliding with the German barge Pisagua at Beachy Head. All of the 241 passengers and crew were evacuated from the ship, but nine people died when their lifeboat, first to be launched, was swamped and capsized, and another lifeboat took on so much water that it was on the verge of turning over before its occupants were saved. One author would note later that the event "surely contributed to the initial reluctance of Titanic passengers to board their lifeboats" Richard Davenport-Hines, Titanic Lives: Migrants and Millionaires, Conmen and Crew (HarperCollins UK, 2012) the following month.[46]
  • After removal of the bodies of the sailors who died in its 1898 explosion, the U.S.S. Maine was towed to sea by the USS Osceola into international waters, three miles from Havana Harbor, and sunk again to a depth of 620 fathoms (roughly 3,700 feet or 1,100 meters).[47]
  • The U.S. Senate passed a bill giving "local citizenship" to residents of the Philippines who had been subjects of Spain in 1899. President Taft signed the bill into law on March 23.[12]
  • Born: Pat Nixon, First Lady of the United States from 1969 to 1974, as Thelma Catherine Ryan, in Ely, Nevada (d. 1993)

March 17, 1912 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Lawrence Oates, one of the five remaining members of Robert Falcon Scott's South Pole expedition, left the tent saying, "I am just going outside and may be some time." Captain Scott, who was already seriously ill after he and his group marched back from the South Pole, reported the event in his diary, but was not sure whether it happened on the 17th or 18th.[48] Oates's body would never be found.[49]
  • Despite a general amnesty proclaimed on March 11 by President Yuan, 200 rebels in China were executed at Guangzhou.[43]
  • Born: Bayard Rustin, American civil rights activist, in West Chester, Pennsylvania (d. 1987)
  • Died:

March 18, 1912 (Monday)[edit]

  • In San Antonio, Texas, 26 people were killed, and another 32 injured, by the explosion of a boiler on a locomotive owned by the Southern Pacific Railroad. Most were repairmen working for the railroad, but some were local residents.[50]
  • U.S. Senator Albert B. Cummins of Iowa introduced a bill for a nationwide primary election to select presidential and vice-presidential party nominees, as well as electors, to be held on the second Monday of July prior to every presidential election, beginning with July 8, 1912, and prohibiting American political parties from holding nomination conventions.[51]
  • Born:

March 19, 1912 (Tuesday)[edit]

March 20, 1912 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Shortly after 9:00 in the morning, an explosion at the Mine #2 of the Sans Bois Coal Company in McCurtain, Oklahoma, killed 52 men.[53]

March 21, 1912 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Revolutionaries seized control of the Paraguayan capital of Asuncion after two days of fighting. General Emiliano González Navero, who had been President from 1908 to 1910, took control the next day as the President of the provisional government after President Pena took refuge at the Uruguayan embassy.[12] (March 23)[54]
  • Died: David J. Foster, 54, U.S. Congressman from Vermont in his sixth term.

March 22, 1912 (Friday)[edit]

  • Thomas MacKenzie was elected Prime Minister of New Zealand by members of the Liberal-Labour Party, which controlled the Parliament, winning 72-9. The incumbent Premier, Sir Joseph George Ward, deferred his resignation until MacKenzie could select a Cabinet.[55]
  • Guy Bowman, publisher of the London newspaper Syndicalist, was sentenced to 9 1/2 years of hard labor on charges of inciting a mutiny.[12]
  • The French Chamber of Deputies passed a vote of confidence approving the nation's policies in Morocco.[12]
  • Women suffragettes in China occupied the National Assembly building in Nanjing.[12]
  • Born: Karl Malden, American actor (The Streets of San Francisco), as Mladen Sekulovich in Chicago (d. 2009)
  • Died: Henry H. Bingham, 70, U.S. Congressman from Pennsylvania since 1879, American Civil War veteran, and Medal of Honor recipient. Nicknamed "The Father of the House", he was honored in 1885 by having Bingham County, Idaho, named in his honor.

March 23, 1912 (Saturday)[edit]

March 24, 1912 (Sunday)[edit]

March 25, 1912 (Monday)[edit]

  • Komma Fileleftheron, the Greek Liberal Party led by Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos, won a majority of seats in elections in Greece.[12]
  • The ambassadors of the "Four Powers" (the U.S., the U.K., Germany and France) presented a joint memo to the Chinese government, protesting China's recent borrowing of further money from Belgium.[57]
  • Born: Jean Vilar, French stage actor, in Sète (d. 1971)

March 26, 1912 (Tuesday)[edit]

March 27, 1912 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Two weeks after the failure of his North American Wireless company, Lee De Forest, who had made radio broadcasting practical with the invention of the Audion tube, was served with an arrest warrant in Palo Alto, California, and charged in federal court with using the mail to defraud investors. De Forest was kept out of jail by friends who posted his bond, and was acquitted of the charges in 1913.[61]
  • In London, the House of Commons passed the Minimum Wage Bill, 213-48. The measure passed the House of Lords on the third reading, without dissent, two days later and royal assent was given the same day.[62]
  • By a vote of 40-34 in the United States Senate, U.S. Senator Isaac Stephenson of Wisconsin was exonerated of charges of corruption in securing his 1907 election, and allowed to return to his seat.[43]
  • The New Mexico state legislature elected Albert B. Fall and Thomas B. Catron as the new state's first U.S. Senators, after 8 ballots. Four legislators were arrested during the balloting on charges of soliciting bribes.[63]
  • Born: James Callaghan, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979; in Ringmer (d. 2005)

March 28, 1912 (Thursday)[edit]

  • A resolution to allow women the right to vote failed in the United Kingdom House of Commons was defeated, on its second reading, by eight votes, 208 to 222.[64]
  • The "best interests of the child" became the standard in custody cases in Britain, by precedent established in the case of the Crown v. Walker[12]
  • Being unable to directly prohibit the sale of white phosphorus matches, shown to be poisonous, the U.S. Senate voted to set a high sales tax on the product.[43]
  • Born: A. Bertram Chandler, English-born Australian science fiction writer, in Aldershot (d. 1984)

March 29, 1912 (Friday)[edit]

The ill-fated Scott expedition members
  • The three remaining members of Robert Falcon Scott's South Pole expedition—Henry R. Bowers, 28; Dr. Edward A. Wilson, 39; and Captain Scott himself, 43—died while waiting out a blizzard in their tent, still nearly 150 miles from their base camp. Their bodies would be discovered by a search party in November.[20]
Premier Tang
  • Tang Shaoyi formed a cabinet as the first Prime Minister of China.[12][65]
  • Mexico permitted the United States to ship 1,000 rifles and one million rounds of ammunition to American citizens living in Mexico.[12]
  • New York's State Assembly voted 76-67 in favor of granting women the right to vote. Before the bill could go to the state Senate, Assemblyman, Cuvillier, moved to reconsider the vote and to table further action. His motion passed 69-67.[66]

March 30, 1912 (Saturday)[edit]

Sultan Abdelhafid
Emperor Franz Joseph
  • France established a protectorate over Morocco after Sultan Abdelhafid signed a treaty at 1:30 pm with a representative of the foreign ministry.[67] The "protection" included French power to introduce administrative, judicial, educational, economic, financial and military reforms" as deemed useful, and for the French Army to occupy Morocco as necessary to maintain order, and would last until 1956.[68]
  • In the annual race between the rowing teams of Oxford and Cambridge, both boats sank after being swamped in rough weather. The race was rowed again two days later, with Oxford as the victor.[69]
  • The Chamber of Deputies of France voted to approve a measure limiting a coal miner's work day.[43]
  • Franz Joseph I, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, threatened to abdicate from the Austro-Hungarian throne if the governments of the two nations could not resolve their disagreement.[12]
  • U.S. Senator Thomas Gore of Oklahoma was attacked with a club by Charles Schomulla while speaking at Waukesha, Wisconsin. One of the hosts, Judge P.C. Hamlin, pushed the would-be assassin off the stage. Senator Gore, who was blind, was unaware of the incident.[70]
  • Died: Karl May, 70, German author of adventure stories (b. 1842)

March 31, 1912 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Edward Smith arrived in Belfast to take command of the recently outfitted White Star liner RMS Titanic, ten days before it was to begin its first voyage.[71]
  • General Leonidas Plaza, the victor over rebel Army troops was selected as the new President of Ecuador.[43] He had been President from 1901 to 1905.
  • The ship Terra Nova, which had carried Captain Scott's expedition party to Antarctica, arrived at New Zealand. Spokesmen reported that Scott's party had come within at least 150 miles of the South Pole and that he and the group would remain in the Antarctic for another winter, unaware that the five explorers had died on their way back from the South Pole.[43]
  • Born: William Lederer, American author best known for The Ugly American, in New York City (d. 2009)
  • Died: Robert Love Taylor, 61, U.S. Senator for Tennessee since 1907; former Congressman and Governor


  1. ^ "Drops from Biplane with a Parachute", New York Times, March 2, 1912
  2. ^ "1,000,000 British Miners Strike", New York Times, March 2, 1912
  3. ^ "Suffragists Smash London Shop Fronts", New York Times, March 2, 1912, p1
  4. ^ "Two Months in Jail for Suffragettes", New York Times, March 3, 1912
  5. ^ Benjamin Suchoff, Béla Bartók: A Celebration (Scarecrow Press, 2004) p140
  6. ^ "Martial Law Calms Riot Ridden Peking", Milwaukee Sentinel, March 3, 1912, p1
  7. ^ "Taft Orders Citizens to Quit Mexico", Milwaukee Sentinel, March 3, 1912, p1
  8. ^ Don M. Coerver, et al., Mexico: An Encyclopedia of Contemporary Culture and History (ABC-CLIO, 2004) p361
  9. ^ Bob McGee, The Greatest Ballpark Ever: Ebbets Field and the Story of the Brooklyn Dodgers (Rutgers University Press, 2005) p50
  10. ^ Mark Jarzombek, Designing MIT: Bosworth's New Tech (UPNE, Oct 28, 2004) p38
  11. ^ David K. Wyatt, Thailand: A Short History (Yale University Press, 2003) p212-213
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q The Britannica Year-Book 1913: A Survey of the World's Progress Since the Completion in 1910 of the Encyclopædia Britannica] (Encyclopædia Britannica, 1913) pp xxiii-xxv
  13. ^ Richard Sax, Classic Home Desserts: A Treasury of Heirloom and Contemporary Recipes from Around the World (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1999) p283; "Food Timeline: Cookies, Crackers and Biscuits; John F. Mariani, Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink (Lebhar-Friedman Books, 1999) p225
  14. ^ "Oreos to Hydrox: Resistance Is Futile", by Paul Lukas, Fortune Magazine (March 15, 1999)
  15. ^ "Dirigibles in Tripoli War", New York Times, March 8, 1912
  16. ^ James Zheng Gao, Historical Dictionary of Modern China (1800-1949) (Scarecrow Press, 2009) p285
  17. ^ "100 Are Put in Jail for Assailing Knox", New York Times, March 7, 1912
  18. ^ a b c "Record of Current Events", The American Monthly Review of Reviews (April 1912), pp414-417
  19. ^ "All Norway Rejoicing", New York Times, March 9, 1912 "AMUNDSEN DESCRIBES HIS POLAR DASH; FOUND THE POLE'S ALTITUDE 10,500 FEET; FORCED TO KILL AND EAT HIS DOGS", New York Times, March 11, 1912
  20. ^ a b Max Jones, The Last Great Quest: Captain Scott's Antarctic Sacrifice (Oxford University Press, 2003) p87
  21. ^ John Whiteclay Chambers II, The Eagle and the Dove: The American Peace Movement and United States Foreign Policy, 1900-1922 (Syracuse University Press, 1991) p21; "World Peace Code Ratified by Senate", Milwaukee Sentinel, March 8, 1912, p1
  22. ^ Richard C. Hall, The Balkan Wars, 1912-1913: Prelude to the First World War (Taylor & Francis, 2000) p11
  23. ^ "Hungarian Cabinet Out", New York Times, March 8, 1912
  24. ^ "New Oil Capital $30,000,000", New York Times, March 8, 1912
  25. ^ Hermann Knell, To Destroy a City: Strategic Bombing and Its Human Consequences in World War II (Da Capo Press, 2003) p97
  26. ^ D. W. H. Walton and C. S. M. Doake, Antarctic Science (Cambridge University Press, 1987) p146
  27. ^ Wisconsin Badgers Media Guide 2005-06 p141; "Badger Five Beats Gophers", Milwaukee Journal, March 10, 1912, p15; 2001 ESPN Information Please Sports Almanac, p
  28. ^ "Lawrence Wages Raised", New York Times, March 10, 1912
  29. ^ "Yuan Inaugurated; New Revolt Starts", New York Times, March 11, 1912
  30. ^ Louise P. Edwards, Gender, Politics, and Democracy: Women's Suffrage in China (Stanford University Press, 2008) p67
  31. ^ Zhengyuan Fu, Autocratic tradition and Chinese politics (Cambridge University Press, 1993) p154
  32. ^ John Mark Carroll, A Concise History of Hong Kong (Rowman & Littlefield, 2007) p85, University of Hong Kong "About HKU: The Early Years Archived 2012-02-15 at the Wayback Machine, HKU website
  33. ^ Ke-wen Wang, Modern China: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Nationalism (Taylor & Francis, 1998) p269
  34. ^ "15,000 German Miners Back", New York Times, March 17, 1912
  35. ^ "British Submarine is Raised", New York Times, March 12, 1912
  36. ^ Fern Brown, Daisy and the Girl Scouts: The Story of Juliette Gordon Low (Albert Whitman and Company, 1996) p84
  37. ^ Steven A. Channing, Encyclopedia of Kentucky (3d.ed.) (Somerset Publishers, 1999) p222
  38. ^ "Confirm Justice Pitney", New York Times, March 14, 1912
  39. ^ Brian Flood and Richard Papenhausen, Saint John, a Sporting Tradition, 1785-1985 (Neptune Publishing, 1985) p92
  40. ^ "Hillsville Massacre", The Roanoker Magazine (November, 1982); Brian Lane and Wilfred Gregg, The Encyclopedia of Mass Murder (Running Press, 2004) pp15-16
  41. ^ "Shots Fired at King of Italy", New York Times, March 15, 1912
  42. ^ "Troops to Stop All Arms into Mexico", New York Times, March 15, 1912
  43. ^ a b c d e f g "Record of Current Events", The American Monthly Review of Reviews (May 1912), pp540-543
  44. ^ "Lawrence Strike Comes to an End", New York Times, March 14, 1912
  45. ^ "Gas Explosion Kills 45 Miners", New York Times, March 16, 1912
  46. ^ "Ten Lives Are Lost by Sinking of Liner", New York Times, March 17, 1912
  47. ^ "The Maine Sinks to Ocean Grave", New York Times, March 17, 1912
  48. ^ Captain R. F. Scott and Leonard Huxley, Scott's Last Expedition (Vol. II) (Dodd, Mead and Company, 1913) p408
  49. ^ Cedric Mims, When We Die: The Science, Culture, and Rituals of Death (Macmillan, 2000) p37
  50. ^ Sam Mannan, ed., Lee's Loss Prevention in the Process Industries: Hazard Identification, Assessment, and Control, Volume 1 (Elsevier, 2005) p 1-8
  51. ^ "Would Stop Conventions", New York Times, March 19, 1912
  52. ^ "Beat Roosevelt in North Dakota". The New York Times, March 20, 1912.
  53. ^ "Explosion in Mine Kills 40, Entombs 78", New York Times, March 21, 1912
  54. ^ "600 Killed in Battle", New York Times, March 24, 1912
  55. ^ "MacKenzie Is New Zealand's Premier", New York Times, March 23, 1912
  56. ^ "Turkish Governor Killed", New York Times, March 25, 1912
  57. ^ "Attack the Belgian Loan", New York Times, March 26, 1912
  58. ^ "81 Instantly Killed in Mine Explosion", New York Times, March 27, 1912
  59. ^ Ann McClellan, The Cherry Blossom Festival: Sakura Celebration (Bunker Hill Publishing, 2005) p36
  60. ^ "Rock Island Mob Fired On; 3 Dead", New York Times, March 27, 1912
  61. ^ James A. Hijiya, Lee de Forest and the Fatherhood of Radio (Lehigh University Press, 1992) p88
  62. ^ "Asquith in Tears; Strike Goes On", New York Times, March 27, 1912; "Miners' Wage Bill Becomes Law To-Day", New York Times, March 29, 1912
  63. ^ "New Mexico Senators", New York Times, March 28, 1912
  64. ^ "Commons Refuse the Vote to Women", New York Times, March 29, 1912
  65. ^ Chan Lau Kit-ching, Anglo-Chinese Diplomacy in the Careers of Sir John Jordan and Yüan Shih-kʻai, 1906-1920 (Hong Kong University Press, 1978) pp63-64
  66. ^ "Suffrage Wins, Then Is Shelved", New York Times, March 30, 1912
  67. ^ "France Controls Morocco", New York Times, March 31, 1912
  68. ^ James N. Sater, Morocco: Challenges to Tradition and Modernity (Taylor & Francis, 2009) pp17-18
  69. ^ "Crews Swamped in Race on the Thames", New York Times, March 31, 1912
  70. ^ "Maniac Tries to Kill Gore", New York Times, March 31, 1912
  71. ^ Priscilla M. Cale and David C. Tate, Sink Or Swim: How Lessons from the Titanic Can Save Your Family Business (ABC-CLIO, 2011) p20