Ruby Dee in 1972
|Born||Ruby Ann Wallace
October 27, 1922
Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.
|Died||June 11, 2014
New Rochelle, New York, U.S.
|Alma mater||Hunter College|
|Occupation||Actress, poet, playwright, screenwriter, journalist, activist|
|Spouse(s)||Frankie Dee Brown (approx 1941–1945; divorced)
Ossie Davis (1948–2005; his death)
|Children||3, including Guy Davis|
Ruby Dee (October 27, 1922 – June 11, 2014) was an American actress, poet, playwright, screenwriter, journalist and civil rights activist. She is perhaps best known for originating the role of "Ruth Younger" in the stage and film versions of A Raisin in the Sun (1961). Her other notable film roles include The Jackie Robinson Story (1950), and Do the Right Thing (1989).
For her performance as Mahalee Lucas in American Gangster (2007), she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress and won the Screen Actors Guild Award for Female Actor in a Supporting Role.
Dee was born Ruby Ann Wallace on October 27, 1922, in Cleveland, Ohio, the daughter of Gladys (née Hightower) and Marshall Edward Nathaniel Wallace, a cook, waiter and porter. After her mother left the family, Dee's father remarried, to Emma Amelia Benson, a schoolteacher.
Dee was raised in Harlem, New York. She attended Hunter College High School and went on to graduate from Hunter College with a degree in Romance languages in 1945. She was a member of Delta Sigma Theta.
Dee joined the American Negro Theater as an apprentice, working with Sidney Poitier, Harry Belafonte, and Hilda Simms. She made several appearances on Broadway. Her first onscreen role was in That Man of Mine in 1946. She received national recognition for her role in the 1950 film The Jackie Robinson Story. In 1965, Dee performed in lead roles at the American Shakespeare Festival as Kate in The Taming of the Shrew and Cordelia in King Lear, becoming the first black actress to portray a lead role in the festival. Her career in acting crossed all major forms of media over a span of eight decades, including the films A Raisin in the Sun, in which she recreated her stage role as a suffering housewife in the projects, and Edge of the City. She played both roles opposite Poitier.
During the 1960s, Dee appeared in such politically charged films as Gone Are the Days and The Incident, which is recognized as helping pave the way for young African-American actors and filmmakers. In 1969, Dee appeared in 20 episodes of Peyton Place. She appeared as Cora Sanders, a Marxist college professor, in the Season 1/Episode 14 of Police Woman, entitled “Target Black" which aired on Friday night, January 3, 1975. The character of Cora Sanders was obviously, but loosely, influenced by the real-life Angela Y. Davis. She appeared in one episode of The Golden Girls' sixth season. She played Queen Haley in Roots: The Next Generations, a 1979 miniseries.
Dee was nominated for eight Emmy Awards, winning once for her role in the 1990 TV film Decoration Day. She was nominated for her television guest appearance in the China Beach episode, "Skylark". Her husband Ossie Davis (1917–2005) also appeared in the episode. She appeared in Spike Lee's 1989 film Do the Right Thing, and his 1991 film Jungle Fever.
In 1995, she and Davis were awarded the National Medal of Arts. They were also recipients of the Kennedy Center Honors in 2004. In 2003, she narrated a series of WPA slave narratives in the HBO film Unchained Memories. In 2007 the winner of the Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album was shared by Dee and Ossie Davis for With Ossie And Ruby: In This Life Together, and former President Jimmy Carter.
Dee was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress in 2007 for her portrayal of Mama Lucas in American Gangster. She won the Screen Actors Guild award for the same performance. At 83 years of age, Dee is currently the second oldest nominee for Best Supporting Actress, behind Gloria Stuart who was 87 when nominated for her role in Titanic. This was Dee's only Oscar nomination.
On February 12, 2009, Dee joined the Aaron Copland School of Music at Queens College orchestra and chorus, along with the Riverside Inspirational Choir and NYC Labor Choir, in honoring Abraham Lincoln's 200th birthday at the Riverside Church in New York City. Under the direction of Maurice Peress, they performed Earl Robinson's The Lonesome Train: A Music Legend for Actors, Folk Singers, Choirs, and Orchestra, in which Dee was the Narrator.
Dee's last role in a theatrically-released film was in the Eddie Murphy comedy A Thousand Words, in which she portrayed the mother of Murphy's protagonist. Perhaps, her penultimate film role is in 1982, which premiered at the 2013 Toronto International Film Festival and was released on home video on March 1, 2016. It is unknown whether her final role will ever be seen, as King Dog was in production at the time of her death, and no release date has ever been announced.
Personal life and activism
Ruby Wallace married blues singer Frankie Dee Brown in 1941, and began using his middle name as her stage name. The couple divorced in 1945. Three years later she married actor Ossie Davis, whom she met while costarring in Robert Ardrey's 1946 Broadway play Jeb. Together, Dee and Davis wrote an autobiography in which they discussed their political activism and their decision to have an open marriage (later changing their views). Together they had three children: son, blues musician Guy Davis, and two daughters, Nora Day and Hasna Muhammad. Dee was a breast cancer survivor of more than three decades.
Dee and Davis were well-known civil rights activists. Dee was a member of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), the NAACP, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, Delta Sigma Theta sorority and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. In 1963, Dee emceed the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Dee and Davis were both personal friends of both Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X, with Davis giving the eulogy at Malcolm X's funeral in 1965. In 1970, she won the Frederick Douglass Award from the New York Urban League.
In early 2003, The Nation published "Not In My Name", an open proclamation vowing opposition to the impending US invasion of Iraq. Ruby Dee and Ossie Davis were among the signatories, along with Robert Altman, Noam Chomsky, Susan Sarandon and Howard Zinn, among others.
In November 2005 Dee was awarded – along with her late husband – the Lifetime Achievement Freedom Award, presented by the National Civil Rights Museum located in Memphis. Dee, a long-time resident of New Rochelle, New York, was inducted into the New Rochelle Walk of Fame which honors the most notable residents from throughout the community's 325-year history. She was also inducted into the Westchester County Women's Hall of Fame on March 30, 2007, joining such other honorees as Hillary Clinton and Nita Lowey. In 2009, she received an honorary Doctor of Fine Arts degree from Princeton University.
Dee died on June 11, 2014, at her home in New Rochelle, New York, from natural causes at the age of 91. In a statement, Gil Robertson IV of the African American Film Critics Association said, "the members of the African American Film Critics Association are deeply saddened at the loss of actress and humanitarian Ruby Dee. Throughout her seven-decade career, Ms Dee embraced different creative platforms with her various interpretations of black womanhood and also used her gifts to champion for Human Rights. Her strength, courage and beauty will be greatly missed."
“She very peacefully surrendered,” said her daughter Nora Day. “We hugged her, we kissed her, we gave her our permission to go. She opened her eyes. She looked at us. She closed her eyes, and she set sail.” Following her death, the marquee on the Apollo Theater read “A TRUE APOLLO LEGEND RUBY DEE 1922-2014".
Dee was cremated, and her ashes are held in the same urn as that of Davis, with the inscription "In this thing together". A public memorial celebration honoring Dee was held on September 20, 2014, at the Riverside Church in Upper Manhattan.
- That Man of Mine (1946)
- The Fight Never Ends (1947)
- What a Guy (1948)
- The Jackie Robinson Story (1950)
- No Way Out (1950)
- The Tall Target (1951)
- Go, Man, Go! (1954)
- Edge of the City (1957)
- St. Louis Blues (1958)
- Virgin Island (US: Our Virgin Island, 1958)
- Take a Giant Step (1959)
- A Raisin in the Sun (1961)
- The Balcony (1963)
- Gone Are the Days! (1963)
- The Incident (1967)
- Up Tight! (1968)
- King: A Filmed Record... Montgomery to Memphis (1970) (documentary)
- Buck and the Preacher (1972)
- Black Girl (1972)
- Wattstax (1973)
- Countdown at Kusini (1976)
- Cat People (1982)
- Do the Right Thing (1989)
- Love at Large (1990)
- Jungle Fever (1991)
- Color Adjustment (1992) (documentary) (narrator)
- Cop and a Half (1993)
- The Stand (1994)
- Just Cause (1995)
- Mr. & Mrs. Loving (1996)
- A Simple Wish (1997)
- A Time to Dance: The Life and Work of Norma Canner (1998) (documentary) (narrator)
- Baby Geniuses (1999)
- Beah: A Black Woman Speaks (2003) (documentary)
- No. 2 (2006)
- The Way Back Home (2006)
- All About Us (2007)
- American Gangster (2007)
- Steam (2007)
- The Perfect Age of Rock 'n' Roll (2009)
- Dream Street (2010)
- Video Girl (2011)
- Politics of Love (2011)
- Red & Blue Marbles (2011)
- Long Distance Revolutionary: A Journey With Mumia Abu-Jamal (2012)
- A Thousand Words (2012)
- Betty & Coretta (2013)
- 1982 (2013)
- Lorraine Hansberry: The Black Experience in the Creation of Drama (1975)
- The Torture of Mothers (1980)
- Tuesday Morning Ride (1995)
- The Unfinished Journey (1999) (narrator)
- The New Neighbors (2009) (narrator)
- The Bitter Cup (1961)
- Seven Times Monday (1962)
- The Fugitive (1963)
- Of Courtship and Marriage (1964)
- Guiding Light (cast member in 1967)
- Peyton Place (cast member from 1968–1969)
- Deadlock (1969)
- The Sheriff (1971)
- It's Good to Be Alive (1974)
- Police Woman Season 1 / Episode 14 "Target Black" (1975)
- Roots: The Next Generations (1979) (miniseries)
- I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1979)
- All God's Children (1980)
- With Ossie and Ruby! (1980–1982)
- Long Day's Journey into Night (1982)
- Go Tell It on the Mountain (1985)
- The Atlanta Child Murders (1985) (miniseries)
- Windmills of the Gods (1988)
- Gore Vidal's Lincoln (1988)
- The Court-Martial of Jackie Robinson (1990)
- Decoration Day (1990)
- Golden Girls (1990)
- Jazztime Tale (1991) (voice)
- Middle Ages (1992–1993)
- The Ernest Green Story (1993)
- The Stand (1994) (miniseries)
- Whitewash (1994) (voice)
- Mr. and Mrs. Loving (1996)
- Captive Heart: The James Mink Story (1996)
- The Wall (1998)
- Little Bill (1999 – 2004) (voice)
- Passing Glory (1999)
- Having Our Say: The Delany Sisters' First 100 Years (1999)
- A Storm in Summer (2000)
- Finding Buck McHenry (2000)
- The Feast of All Saints (2001) (miniseries)
- Taking Back Our Town (2001)
- Their Eyes Were Watching God (2005)
- Meet Mary Pleasant (2008)
- America (2009)
- On Strivers Row (1940)
- Natural Man (1941)
- Starlight (1942)
- Three's a Family (1943)
- South Pacific (1943)
- Walk Hard (1944)
- Jeb (1946)
- Anna Lucasta (1946) (replacement for Hilda Simms)
- Arsenic and Old Lace (1946)
- John Loves Mary (1946)
- A Long Way From Home (1948)
- The Smile of the World (1949)
- The World of Sholom Aleichem (1953)
- A Raisin in the Sun (1959)
- Purlie Victorious (1961)
- King Lear (1965)
- The Taming of the Shrew (1965)
- The Birds (1966)
- Oresteia (1966)
- Boesman and Lena (1970)
- The Imaginary Invalid (1971)
- The Wedding Band (1972)
- Hamlet (1975)
- Bus Stop (1979)
- Twin-Bit Gardens (1979)
- Zora is My Name! (1983)
- Checkmates (1988)
- The Glass Menagerie (1989)
- The Disappearance (1993)
- Flying West (1994)
- Two Hahs-Hahs and a Homeboy (1995)
- My One Good Nerve: A Visit with Ruby Dee (1996)
- A Last Dance for Sybil (2002)
- Saint Lucy's Eyes (2003)
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- The Original Read-In for Peace in Vietnam (Folkways Records, 1967)
- The Poetry of Langston Hughes (with Ossie Davis. Caedmon Records, no date, TC 1272)
- Let Us Now Praise Famous Men (with George Grizzard. Caedmon Records, 1970, TC 1324)
- Tough Poems For Tough People (with Ossie Davis and Henry Braun. Caedmon Records, 1972, TC 1396)
- To Make A Poet Black: The best poems of Countee Cullen (with Ossie Davis. Caedmon Records, 1971, TC 1400
- To Be A Slave (with Ossie Davis. Caedmon Records, 1972, TC 2066)
- The Lost Zoo, (Caedmon Records, 1978, TC 1539)
- Why Mosquitoes Buzz In People's Ears and Other Tales with Ossie Davis. Caedmon Records, 1978, TC 1592)
- What if I am a Woman?, Vol. 1: Black Women's Speeches (Folkways, 1977)
- What if I am a Woman?, Vol. 2: Black Women's Speeches (Folkways, 1977)
- Every Tone a Testimony (Smithsonian Folkways, 2001)
- American Short Stories, Vol 2: Various Artists(eav Lexington, no date, LE 7703)
- American Short Stories, Vol 3: Various Artists (eav Lexington, no date, LE 7704)
- I've got a name, Various Artists (Holt's Impact, 1968, CSM 662)
- At your own risk, Various Artists (Holt's Impact, 1968, CSM 663)
- Conflict, Various Artists (Holt's Impact, 1969, CSM 816)
- Sight lines, Various Artists (Holt's Impact, 1970, SBN 03-071525-3)
- Roses & Revolutions, Various Artist (D.S.T. Telecommunications,Inc. Production, 1975)
- New Dimensions in Music (with John Cullum. CBS Records, 1976, P 13161)
Awards and nominations
- 1961: National Board of Review Award for Best Supporting Actress – A Raisin in the Sun
- 1971: Drama Desk Award Outstanding Performance – Boesman and Lena
- 1971: Obie Award for Best Performance by an Actress – Boesman and Lena
- 1973: Drama Desk Award Outstanding Performance – Wedding Band
- 1988: Induction into the American Theater Hall of Fame
- 1991: Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie – Decoration Day
- 1991: Women in Film Crystal Award
- 1995: National Medal of Arts
- 2000: Screen Actors Guild Lifetime Achievement Award
- 2003: Women of Vision Award - Women in Film & Video-DC 
- 2007: Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album – With Ossie And Ruby: In This Life Together (tied with Jimmy Carter)
- 2008: African–American Film Critics Best Supporting Actress – American Gangster
- 2008: Screen Actors Guild Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Supporting Role – American Gangster
- 2008: The Eleanor Roosevelt Val-Kill Medal Award
- 2008: She was awarded the Spingarn Medal from the NAACP.
- 1964: Emmy Award for Outstanding Single Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role – The Doctors and the Nurses: Express Stop from Lenox Avenue
- 1979: Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Limited Series or a Special – Roots: The Next Generations
- 1988: Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Miniseries or a Special – Lincoln
- 1990: Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Drama Series – China Beach: Skylark
- 1993: Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Comedy Series – Evening Shade: They Can't Take That Away from Me
- 1995: Emmy Award for Outstanding Performer in an Animated Program – Whitewash
- 2001: Emmy Award for Outstanding Performer in an Animated Program – Little Bill
- 2002: Lucille Lortel Award for Outstanding Actress – Saint Lucy's Eyes
- 2003: Emmy Award for Outstanding Performer in an Animated Program – Little Bill
- 2008: Academy Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role – American Gangster
- 2008: Image Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Motion Picture – American Gangster
- 2008: Screen Actors Guild Outstanding Cast in a Motion Picture – American Gangster
- 2009: Screen Actors Guild Outstanding Performance by a Female Actress in a Television Movie or Miniseries – America
- 2010: Image Award for Outstanding Actress in a Television Movie, Mini-Series or Dramatic Event – America
- Davis, Ossie; Ruby Dee (1984). Why Mosquitos Buzz in People's Ears (Audio Cassette). Caedmon. ISBN 978-0-694-51187-7.
- Dee, Ruby (1986). My One Good Nerve: Rhythms, Rhymes, Reasons. Third World Press. ISBN 0-88378-114-X.
- Davis, Ossie; Dee, Ruby (1998). With Ossie and Ruby: In This Life Together. William Morrow. ISBN 978-0-688-15396-0.
- Oscar-Nominated Actress Ruby Dee Dies at 91 Carmel Dagan. Variety. June 12, 2014. Retrieved March 30, 2016
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- Watson, Elwood. "Dee, Ruby Ann Wallace (1924-2014)". BlackPast.org. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
- Davis, Ossie; Dee, Ruby (1998). "Ruby Is Born at Seven". With Ossie and Ruby: In This Life Together. William Morrow. ISBN 0-688-17582-1. Retrieved July 30, 2008.
- Gates, Henry Louis (2005). Arts and Letters: An A-To-Z Reference of Writers, Musicians, and Artists of the African American Experience. Running Press. ISBN 0-7624-2042-1.
- Lyman, Darryl (2005). Great African-American Women. Jonathan David Company, Inc. ISBN 0-8246-0459-8.
- "Ruby Dee profile at FilmReference.com". July 30, 2008.
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- Delta Sigma Theta website
- "Ruby Dee Awards". IMDb. 2008. Retrieved July 30, 2008.
- Lifetime Honors – National Medal of Arts
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- "Theriversdechurchny.org". Theriversidechurchny.org. February 1, 2009. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
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- "Ossie Davis and Ruby Dee on Open Marriage". About.com. Retrieved July 30, 2008.
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- Wulf, Steve (2015-03-23). "Supersisters: Original Roster". Espn.go.com. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
- The official site of Ossie Davis & Ruby Dee, ossieandruby.com; accessed March 3, 2014.
- MARK KENNEDY, AP Drama Writer. "Ruby Dee's legacy of activism, acting mourned – Houston Chronicle". Chron.com. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
- Davis, Ossie (February 27, 1965). "Malcolm X's Eulogy". The Official Website of Malcolm X. Retrieved September 6, 2009.
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- Staff writers (March 6, 2007). "Ruby Dee To Be Named To Women's Hall Of Fame". Westchester.com. Archived from the original on March 6, 2007. Retrieved January 23, 2008.
- Princeton awards five honorary degrees News Releases. News at Princeton. Princeton University. June 2, 2009. Retrieved May 3, 2016
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- Denis Slattery, Joe Dziemianowicz, Larry McShane, "Ruby Dee dead at 91: Legendary stage and screen actress — and Civil Rights leader — frequently costarred with husband Ossie Davis", New York Daily News, June 12, 2014.
- "Memorial Honoring Ruby Dee Held At Riverside Church", CBS, New York, September 20, 2014.
- "Ossie Davis & Ruby Dee: Ruby Dee Film Credits". Ossieandruby.com. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- "Ruby Dee – Filmography – Movies & TV". The New York Times. January 18, 2007. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
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- Yahoo Movies. "Dream Street". Yahoo.com. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- ""Video Girl" Starring Meagan Good, Ruby Dee On DVD and Blu Ray This Week|Shadow and Act". Blogs.indiewire.com. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- "Now You Too Will Be Able To See 'Long Distance Revolutionary: A Journey with Mumia Abu-Jamal'|Shadow and Act". Blogs.indiewire.com. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- Sharp, Diamond. "Ruby Dee: Advice From a Legend". The Root. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- Mary Emblen; Alvin Klein (January 29, 1995). "New Jersey Guide – 'Star Trek' Exhibition". The New York Times. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- Scott, Jill (April 10, 2014). "Ruby Dee: Jill Scott, Kerry Washington and More on the Grande Dame". Essence.com. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- Feb, Posted (February 20, 2001). "SAG Life Achievement Award Goes To Ossie, Ruby". Backstage. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- . "The New Metropolis Airing Tuesday Nights on LMC-TV |". Lmc-tv.org. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- "Ossie Davis & Ruby Dee: Ruby Dee Stage Credits". Ossieandruby.com. December 9, 1948. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- "Smithsonian Folkways – The Original Read-In for Peace in Vietnam – Various Artists". Folkways.si.edu. March 20, 2013. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- "Langston Hughes – The Most Abused Poet in America?". The New York Times. June 29, 1969. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- "Smithsonian Folkways – What if I am a Woman?, Vol. 1: Black Women's Speeches – Ruby Dee". Folkways.si.edu. March 20, 2013. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- "Smithsonian Folkways – What if I am a Woman?, Vol. 2: Black Women's Speeches – Ruby Dee". Folkways.si.edu. March 20, 2013. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- "Smithsonian Folkways – Every Tone a Testimony – Various Artists". Folkways.si.edu. March 20, 2013. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- "Oscar-Nominated Actress Ruby Dee Dead at 91". Deadline.com. May 21, 2014. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
- Carmel Dagan. "Ruby Dee Dead: Oscar-Nominated Actress Appeared in Spike Lee Films". Variety. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
- "Theater Hall of Fame Adds Nine New Names". The New York Times. November 22, 1988.
- "Past Recipients: Crystal Award". Women In Film. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "'Missed but never forgotten' _ Ruby Dee's legacy of activism and acting mourned". Star Tribune. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
- Women of Vision Awards. WIFV.org.
- Leeds, Jeff; Manly, Lorne (2007-02-12). "Defiant Dixie Chicks Are Big Winners at the Grammys". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-09-20.
- "Iconic Actress and Activist Ruby Dee Dead at 91". Atlanta Black Star. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
- Hershenson, Roberta (February 3, 2008). "For Ruby Dee at 83, Acclaim and Performances". The New York Times. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- The Associated Press 2:14 p.m. EDT June 12, 2014 (November 17, 2010). "Daughter: Ruby Dee, Val-Kill medal winner, dead at 91". Poughkeepsiejournal.com. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
- "NAACP Spingarn Medal". Naacp.org. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
- "Clifford Leads All Toon Nods At Daytime Emmy | Animation World Network". Awn.com. May 18, 2001. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
- "Indiantelevision dot com's Breaking News: 10 nominations for Nick in the daytime Emmy". Indiantelevision.org.in. March 22, 2003. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
- "Nominations Announced for the 16th Annual Screen Actors Guild Awards®". Sag-Aftra. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- "Nominees for 41st NAACP Image Awards announced live at press conference by Taye Diggs, Michael Strahan, Wanda Sykes, Kyle Massey, Chris Massey, Tatyana Ali and NAACP executives" (Press release). NAACP. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- Ruby Dee at the Internet Movie Database
- Ruby Dee at the Internet Broadway Database
- Life's Essentials with Ruby Dee
- Archive of American Television interview
- Ruby Dee at the Internet Off-Broadway Database
- Ruby Dee at the TCM Movie Database
- Ruby Dee's oral history video excerpts at The National Visionary Leadership Project
- Notable Alumni of Hunter College High School on Wikipedia
- Ruby Dee Discography at Smithsonian Folkways
- Appearances on C-SPAN