Gong Li

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Gong Li
Gong Li in Venice Film 2019.jpg
Born (1965-12-31) 31 December 1965 (age 55)
CitizenshipChinese (1965–2008)[1]
Singaporean (2008–present)[2]
EducationCentral Academy of Drama (BA)
OccupationActress
Years active1987–present
Works
Filmography
Height5 ft 6.5 in (169 cm)
Spouse(s)
Ooi Hoe Soeng
(m. 1996; div. 2010)
(m. 2019)
AwardsFull list
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese
Traditional Chinese

Gong Li (Chinese: 巩俐; born 31 December 1965) is a Chinese-born Singaporean actress, often regarded as one of the finest actresses in China today.[3] She starred in three of the four Academy Award for Best International Feature Film-nominated Chinese-language films.

Gong was born in Shenyang, Liaoning, and grew up in Jinan, Shandong. She enrolled at the Central Academy of Drama in Beijing, from where she graduated in 1989. While a student at the Academy, she was spotted by director Zhang Yimou and debuted in Zhang's Red Sorghum in 1987. Gong and Zhang's professional and personal relationship received much media attention in the Chinese-speaking world, as they continued to collaborate on a string of critically acclaimed movies, including the Oscar-nominated features Ju Dou (1990) and Raise the Red Lantern (1991). For her role in the Zhang-directed The Story of Qiu Ju (1992), Gong won the Volpi Cup for Best Actress at the Venice Film Festival.

Gong also starred in the Chen Kaige-directed Oscar-nominated Farewell My Concubine (1993), for which she won Best Supporting Actress at the New York Film Critics Circle Awards. Other notable appearances include Flirting Scholar (1993), To Live (1994), Chinese Box (1997), The Emperor and the Assassin (1998), Breaking the Silence (2000), Zhou Yu's Train (2003), 2046 (2004), Memoirs of a Geisha (2005), Miami Vice (2006), Curse of the Golden Flower (2006), and Coming Home (2014). Gong was head of jury at the 2000 Berlin Film Festival and the 2002 Venice Film Festival, the first Asian to hold such position at both events. Throughout her career, Gong has won three Hundred Flowers Awards, two Golden Rooster Awards, a Hong Kong Film Award, and honorary awards at the Berlin and Cannes film festivals. She was appointed a Commander (Commandeur) of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the government of France in 2010.[4]

Early life[edit]

Gong Li was born in Shenyang, Liaoning, China, the youngest of five children. Her father was a professor of economics and her mother was a teacher.[5] She grew up in Jinan, the capital of Shandong. She has been fond of singing and dancing since childhood, and dreamt of becoming a singer.

She studied in Jinan Sanhe Street Primary School. When she was in grade two, she was recommended by the school to sing children's songs at Jinan People's Broadcasting Station. In Jinan No.2 Middle School, Gong spent six years in high school, when she was a member of the school's literature and art team.

In 1985, she was accepted to study at the Central Academy of Drama in Beijing; she graduated in 1989.[6] While a student at the Central Academy of Drama, she was discovered by Zhang Yimou, who chose her for the lead role in Red Sorghum, his first film as a director.[7]

Acting career[edit]

1987–1989: Career beginnings[edit]

In 1987, Gong was first chosen by director Zhang Yimou to act in the anti-Japanese war romance Red Sorghum, which officially launched her 15-year cooperation with the China's fifth-generation directors. The film won the Golden Bear at the 38th Berlin International Film Festival, becoming the first Chinese film to win this award.[8] It also won the Golden Rooster Awards and the Hundred Flowers Awards for Best Picture in 1988.

In 1989, Gong starred in Zhang Yimou’s second counterterrorism film, Codename Cougar, for which she won the Hundred Flowers Awards for Best Supporting Actress, ushering in a new stage of exploring acting skills and style.

1990–1999: Fifth generation filmmakers and international spotlight[edit]

Over the several years following her 1987 acting debut in Red Sorghum, Gong received international acclaim for her roles in several more Zhang Yimou films.[9][10]

In 1990, Gong Continued to cooperate with Zhang Yimou and starred in his family ethics movie Ju Dou, which won the Luis Buñuel Special Award at the 1990 Cannes Film Festival[11] and was nominated for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 63rd Academy Awards, becoming the first Chinese film to be nominated for an Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.[12] Gong also won the Best Actress award at the Varna International Film Festival.

In 1991, Gong starred in Zhang Yimou's representative film Raise the Red Lantern, which won the Silver Lion award at the 48th Venice Film Festival[13] and was nominated for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 64th Academy Awards. Gong, playing a rebellious mistress in the film, won the Hundred Flowers Awards for Best Actress and was nominated for the David di Donatello Awards and the NSFC for Best Actress.[14] Her performance in the Raise the Red Lantern (1991) put her in the international spotlight again.[7]

In 1992, Gong starred in the rural drama The Story of Qiu Ju, which won the Golden Lion award at the 49th Venice International Film Festival.[15] Gong's portrayal of rural woman Qiu Ju not only won the Golden Rooster Awards and the Japanese Movie Critics Awards for Best Actress, but also helped her named Best Actress at the 49th Venice Film Festival.

In 1993, she received a New York Film Critics Circle award for her role in Farewell My Concubine (1993).[16] Directed by Chen Kaige, the film was her first major role with a director other than Zhang Yimou.[10] In the same year, she was awarded with the Berlinale Camera at the 43rd Berlin International Film Festival.[17] Premiere magazine ranked her performance in Farewell My Concubine as the 89th greatest performance of all time. She also worked with renowned director Stephen Chow in comedy films God of Gamblers III: Back to Shanghai (1991) and Flirting Scholar (1993).[18][19]

Immune to political repercussions because of her fame, Gong Li began criticizing the censorship policy in China. Her films Farewell My Concubine and The Story of Qiu Ju were initially banned in China for being thinly-veiled critiques of the Chinese government.[20] Regarding the sexual content in Ju Dou, Chinese censorship deemed the film "a bad influence on the physical and spiritual health of young people."[9]

In 1994, Gong played Jia Zhen, the wife of Xu Fugui, in the drama "To Live" with Zhang Yimou, which won the Grand Prix at the 1994 Cannes Film Festival.[21] She was also nominated for the Chlotrudis Awards for Best Actress.

In 1995, Gong starred in Shanghai Triad, her breakup with Zhang Yimou, in which she played a seductive stage queen. The film won the Technical Grand Prize of Cannes Film Festival, the National Board of Review for Best Foreign Language film, and was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Foreign Language Film.[22]

These roles established her reputation, according to Asiaweek, as

"one of the world's most glamorous movie stars and an elegant throwback to Hollywood's golden era".[7]

In 1996, Gong and Chen Kaige collaborated again in the romantic film Temptress Moon, which was in competition for the Palme d'Or of the 1996 Cannes Film Festival. Gong has been nominated for her second best Actress at the Hong Kong Film Awards for her role as rebellious teenage girl Ru Yi. She also appeared on the cover of Time magazine(1996).

In 1997, Gong worked with Jeremy Irons on the romantic drama Chinese Box, which won the Best Original Music award at the Venice Film Festival. In the same year, Gong was invited to be a jury at the 1997 Cannes Film Festival, becoming the first Chinese to be a jury at the festival.[23]

In June 1998, Gong Li became a recipient of France's Ordre des Arts et des Lettres.

In 1999, Gong and Chen Kaige collaborated for the third film The Emperor and the Assassin, which won the Technical Grand Prize at the 1999 Cannes Film Festival.[24]

In many of her early movies, Gong represents a tragic victim and an abused soul (physically or emotionally), trying to release herself from an impossible maze of corruption, violence and suppression. In Raise the Red Lantern and Shanghai Triad (1995) an additional tragic element is added to her being as she unintentionally becomes the executioner of new innocent victims, making her realize that she has assisted the dark cynical system.[25]

2000–2004: New attempt and worldwide recognition[edit]

In 2000, Gong won her second international Best Actress trophy for her performance as a struggling single mother in Breaking the Silence (2000) at the Montreal Film Festival, directed by Sun Zhou. She attended the Montreal Film Festival that year, where she was awarded a special Grand Prix of the Americas for lifetime achievement for her outstanding achievement.[26] In the same year, Gong was invited by the Berlin Film Festival to be the president of its international jury for the festival's 50th anniversary.[27]

Gong was invited to head the jury of the Venice Film Festival in 2002.[28]

In 2003, Gong heads review committee of Tokyo Film Festival.[29]

In the early 2000s, Gong also starred in two films directed by Wong Kar-wai, 2046 and Eros (both in 2004),[30] which were seen as "an important opportunity to get rid of the influence of Zhang Yimou".[31] She also attended the 2004 Cannes Film Festival, where she was awarded the Festival Trophy for her contributions to film.

2005–2009: Rise to Hollywood and Chinese Film[edit]

Despite her popularity, Gong avoided Hollywood for years, due to a lack of confidence in speaking English.[32] She made her English speaking debut in 2005 when she starred as Hatsumomo in Memoirs of a Geisha. Her performance was met with generally positive reviews.[33] Time Magazine's Richard Corliss to describe her as

"gloriously channeling Bette Davis"[34]

Gong also won the National Board of Review for Best Supporting Actress for her role as Hatsumomo. Her other English-language roles to date included Miami Vice in 2006 and Hannibal Rising in 2007. In all three films, she learned her English lines phonetically.

Through three English-language films, Gong has gradually established herself in Hollywood. Speaking of the Hollywood experience, Gong said it broadened her horizons, gave her a better idea of what she liked and allowed her to experiment with different acting styles.[35]

In 2006, Gong worked again with Zhang Yimou for historical epic Curse of the Golden Flower, for which She won the best Actress at the 26th Hong Kong Film Awards.[36] Time named her performance as the Empress as the 7th greatest performance of the year.

She narrated Beijing (2008), an audio walking tour by Louis Vuitton and Soundwalk,[37] which won an Audie Award for Best Original Work in 2009.[38]

2010–2018: Reduce projects[edit]

巩俐 (2013).jpg

In 2010, Gong starred in the World War II-era thriller Shanghai as a spy who is disguised as the wife of a triad boss (played by Chow Yun-fat). She turned to documentaries and photographs about World War II, besides taking dancing classes three times a week, to ensure an accurate portrayal of the character.[18] During a press junket for the film, she stated that she was becoming more selective with the Chinese language projects offered to her.

She also emphasized in the interview:

It takes time to create a good role, and it is not easy to meet a good role and one you like, so I am not in a hurry, nor need I be in such a hurry.[39]

In 2014, Gong was the president of the jury for the 17th Shanghai International Film Festival.[40] Later that same year, she reunited with Zhang Yimou for the film Coming Home, which is set during the throes of the Cultural Revolution; this film was their first collaboration since 2006.[41]

In 2016, Gong took on her first action role in The Monkey King 2, playing the White Bone Demon.[42]

In 2018, Gong served as the jury president of 55th Golden Horse Awards.[43]

2019–present: Global comeback and return to the screen[edit]

In 2019, Gong was cast in Lou Ye's period drama Saturday Fiction, where she plays an actress who is working undercover gathering intelligence for the Allies.[44] The film was selected to compete for the Golden Lion at the 76th Venice International Film Festival.[45] Gong learned shooting and hypnosis for the spy film.[46] Her performance gained rave reviews.[47] That year, she was also cast in the live-action adaptation of the 1998 Disney animated film Mulan, as a powerful witch.[48] While the film, released in 2020, had a mixed reception, Gong's performance was widely praised by critics. The Vanity Fair's chief critic, Richard Lawson, wrote in his review, "It is a pleasure as ever to watch Gong do her thing, slinking and thrashing around in a fabulous black witch’s cloak."[49]

The Hollywood Reporter commented:

the Chinese superstar marks her return to the spotlight with a pair of high-profile films: Lou Ye's period drama and Disney's live-action 'Mulan' remake.[50]

In 2020, Gong was cast in Peter Chan's biographical film Leap, where she plays the hard-driving, real-life head coach of the Chinese women’s national volleyball team Lang Ping.[51]

Personal life[edit]

Her personal and professional relationship with director Zhang Yimou has been highly publicized. The pair collaborated on six films between 1987 and 1995, before ending their relationship.[52][53] They reunited in 2006 for the film Curse of the Golden Flower and in 2014 on Coming Home.[54]

In November 1996, Gong married Singaporean tobacco tycoon Ooi Hoe Seong at Hong Kong's China Club.[55][56] But the couple have rarely been seen in public and it is not known whether they have any children.[57]

Gong was nominated Goodwill Ambassador of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) on 16 October 2000.[58]

In 2006, she was voted the most beautiful woman in China.[59][60]

Gong applied for Singapore citizenship in early 2008. When overseas professional obligations prevented her from showing up at her scheduled August citizenship ceremony, she was harshly criticized for not making it a priority. On Saturday, 8 November 2008, Gong, in an effort to make amends, attended a citizenship ceremony held at Teck Ghee Community Club and received her Singapore citizenship certificate from Member of Parliament Lee Bee Wah.[61]

On 28 June 2010, Gong's agent confirmed that Gong Li and her husband Ooi had divorced.[62] In 2019, Gong married French musician Jean-Michel Jarre.[63]

Filmography[edit]

Films[edit]

Year Title Role
1987 Red Sorghum
红高粱
Jiu'er
1989 The Empress Dowager
西太后
Guilian
Codename Cougar
代号美洲豹
Ah Li
A Terracotta Warrior
秦俑
Winter/Lili Chu
1990 Ju Dou
菊豆
Ju Dou
1991 God of Gamblers III: Back to Shanghai
賭俠2之上海灘賭聖
Yu-Sin/Yu-Mong
Raise the Red Lantern
大红灯笼高高挂
Songlian
The Banquet
豪門夜宴
Waitress at banquet
1992 The Story of Qiu Ju
秋菊打官司
Qiu Ju
Mary from Beijing
夢醒時分
Mary
1993 Farewell My Concubine
霸王别姬
Juxian
Flirting Scholar
唐伯虎點秋香
Chou Heung
1994 Dragon Chronicles: The Maidens of Heavenly Mountain
新天龍八部之天山童姥
Mo Han-Wen
A Soul Haunted by Painting
画魂
Pan Yuliang
To Live
活着
Jiazhen
The Great Conqueror's Concubine
西楚霸王
Lü Zhi
1995 Shanghai Triad
摇啊摇,摇到外婆桥
Xiao Jinbao
1996 Temptress Moon
风月
Pan Ruyi
1997 Chinese Box
中國匣子
Vivian
1998 The Emperor and the Assassin
荆柯刺秦王
Lady Zhao
2000 Breaking the Silence
漂亮妈妈
Sun Liying
2002 Zhou Yu's Train
周渔的火车
Zhou Yu
2004 2046 Su Li Zhen
Eros: The Hand
爱神
Miss Hua
2005 Memoirs of a Geisha
艺伎回忆录
Hatsumomo
2006 Miami Vice
迈阿密风暴
Isabella
Curse of the Golden Flower
满城尽带黄金甲
Empress Phoenix
2007 Hannibal Rising
沉默的羔羊前传之揭开罪幕
Lady Murasaki Shikibu Lecter
2010 Shanghai
諜海風雲
Anna Lan-Ting
2011 What Women Want
我知女人心
Li Yilong
2014 Coming Home
归来
Feng Wanyu
2016 The Monkey King 2
西遊記之孫悟空三打白骨精
White Bone Demon
2019 Saturday Fiction
兰心大剧院
Yu Jin
2020 Mulan
花木兰
Xianniang
Leap
中国女排
Lang Ping

Dubbing[edit]

Year English title Original title Director
2007 My Blueberry Nights 蓝莓之夜 Wong Kar-wai

Talk show[edit]

Year English title Original title Host
1989 Celebrity Talk Show 今夜不设防 James Wong Jim, Ni Kuang, Chua Lam
2003 Starface 名人面对面 许戈辉
2009 YANG LAN ONE ON ONE 杨澜访谈录 Yang Lan
2011 Star show 巨星秀 Zhang Yi
2013 Telling Maria 2 最佳女主角 黎芷珊
2014 YANG LAN ONE ON ONE 杨澜访谈录 Yang Lan

Music video[edit]

Year Song Title Artist
1987 Don't come at dawn (黎明不要来) Sally Yeh
2001 New Beijing, great Olympics (新北京,新奥运) Jackie Chan, Coco Lee

Discography[edit]

Year English title Original title Notes
1994 Hate this life 恨今生 Soundtrack of The Great Conqueror's Concubine
1995 Shanghai Triad 摇啊摇,摇到外婆桥 Soundtrack of Shanghai Triad
1995 Get out of here 滚出去 Soundtrack of Shanghai Triad
1995 Take a full moon 月圆花好 Soundtrack of Shanghai Triad
1995 Special express 特别快车 Soundtrack of Shanghai Triad
1995 The prudish 假正经 Soundtrack of Shanghai Triad
2001 New Beijing, great Olympics 新北京,新奥运
with Jackie Chan, Coco Lee

Endorsements[edit]

Gong is the first Chinese ambassador for L'Oreal Paris in 1997.[64] She also served as ambassador for Midea, Chopard and Osim International.

From 2013 to 2018, Gong served as the global ambassadors for Piaget.[65]

Gong served as the global brand ambassador for Hisense on September 27, 2020.[66]

Charities[edit]

Awards and nominations[edit]

Year Award Category Nominated work Result
1989 Hundred Flowers Award Best Supporting Actress Codename Cougar Won
1991 Hong Kong Film Awards Best Actress A Terracotta Warrior Nominated
1992 Venice Film Festival Volpi Cup for Best Actress The Story of Qiu Ju Won
1993 Golden Rooster Awards Best Actress Won
Golden Phoenix Awards Society Award Won
Japanese Movie Critics Awards Best Foreign Language Film Actress Won
Hundred Flowers Awards Best Actress Nominated
New York Film Critics Circle Award Best Supporting Actress Farewell My Concubine Won
Berlin International Film Festival Berlinale Camera N/A Won
Hundred Flowers Awards Best Actress Raise the Red Lantern Won
National Society of Film Critics Best Actress Nominated
Varna 'Love Is Folly' International Film Festival Best Actress Ju Dou Won
1994 Chlotrudis Awards Best Actress To Live Nominated
1996 David di Donatello Awards Best Foreign Actress Raise the Red Lantern Nominated
1997 Hong Kong Film Award Best Actress Temptress Moon Nominated
1998 Ordre des Arts et des Lettres N/A Won
2000 Montreal World Film Festival Grand Prix des Amériques N/A Won
Golden Rooster Awards Best Actress Breaking the Silence Won
Montreal World Film Festival Won
2001 Hundred Flowers Awards Won
Shanghai Film Critics Awards Won
Golden Phoenix Awards Society Award Won
Hundred Flowers Awards Most Popular Actress N/A Won
2003 Beijing College Student Film Festival Most Popular Actress Zhou Yu's Train Won
2004 Chinese Film Media Awards Best Actress Nominated
Cannes Film Festival Festival Trophy N/A Won
2005 National Board of Review Best Supporting Actress Memoirs of a Geisha Won
Satellite Award Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture Nominated
2007 Hong Kong Film Award Best Actress Curse of the Golden Flower Won
Hong Kong Film Critics Society Award Won
Asian Film Awards Nominated
Golden Bauhinia Awards Won
Chinese Film Media Awards Nominated
2008 Italian Online Movie Awards Nominated
2014 FIRST International Film Festival Most watched actress Coming Home Won
Shanghai Film Critics Awards Best Actress Won
Golden Deer Awards Won
Golden Horse Awards Nominated
Macau International Movie Festival Nominated
2015 Asian Film Awards Nominated
China Film Directors' Guild Awards Won
Chinese Film Media Awards Nominated
2016 Huabiao Awards Outstanding Actress Nominated
China Britain Film Festival Best Actress The Monkey King 2 Won
2017 Top Ten Chinese Films Festival Nominated
2021 Hong Kong Film Critics Society Award Best Actress Leap Won
Huading Awards Pending

Jury[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pak, Jennifer. "Seeking a passport to a new life". BBC News. Retrieved 28 November 2008.
  2. ^ "Gong Li becomes citizen of Singapore". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 10 November 2008.
  3. ^ Colville, Alex (12 April 2018). "Gong Li, the empress of Chinese film". SupChina.
    Letertre, Marilyne (21 July 2019). "Rencontre avec Gong Li, la Meryl Streep chinoise". Madame (in French). Retrieved 21 October 2019.
    "Quotes from Gong Li, China's first lady of film" 華人女星縱橫國際影壇第一人!金馬55評審主席鞏俐的霸氣語錄. Harper’s Bazaar TW. 7 September 2018.
  4. ^ "L'Expo de Shanghai vue à travers les yeux de Gong Li". People Daily (in French). 5 May 2010. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  5. ^ "Gong Li Sidebar".
  6. ^ "Gong Li Biography – Barnes & Noble.com". Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 7 December 2005.
  7. ^ a b c Ghahremani, Yasmin; Stanmeyer, Anastacia (24 September 1999), "Nation builders". Asiaweek. 25 (38):74
  8. ^ "Berlinale 1988".
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  13. ^ "1991 Venice Film Festival". YesAsia. Archived from the original on 16 March 2016.
  14. ^ "历届大众电影百花奖获奖名单 (Best Actress Winners)" (in Chinese). Xinhua News Agency. 9 September 2008. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
  15. ^ "The Story of Qiu Ju". Cineplex. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  16. ^ "N.Y. Writers Pick 'List' but Bypass Spielberg : Movies: Film Critics Circle echoes its L.A. counterpart by naming 'Schindler's List' the best work of 1993 and 'The Piano's' Jane Campion best director". Los Angeles Times.
  17. ^ "Berlinale: 1993 Prize Winners". berlinale.de. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
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  27. ^ "JURIES 2000". berlinale.de. Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
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  29. ^ "Gong Li named Tokyo jury head". SCREEN.
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  31. ^ "巩俐:给她一个放荡的机会" (in Chinese). Retrieved 13 September 2004.
  32. ^ "The Women of Geisha – EW.com". Entertainment Weekly.
  33. ^ Lyttle, John (16 January 2006), "The eastern affront". New Statesman, 135 (4775):47
  34. ^ "Our thoughts on Gong Li in Miami Vice".
  35. ^ "要把挣扎的蚊子翅膀一只只拔掉".
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  37. ^ Soundwalk Archived 28 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 17 September 2009.
  38. ^ Audio Publishers Association. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
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  42. ^ "Gong Li gets a kick out of playing evil in The Monkey King 2". The Straits Times.
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  44. ^ "First look: Lou Ye's period drama 'Saturday Fiction' (exclusive)". Screen Daily. 16 February 2018.
  45. ^ Vivarelli, Nick (25 July 2019). "Joker, Ad Astra, The Laundromat, Marriage Story to Compete in Venice". Variety. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
  46. ^ "《兰心大剧院》亮相多伦多 巩俐现场调侃赵又廷". 1905. 9 September 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
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  48. ^ "Disney's Live-Action 'Mulan' Lands Gong Li, Jet Li (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. 12 April 2018.
  49. ^ "Disney's New Mulan Is a Dull Reflection of the Original". Vanity Fair. 3 September 2020. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  50. ^ "Gong Li Celebrates Global Comeback With 'Saturday Fiction'". Hollywood Reporter. 8 September 2019. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
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  62. ^ "Gong Li 'divorces Singaporean husband'". The Telegraph.
  63. ^ "Gong Li said to have married 70-year-old French composer". The Straitstimes.
  64. ^ "巴黎欧莱雅代言人巩俐应邀探访欧莱雅中国研发和创新中心". L'Oreal Paris.
  65. ^ "Piaget". Forbes.
  66. ^ "Hisense Announces Global Brand Ambassador Gong Li". PR Newswire. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  67. ^ "巩俐被任命为联合国"促进和平艺术家"". China News Service (in Chinese). 10 May 2000.
  68. ^ "The FAO Ambassadors". FAO. 16 October 2000.
  69. ^ "Gong Li urges world people to protect environment". China Internet Information Center. 11 April 2008.
  70. ^ "UN displays actress Gong Li's portrait at exhibit". China Internet Information Center. 22 July 2016.

External links[edit]