Transport in Indonesia

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Pelni shipping line connects Indonesian islands.

Indonesia's transport system has been shaped over time by the economic resource base of an archipelago with thousands of islands, and the distribution of its more than 200 million people highly concentrated on a single island, Java.[1]

All transport modes play a role in the country’s transport system and are generally complementary rather than competitive. Road transport is predominant, with a total system length of est. 438,000 kilometres (272,000 miles) in 2008. The railway system has four unconnected networks in Java and Sumatra primarily dedicated to transport bulk commodities and long-distance passenger traffic.

Sea transport is extremely important for economic integration and for domestic and foreign trade. It is well developed, with each of the major islands having at least one significant port city. The role of inland waterways is relatively minor and is limited to certain areas of Eastern Sumatra and Kalimantan. The function of air transport is significant, particularly where land or water transport is deficient or non-existent. It is based on an extensive domestic airline network where all major cities can be reached by passenger plane.

Water transport[edit]

Merchant marine vessels[edit]

Traditional wooden Pinisi ship still used in inter-Indonesian islands freight service.

Because Indonesia encompasses a sprawling archipelago, maritime shipping provides essential links between different parts of the country. Boats in common use include large container ships, a variety of ferries, passenger ships, sailing ships, and smaller motorised vessels. Traditional wooden vessel pinisi still widely used as the inter-island freight service within Indonesian archipelago. Main pinisi traditional harbours are Sunda Kelapa in Jakarta and Paotere harbour in Makassar.

Frequent ferry services cross the straits between nearby islands, especially in the chain of islands stretching from Sumatra through Java to the Lesser Sunda Islands. On the busy crossings between Sumatra, Java, and Bali, multiple car ferries run frequently twenty-four hours per day. There are also international ferry services between across the Straits of Malacca between Sumatra and Malaysia, and between Singapore and nearby Indonesian islands, such as Batam.

Pelni Shipping Routes 2006

A network of passenger ships makes longer connections to more remote islands, especially in the eastern part of the archipelago. The national shipping line, Pelni, provides passenger service to ports throughout the country on a two to four week schedule. These ships generally provide the least expensive way to cover long distances between islands. Still smaller privately run boats provide service between islands.

On some islands, major rivers provide a key transportation link in the absence of good roads. On Kalimantan, longboats running on the rivers are the only way to reach many inland areas.

Waterways[edit]

Indonesia has 21,579 km of navigable waterways (As of 2005), of which about one half are on Kalimantan, and a quarter each on Sumatra and Papua. Waterways are highly needed because the rivers on these islands are not wide enough to hold medium-sized ships. In addition to this, roads and railways are not good options since Kalimantan and Papua are not like Java, which is a highly developed island.[2] With the current length of waterways, Indonesia ranked seventh on the countries with longest waterways.[3]

Ports and harbours[edit]

Port of Tanjung Priok, the busiest port in Indonesia.

Major ports and harbours include Bitung, Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Palembang, Semarang, Surabaya, and Makassar. Ports are managed by the various Indonesia Port Corporations, of which there are four, numbered I through IV. Each has jurisdiction over various regions of the country, with I in the west and IV in the east. Port of Tanjung Priok in Jakarta is the Indonesia's busiest port, handling over 5.20 million TEUs.[4] A two-phase "New Tanjung Priok" extension project is currently underway, which will triple the existing annual capacity when fully operational in 2023. In 2015, ground breaking of the strategic North Sumatra's Kuala Tanjung Port has been completed. It is expected to accommodate 500,000 TEUs per year,[5] overtaking Johor's Tanjung Pelepas Port and could even compete with the port of Singapore.[6]

Roads and highways[edit]

A wide variety of vehicles are used for transportation on Indonesia's roads. Bus services are available in most areas connected to the road network. Between major cities, especially on Sumatra, Java, and Bali, services are frequent and direct; many services are available with no stops until the final destination. In more remote areas, and between smaller towns, most services are provided with minibuses or minivans (angkut). Buses and vans are also the primary form of transportation within cities. Often, these are operated as share taxis, running semi-fixed routes.

Transjakarta bus rapid transit.

Many cities and towns have some form of transportation for hire available as well such as taxis. There are usually also bus services of various kinds such as the Kopaja buses and the more sophisticated Transjakarta bus rapid transit system in Jakarta, the longest bus rapid transit (BRT) system in the world that boasts some 230.9 kilometres (143.5 miles) in 13 corridors and 10 cross-corridor routes[7] and carrying 430,000 passengers daily in 2016.[8] Other cities such as Yogyakarta, Palembang, Bandung, Denpasar, Pekanbaru, Semarang, Makassar, and Padang also have BRT systems in place without segregated lanes. Many cities also have motorised autorickshaws (bajaj) of various kinds. Cycle rickshaws, called becak in Indonesia, are a regular sight on city roads and provide inexpensive transportation. They have been blamed for causing traffic congestion and, consequently, banned from most parts of Jakarta in 1972.[9] Horse-drawn carts are found in some cities and towns.

A Blue Bird taxi in Jakarta.

Due to the increasing purchasing power of Indonesians, private cars are becoming more common especially in major cities. However the growth of the number of cars increasingly outpaces the construction of new roads, resulting in frequently crippling traffic jams in large parts in major cities especially in Jakarta, which often also happen on highways. Jakarta also has one of the worst traffic jams in the world.[10]

Indonesia has about 283,102 kilometres (175,911 mi) of paved highways and 213,505 kilometres (132,666 mi) of unpaved highways (As of 2011 estimate).[11] The AH2 highway is one of Indonesia's main highways. The other one is AH25 in Sumatra. Indonesia has some highways, some of them are National Routes (25, currently only in Java and (partially) Sumatera), and some of them are freeways. All the freeways are tolled (toll road). The first toll road in Indonesia is the Jagorawi Toll Road, opened in 1978.[12] The construction of toll roads has accelerated under President Joko Widodo, with 568 kilometres (353 mi) of toll roads opened during his term, more than any previous presidents.[12] The most expensive is the Cipularang Toll Road that connects Jakarta and Bandung via Cikampek and Purwakarta.

Indonesia has also been gradually introducing an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) since 2012. ITS Indonesia was formed on 26 April 2011.[13]

National routes[edit]

National routes of Indonesia pass through most of main cities heart and designed to connect between city centers. They act as main intercity route outside the tollways. A national route has to be passable by logistic trucks, while handling the huge traffic at the same time. National routes in Java are numbered, while national routes outside Java has not been numbered. In some cities, even in crowded districts, national routes often bypasses or encircles (Indonesian: jalan lingkar) the city to prevent intercity traffic entering the city center.

Ministry of Public Works is responsible to these networks, except DKI Jakarta part from Jakarta Inner Ring Road to Jakarta Outer Ring Road. A national route can be revised due to inability to handle traffic, it is usually given to the province.

Toll roads[edit]

Java transportation networks
Cipularang Toll Road, part of Trans-Java Toll Road.

Java[edit]

Sumatra[edit]

Planned :

  • Medan-Kuala Namu International Airport-Tebing Tinggi, 80 percent of the land needed for the toll road construction is owned by state plantation which it is easy to take over, whether the remaining 20 percent is owned by local residents which it is difficult to take over due to unreasonably high prices.[14]
  • Medan-Binjai Toll Road[15]
  • Pekanbaru-Kandis-Duri-Dumai Toll Road[15]
  • Palembang-Indralaya Toll Road[15]
  • Tegineneng-Babatan Toll Road[15]

Sulawesi[edit]

Planned:

  • Manado-Bitung Toll Road[15]

Bali[edit]

Serangan-Tanjung Benoa Toll Road

The toll road between Tanjung Benoa to Airport and from Airport to Serangan, all in direct line (not curve) is 12.7 kilometres and is equipped also with motorcycle lanes. The toll road is formally opened on 23 September 2013, about a week before APEC Summit in Bali is opened.[16]

Railways[edit]

An inter-city and a commuter train at Gambir railway station.

The majority of Indonesia's railways is located on Java, used for both passenger and freight transport. The railway is operated by Kereta Api Indonesia. The inter-city rail network on Java is complemented by local commuter rail services in the Jakarta metropolitan area and in Surabaya. In Jakarta, the commuter rail service (Kereta Commuter Indonesia) carries 885,000 passengers a day.[17] In addition, a mass rapid transit system is under construction in Jakarta, and light rail transit systems are currently under construction in Jakarta and Palembang.[18][19] There are four separate railway networks on Sumatra: one in Aceh, one in North Sumatra (Aceh connection proposed to be finished in 2020s), another in West Sumatra, and the final one in South Sumatra and Lampung. South Sulawesi has railway network in Barru Regency as the impact of Trans-Sulawesi Railway construction, although the network has not been used yet. [20]There are no railways in other parts of Indonesia, although new networks are being developed on Kalimantan[21] and Sulawesi.[22] The government's plan to build a high-speed rail (HSR) was announced in 2015, the first in Indonesia and Southeast Asia. It is expected to connect the capital Jakarta with Bandung, covering a distance of around 140 kilometres (87 miles). Plans were also mentioned for its possible extension to Surabaya, the country's second largest city.[23]

Pipelines[edit]

Crude oil 2,505 km (1,557 mi); petroleum products 456 km (283 mi); natural gas 1,703 km (1989)[citation needed]

Air transport[edit]

Air transport in Indonesia serves as a critical means of connecting the thousands of islands throughout the archipelago. Indonesia is the largest archipelagic country in the world, extending 5,120 km (3,181 mi) from east to west and 1,760 km (1,094 mi) from north to south,[24] comprising 13,466 islands,[25] with 922 of those permanently inhabited.[a] With an estimated population of over 255 million people — making it the world's fourth-most-populous country — and also due to the growth of the middle-class, the boom of low-cost carriers in the recent decade, and overall economic growth, many domestic travellers shifted from land and sea transport to faster and more comfortable air travel.[26] Indonesia is widely regarded as an emerging market for air travel in the region. Between 2009 and 2014, the number of Indonesian air passengers increased from 27,421,235[27] to 94,504,086,[28] an increase of over threefold.[28]

However, safety issues continue to be a persistent problem in Indonesian aviation.[26] Several accidents have given Indonesia's air transport system the reputation of the least safe in the world.[29] Indonesian aviation faces numerous challenges, including poorly maintained, outdated, and often overwhelmed infrastructure, the factor of human error, bad weather, haze problems caused by plantation fires, and volcanic ash spewed by numerous volcanoes that disrupts air transportation.[30][31][32]

The Indonesian Air Force has 34,930 personnel equipped with 224 aircraft, among them 110 combat aircraft. The Indonesian Air Force possesses and operates numerous military air bases and military airstrips across the archipelago.[33]

The International Air Transport Association (IATA) has predicted that Indonesia will become the world's sixth largest air travel market by 2034.[34] Around 270 million passengers are predicted to fly from and within Indonesia by 2034.[34]

Airports[edit]

Soekarno–Hatta International Airport, the busiest in Indonesia and Southeast Asia

As of 2013, there are 673 airports in Indonesia, 186 of those have paved runways, and 487 have unpaved runways.[11] As of 2013, there are 76 heliports in Indonesia.[11] Jakarta's Soekarno–Hatta International Airport serves as the country's main air transportation hub as well as the nation's busiest. Since 2010, it has become the busiest airport in Southeast Asia, surpassing Suvarnabhumi and Changi airports. In 2017, it became the 17th busiest airport in the world with 62.1 million passengers.[35] Today the airport is running over capacity. After an expansion with a third terminal was completed in 2016, the total capacity of the three terminals increased to 43 million passengers a year. The first and second terminals will be revitalised in order to accommodate 67 million passengers a year.[36]

Airlines[edit]

In Indonesia, there are 22 commercial scheduled airlines that carry more than 30 passengers, and 32 commercial scheduled airlines that transport 30 or less passengers, as well as chartered airlines.[37][38] Some notable Indonesian airlines, among others, include Garuda Indonesia, the government-owned flag carrier of Indonesia, Lion Air, currently the largest private low-cost carrier airline in Indonesia, Sriwijaya Air, currently the largest medium service regional carrier in Indonesia, also the country's third largest carrier, and Indonesia AirAsia, the Indonesian branch of Malaysian-based AirAsia.[39]

Mudik[edit]

Thousands of motorcyclist families waiting for the ferry at the Port of Merak during mudik.

Mudik, or Pulang Kampung, is an Indonesian term for the activity where migrants or migrant workers return to their hometown or village during or before major holidays, especially Lebaran (Eid al-Fitr).[40] Although the mudik homecoming travel before Lebaran takes place in most Indonesian urban centers, the highlight is on the nation's largest urban agglomeration; Greater Jakarta, as millions of Jakartans exit the city by various means of transportation, overwhelming train stations and airports and also clogging highways, especially the Trans-Java toll road and Java's Northern Coast Road.[41] In 2017 it was estimated that the people that took annual mudik travel reached 33 million people.[42] The demand for train and airplane tickets usually spikes a month or two prior to Lebaran, prompting an unusually higher cost for tickets for highly sought days of departure. Some airlines might add extra flights or operate larger airplanes to deal with the surge in demand.[43] Indonesian train operator Kereta Api Indonesia usually offers additional train trips or introduces longer trains with more cars in order to meet the demand.[44] The private operators of intercity and interprovince buses usually charge higher ticket costs during this period. The impact is indeed tremendous as millions of buses, cars and motorcycles jam the roads and highways, causing kilometres of traffic jams each year.[45][46]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Based on "Seminar Nasional Penetapan Nama Pulau-pulau Kecil Dalam Presektif Sejarah or "National Seminar on naming smaller islands regarded from historical perspective", 16 to 18 July 2008 at Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia

References[edit]

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