Vainakh mythology

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The Waynakh (Nakh) people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingush) were Islamised comparatively late, during the early modern period, and Amjad Jaimoukha (2005) proposes to reconstruct some elements of their pre-Islamic religion and mythology, including traces of ancestor worship, funerary cults and tree worship.[1]

Comparative mythology[edit]

K. Sikhuralidze[citation needed] proposed that the people of the Caucasus region shared a single, regional culture in ancient times. Careful study of the Nakhian and Kartvelian mythologies reveals many similarities and supports this thesis.[citation needed]

Jaimoukha (2005) adduces comparison with the Circassians, but also more generally with Iron Age mythology western Indo-European cultures, especially emphasizing parallels to Celtic polytheism.[2] such as the worship of certain trees (including, notably, a pine tree on the winter solstice, supposedly related to the modern Christmas tree[dubious ]) reconstructed calendar festivals such as Halloween and Beltane, veneration of fire, and certain ghost related superstitions. [3][unreliable source?]


Jaimoukha (2005) on page 252 gives a list of reconstructed "Waynakh deities".

  • Deela or Dela - The supreme god[4]
  • Hela - God of darkness
  • Seela or Sela - God of stars, thunder and lightning.[4] Sela is often told as an evil and cruel god. His skein (a loose bag made of animal skin) held the "night" (stars, lightning and thunder). He lives on the top of Mount Kazbek with his fire chariot.
  • Sata or Sela Sata - either wife or daughter of Seela, according to different versions;[4][5] a goddess of artisanship and especially female crafts, corresponding to Northwest Caucasian Satanaya. Her face is described as shining like the sun with beauty.[6] She helps Pkharmat steal Sela's fire for the Earth's inhabitants by guiding him on the peak of Mount Kazbek.[6]
  • Maetsill - God of agriculture and the harvest and protector of the weak.[4]
  • Ishtar-Deela - Lord of life and death and ruler of the underworld[4] ("Deeli-Malkhi"), responsible for punishing the wicked.
  • Molyz-Yerdi - The war god[4] who brought the Waynakh victory.
  • Elta - God of the hunt[4] and animals and - before Maetsill took over his role - the harvest. He was blinded in one eye for disobedience by his father, Deela.
  • Amgali(-Yerdi) - A minor deity.[4]
  • Taamash(-Yerdi) - ("lord of wonder") Lord of fate.[4] Usually tiny in size but becomes gigantic when angered.
  • Tusholi - Goddess of fertility,[4] protector of the people in front of his father Deela. She lives in sacred Lake Galain-Am. According to scholars, in earlier beliefs Tusholi was the dominant deity. People asked from her for a healthy offspring of a rich harvest and growth of cattle. Later Tusholi was mainly the object of worship of childless women.[7][8]
  • Dartsa-Naana ("Blizzard mother") - Goddess of blizzards and avalanches.[4] She lives on the top of Mount Kazbek. Dartsa-Naana inscribed on a snow cone a Kazbek magic circle, through which no mortal dares to cross. The ones who stepped this circle Dartsa-Naana drops into the abyss or floods the ice mountain.[clarification needed].[9]
  • Mokh-Naana - Goddess of the winds.[4]
  • Seelasat ("Oriole"). Protectress of virgins[4] (possibly identical to Sata / Sela Sata, see above).
  • Meler Yerdi - God of plants and cereal beverages.[4]
  • Gal-Yerdi - Patron of cattle breeders.[4]
  • Aira - Patron of eternal timeline.[10]
  • Mozh - Evil sister of the sun and moon. Mozh ate all their relatives in the sky, and now constantly chases the sun and the moon. When she catches up with them and obscured, the eclipse occurs. Mozh releases the sun and the moon only after it has been so requested by the innocent first-born girl.[9]
  • Bolam-Deela -[4] Not much is known about him/her. He/she may or may not have been equivalent to Deela-Malkh.[1]
  • Khagya-Yerdi or Maetskhali - Lord of the rocks.[1][4]
  • Mattir-Deela - Another little known deity.[1][4]
  • P'eerska - (Friday) The keeper of time.[1]

Supernatural creatures and heroes[edit]

  • Pkharmat, demi-god Nart who stole fire from the cruel god Sela.[6][11] Equivalent of Greek Prometheus, and Georgian Amirani.[10][12] He is also equivalent to the Circassian Pataraz.[13]
  • Pkhagalberi tribe. Mythological dwarf race, Pkhagalberi translated as Haareriders. They were invulnerable to any kind of weapons their enemies the Narts had.[10]
  • Turpal, a free-roaming horse who came to help Pkharmat in his journey when he called him. "Turpal always roamed free, grazing among seven mountains, and drinking sea-water."[6][11][12]
  • Uja. A cyclops, faithful servant of Sela. He chained Pkharmat to the summit of Mount Kazbek.[6]
  • Ida. King of birds,[6] - a falcon who comes every morning to tear Pkharmat's liver.[6]
  • Spirit of Galain-Am Lake- a mythologic bull protecting sacred Galain-Am Lake from pollution and from unfaithful acts.
  • Melhun, the fallen angel.
  • Nart, a mythical race of giants. Separately from the mythology of other peoples of the Caucasus, in Waynakh mythology Narts could be both good and evil.
  • Almas, evil forest spirits. They can be both male and female almases. Almas-men covered with hair, a terrible kind, fierce and insidious; on the chest of them is a sharp axe. Female almases have an extraordinary beauty, but also evil, insidious and dangerous. Sometimes they seem terrifying creatures of enormous growth with huge breasts, thrown over his shoulders behind his back. Favorite theirs occupation - dance: throwing his chest behind his back, raising his hands up, they dance in the moonlight. Almases live in the woods, on the highlands. They are patronized by wild animals and sometimes come with a hunter in a love affair. Luck on hunting, according to legends, depends on the benevolence of an almas.[9]
  • Ghamsilg (or Gham-stag) was a witch who could leave her body and enter into an animal. If in her absence to turn the body, then, on his return from travels, it will not be able to return to his body and dies.
  • Djinim (Genie). In perceptions of Chechens and Ingush good and evil spirits are between angels and devils. Good and evil djinim together are in the same hostility as angels with devils. Through deceit or eavesdropping, they steal the innermost secrets of the future of man and tell their friends of the earth. Falling star - a star angels cast during eavesdropping. Contact with a djinim leads to insanity.[9]
  • Taram, invisible guardian spirits that protect his master from all sorts of disasters. On representations of the Nakhs, every person, every household (family), all natural objects had a Taram.[9]
  • Uburs, the evil, bloodthirsty spirits, entered into any animal. Close to the vampire in Slavic mythology (cf. Polish: upiór, Ukrainian: upir).[9]
  • Hunsag (or Hunstag), the patron spirit of the forest and forest animals. Hunsag seek to destroy every hunter, who met with him in the woods. From his breast sticks out the bone axe. The forest animals, birds, trees, grass rise to defend Hunsag.[9]

See also[edit]


  • Amjad Jaimoukha The Chechens: a Handbook (Routledge/Curzon, 2005) pp. 109–111 and appendix pp. 252–253

External links[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e Jaimoukha, Amjad M. (2005-03-01). The Chechens: a handbook (1st ed.). Routledge. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-415-32328-4. Retrieved 2009-08-14. 
  2. ^ Jaimoukha, Amjad. The Chechens. Pages 8; 112; 280
  3. ^ Jaimoukha, Amjad. The Chechens. Pages 8; 112; 280
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Jaimoukha, Arnjad M. (2005). The Chechens: A Handbook. Psychology Press. p. 252. Retrieved 3 December 2015 – via Google Books. 
  5. ^ Anciennes Croyances des Ingouches et des Tchétchènes.Mariel Tsaroïeva ISBN 2-7068-1792-5. P.197
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Berman, Michael (26 March 2009). "The Shamanic Themes in Chechen Folktales". Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 31–39. Retrieved 4 December 2015 – via Google Books (preview). 
  7. ^ Мифологический словарь/Гл. ред. Мелетинский Е.М. - М.: Советская энциклопедия, 1990- pp.672
  8. ^ Мифы народов мира/под ред. Токарева С. А. - М., Советская энциклопедия, 1992-Tome 2 - pp.719
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Первобытная религия чеченцев. Далгат Б.
  10. ^ a b c Lecha Ilyasov. The Diversity of the Chechen Culture: From Historical Roots to the Present. ISBN 978-5-904549-02-2
  11. ^ a b Hunt, David (28 May 2012). "Legends of the Caucasus". Saqi. Retrieved 3 December 2015 – via Google Books. 
  12. ^ a b Anciennes Croyances des Ingouches et des Tchétchènes.Mariel Tsaroïeva ISBN 2-7068-1792-5
  13. ^