1993 in music

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This is a summary of significant events in music in 1993.

Albert Collins playing event on Washington Mall before the inauguration of US President Bill Clinton.

Events[edit]

January–February[edit]

March–April[edit]

May–June[edit]

July–August[edit]

September–October[edit]

November–December[edit]

Also in 1993[edit]

Bands formed[edit]

Bands disbanded[edit]

Bands reformed[edit]

Albums released[edit]

January – March[edit]

Date Album Artist Notes
J
A
N
U
A
R
Y
5 Slo*Blo Cell -
11 The Way We Walk, Volume Two: The Longs Genesis Live
12 Blue Funk Heavy D & the Boyz -
Edge of Excess Triumph -
No Cure for Cancer Denis Leary -
19 12 Inches of Snow Snow -
Amon: Feasting the Beast Deicide Compilation
Body, Mind, Soul Debbie Gibson -
The Juliet Letters Elvis Costello and The Brodsky Quartet -
The Wheel Rosanne Cash -
25 Barry Live in Britain Barry Manilow Live
The Collection Kenny G Compilation
26 Dusk The The -
Fire in the Dark Billy Dean -
Live at the Royal Albert Hall Emerson, Lake & Palmer Live
Tha Triflin' Album King Tee -
F
E
B
R
U
A
R
Y
1 Objection Overruled Accept -
2 In God We Trust Brand Nubian -
Rift Phish -
Black Mafia Life Above the Law (group) -
Star Belly -
3 Earth 2 Earth -
8 Native Tongue Poison -
Wandering Spirit Mick Jagger -
9 Music 311 -
Off the Ground Paul McCartney -
Slip Quicksand -
Spilt Milk Jellyfish -
Where You Been Dinosaur Jr. -
10 On the Mouth Superchunk -
15 Serenades Anathema -
16 Body Exit Mind New Fast Automatic Daffodils -
The Last Rebel Lynyrd Skynyrd -
Sarsippius' Ark Infectious Grooves -
Strictly 4 My N.I.G.G.A.Z. 2Pac -
Tabula Rasa Einstürzende Neubauten -
19 Happy Nation Ace of Base Europe only
22 New Wave The Auteurs -
Pablo Honey Radiohead -
23 19 Naughty III Naughty by Nature -
The Crying Game: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack Album Various Artists Soundtrack
Duran Duran ("The Wedding Album") Duran Duran -
Fuzzy Grant Lee Buffalo -
Hard Workin' Man Brooks & Dunn -
Joey Lawrence Joey Lawrence -
Live: Right Here, Right Now Van Halen 2x CD, Live
Magic & Madness Circus of Power -
Mr. Machinery Operator Firehose -
Scenes from the Second Storey The God Machine -
Slow Dancing with the Moon Dolly Parton -
Smoke Drivin N Cryin -
Superstar Car Wash Goo Goo Dolls -
M
A
R
C
H
1 Everybody Else Is Doing It, So Why Can't We? The Cranberries -
2 CB4: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack Various Artists Soundtrack
Other Voices, Other Rooms Nanci Griffith -
Stain Living Colour -
The Weedkiller's Daughter John & Mary US
8 Frank Black Frank Black -
9 Alibis Tracy Lawrence -
Animals with Human Intelligence Enuff Z'nuff -
Are You Gonna Go My Way Lenny Kravitz -
The Best of Van Morrison Volume Two Van Morrison Compilation
Numb Hammerbox -
So Tough Saint Etienne -
Ten Summoner's Tales Sting -
15 Coverdale-Page Coverdale-Page -
16 Colour of Your Dreams Carole King -
I Hear Black Overkill -
The Polyfuze Method Kid Rock -
19 Till Death Do Us Part Geto Boys -
21 Instant Replay Pizzicato Five Live
22 A Real Live One Iron Maiden Live
Songs of Faith and Devotion Depeche Mode -
Space Age Bachelor Pad Music Stereolab EP
23 Ahead of Their Time The Mothers of Invention Live 1968
For the Beauty of Wynona Daniel Lanois -
The Bliss Album…? (Vibrations of Love and Anger and the Ponderance of Life and Existence) P.M. Dawn -
Glazed Mystery Machine -
Home Invasion Ice-T -
Independent Worm Saloon Butthole Surfers -
Songs from the Rain Hothouse Flowers -
This Time Dwight Yoakam -
25 big body P-Model -
Peligro Shakira -
29 Phobia The Kinks -
Suede Suede -
30 Bacdafucup Onyx Debut

April – June[edit]

Date Album Artist Notes
A
P
R
I
L
1 Now That's What I Call Music! 24 Various Artists Compilation
6 Beaster Sugar EP
Black Tie White Noise David Bowie -
Edge of Thorns Savatage -
In My Time Yanni -
Superjudge Monster Magnet -
Undertow Tool -
12 In Concert/MTV Plugged Bruce Springsteen Live
13 Learning to Flinch Warren Zevon Live
San Francisco Days Chris Isaak -
Taxi Bryan Ferry -
Today's Active Lifestyles Polvo -
Waiting for You Gordon Lightfoot -
20 Dive Sarah Brightman -
Earth and Sun and Moon Midnight Oil -
The Full-Custom Gospel Sounds of the Reverend Horton Heat The Reverend Horton Heat -
Get a Grip Aerosmith -
The Grand Tour Aaron Neville -
The Jerky Boys The Jerky Boys -
Pork Soda Primus -
Shania Twain Shania Twain -
Toby Keith Toby Keith -
26 The Infotainment Scan The Fall -
27 Exposed Vince Neil -
Porno for Pyros Porno for Pyros -
M
A
Y
3 Republic New Order -
4 Down with the King Run–D.M.C. -
Dragline Paw -
Kill My Landlord The Coup Debut
Rid of Me PJ Harvey -
SlaughtaHouse Masta Ace -
Thousand Roads David Crosby -
Which Doobie U B? Funkdoobiest -
7 With Fear I Kiss the Burning Darkness At the Gates -
10 Modern Life Is Rubbish Blur -
On the Night Dire Straits Live
Rancid Rancid -
11 Out of Body The Hooters -
Symphony or Damn Terence Trent D'Arby -
Tell Me Why Wynonna Judd -
Whatever Aimee Mann Debut
17 Dreamland Aztec Camera -
Emergency on Planet Earth Jamiroquai Debut, UK
18 Alive III Kiss Live
janet. Janet Jackson US
Guru's Jazzmatazz, Vol. 1 Guru -
Painted Desert Serenade Joshua Kadison -
19 Organix The Roots Debut
21 Why Do They Call Me Mr. Happy? Nomeansno -
24 More ABBA Gold: More ABBA Hits ABBA Greatest Hits
Unplugged...and Seated Rod Stewart Live
25 Dream Harder The Waterboys -
Give a Monkey a Brain and He'll Swear He's the Center of the Universe Fishbone -
Kamakiriad Donald Fagen -
Me Amarás Ricky Martin -
Sound of White Noise Anthrax -
26 Charlie Parker on Dial: The Complete Sessions Charlie Parker -
31 The Daily Grind No Use for a Name EP
J
U
N
E
1 14 Shots to the Dome LL Cool J -
Boces Mercury Rev -
Far Gone Love Battery -
Gravity's Rainbow Pat Benatar -
Hootie Mack Bell Biv DeVoe -
Souvlaki Slowdive -
2 All Samples Cleared! Biz Markie -
4 Pottymouth Bratmobile -
7 Elemental Tears for Fears -
There Is No-One What Will Take Care of You Palace Brothers -
8 Breaking Silence Janis Ian -
Last Action Hero soundtrack Various Artists Soundtrack
Saturation Urge Overkill -
Supermodel of the World RuPaul -
Too Long in Exile Van Morrison -
Wide River Steve Miller Band -
11 Mood Swings Harem Scarem -
14 Mi Tierra Gloria Estefan -
14 Liberator Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark -
15 Neil Young Unplugged Neil Young Live
Psychoderelict Pete Townshend -
19 Crazy Legs Jeff Beck -
21 Gold Against the Soul Manic Street Preachers -
Joy and Blues Ziggy Marley and the Melody Makers -
A Storm in Heaven Verve Debut
22 Ain't No Other MC Lyte -
Aries Luis Miguel -
Covenant Morbid Angel -
Exile in Guyville Liz Phair -
Experience the Divine Bette Midler Greatest Hits
Here's to New Dreams Raven-Symoné -
Hints Allegations and Things Left Unsaid Collective Soul Debut
It Won't Be the Last Billy Ray Cyrus -
Sons of Soul Tony! Toni! Toné! -
Transmissions from the Satellite Heart The Flaming Lips -
24 Audience with the Mind The House of Love -
25 Mortal Kombat II: Music from the Arcade Game Soundtrack Dan Forden limited-time offer
28 Insanity and Genius Gamma Ray -
Live & Loud Ozzy Osbourne Live
29 Back to Broadway Barbra Streisand -
Crazy Legs Jeff Beck Gene Vincent covers
Cyberpunk Billy Idol -
Good Vibrations: Thirty Years of The Beach Boys The Beach Boys Box set
30 Hat Full of Stars Cyndi Lauper -
Individual Thought Patterns Death -
In on the Kill Taker Fugazi -

July – September[edit]

Date Album Artist Notes
J
U
L
Y
1 Walthamstow East 17 Debut
5 Julius Caesar Smog -
6 No World Order TR-i (Todd Rundgren) -
Sweet Relief: A Benefit for Victoria Williams Various Artists Victoria Williams tribute
Vagina Diner Akinyele Debut
Zooropa U2 -
10 Yoreru Omoi Zard -
13 Altered Beast Matthew Sweet
Debut Björk Solo Debut
Toni Braxton Toni Braxton Debut
What Is a Rumpletilskin? Rumpletilskinz Debut
19 Debravation Deborah Harry UK
20 The Anthology Bachman–Turner Overdrive Compilation
Bargainville Moxy Früvous -
Black Sunday Cypress Hill -
Candlebox Candlebox -
Chrome Catherine Wheel -
Picture of Health The Headstones -
Whoomp! (There It Is) Tag Team -
26 The Battle Rages On... Deep Purple -
Born Gangstaz Boss -
Evolution Oleta Adams -
27 Haircut (album) George Thorogood -
Fake Train Unwound -
Promises and Lies UB40 -
Represent Fat Joe -
Siamese Dream The Smashing Pumpkins -
A
U
G
U
S
T
1 Now That's What I Call Music! 25 Various Artists Compilation
3 Become What You Are The Juliana Hatfield Three -
Da Bomb Kris Kross -
The Outer Limits Voivod -
Tuesday Night Music Club Sheryl Crow -
Voice of Jamaica Buju Banton -
10 Dig I Mother Earth -
Emergency on Planet Earth Jamiroquai US
Live James Taylor 2-disc; Live
River of Dreams Billy Joel -
16 Breaking Things ALL -
17 Bloody Kisses Type O Negative -
Everything Joe -
Over My Heart Laura Branigan -
Rise Bad Brains -
The World Is Yours Scarface -
Transnational Speedway League: Anthems, Anecdotes, and Undeniable Truths Clutch -
24 For the Cool in You Babyface -
Kerosene Hat Cracker -
Pure Pleasure Shaggy -
Set the World on Fire Annihilator -
Sleeper Tribe -
Spinning Around the Sun Jimmie Dale Gilmore -
Transient Random-Noise Bursts with Announcements Stereolab -
You Been Played Smooth -
30 Last Splash The Breeders -
Skydancer Dark Tranquillity -
Tales of Ephidrina Amorphous Androgynous -
Unknown Road Pennywise -
31 Earth Vs The Wildhearts The Wildhearts -
Giant Steps The Boo Radleys -
In Pieces Garth Brooks -
Music Box Mariah Carey -
The Sound of Speed The Jesus and Mary Chain Compilation
S
E
P
T
E
M
B
E
R
1 One Night in Time Donovan -
Shinola Energy Orchard -
2 Chaos A.D. Sepultura -
6 Wild Wood Paul Weller -
7 Remember Two Things The Dave Matthews Band Independent release
American Caesar Iggy Pop -
Human Wheels John Mellencamp -
10 Icky Mettle Archers of Loaf -
13 Into the Labyrinth Dead Can Dance -
14 August and Everything After Counting Crows -
Cure for Pain Morphine -
Bat Out of Hell II: Back into Hell Meat Loaf -
Focus Cynic -
The Hits/The B-Sides Prince 3-disc compilation; Discs 1 and 2 also sold separately
Judgement Night Various Artists Soundtrack
Traffic from Paradise Rickie Lee Jones -
21 Concentration Machines of Loving Grace -
Face the Heat Scorpions -
Houdini The Melvins -
In Utero Nirvana -
The Problem with Me Seam -
Recipe for Hate Bad Religion -
Show The Cure Live
Stone Cold World A.L.T. -
Yes I Am Melissa Etheridge -
22 Double Easy – The U.S. Singles Happy Mondays US-only Compilation
24 Buhloone Mindstate De La Soul -
27 Very Pet Shop Boys -
"Reachin' (A New Refutation of Time and Space)" Digable Planets -
Here Come the Lords Lords of the Underground Debut
28 93 'til Infinity Souls of Mischief -
187 He Wrote Spice 1 -
Believe in Me Duff McKagan -
Body & Soul Rick Astley -
Cowgirl's Prayer Emmylou Harris -
Easy Come, Easy Go George Strait -
Faithlift Spirit of the West -
Icon Paradise Lost -
Live Seeds Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds Live
Message in a Box: The Complete Recordings The Police Box set
Morbid Florist Anal Cunt EP
Return of the Boom Bap KRS-One -
They're All Gonna Laugh at You! Adam Sandler -
Water Saigon Kick -
29 Real Belinda Carlisle -

October – December[edit]

Date Album Artist Notes
O
C
T
O
B
E
R
1 Those of the Unlight Marduk (band) -
4 Get Into You Dannii Minogue -
Thirteen Teenage Fanclub -
Wolverine Blues Entombed -
5 Alapalooza "Weird Al" Yankovic -
Anodyne Uncle Tupelo -
The Body-Hat Syndrome Digital Underground -
Christmas Interpretations Boyz II Men Christmas
:[dos]: Altered State -
Gentlemen The Afghan Whigs -
Laid James -
Mezcal Head Swervedriver -
Painful Yo La Tengo -
Phaseshifter Redd Kross -
Retro Active Def Leppard Compilation
So Tonight That I Might See Mazzy Star -
Steppin' Out Tony Bennett Fred Astaire Tribute
Titanic Days Kirsty MacColl -
8 A Bigger Piece of Sky Robert Earl Keen -
10 C'est déjà ça Alain Souchon -
11 Everything Changes Take That -
I'm Alive Jackson Browne -
Imaginary Friend Th' Faith Healers -
Tindersticks Tindersticks -
12 Angst KMFDM -
Aurora Gory Alice Letters To Cleo -
Come On Feel The Lemonheads The Lemonheads -
Common Thread: The Songs of the Eagles Various Artists Eagles tribute
Hey, Man, Smell My Finger George Clinton -
Take Me as I Am Faith Hill -
Very Necessary Salt-n-Pepa -
18 Heartwork Carcass -
A Real Dead One Iron Maiden Live
Silhouette in Red Bonnie Tyler -
Together Alone Crowded House -
19 4-Track Demos PJ Harvey Demos
Counterparts Rush -
Electra 2000 Hum -
Enta da Stage Black Moon -
Inhaler Tad -
Mexican Moon Concrete Blonde -
Plantation Lullabies Meshell Ndegeocello -
Show The Cure Live
Vs. Pearl Jam -
20 Greatest Hits Richard Marx Compilation
22 Fumbling Towards Ecstasy Sarah McLachlan -
23 Get in Where You Fit In Too $hort -
24 It's On (Dr. Dre) 187um Killa Eazy-E -
26 Born to Choose Various Artists -
Five Dollar Bob's Mock Cooter Stew Mudhoney EP
I'm Ready Tevin Campbell -
God Shuffled His Feet Crash Test Dummies -
MTV Unplugged 10,000 Maniacs Live
No Alternative Various Artists AIDS Benefit
Paris The Cure Live
Pussy Whipped Bikini Kill -
Shaq Diesel Shaquille O'Neal Debut
The Song Remembers When Trisha Yearwood -
Try Anything Once Alan Parsons -
When My Heart Finds Christmas Harry Connick, Jr. Christmas
World Gone Wrong Bob Dylan -
N
O
V
E
M
B
E
R
1 The Red Shoes Kate Bush -
2 The Black Rider Tom Waits Soundtrack
Duets Frank Sinatra -
Even Cowgirls Get the Blues k.d. lang Soundtrack
Find Your Way Gabrielle -
Full Moon, Dirty Hearts INXS -
Jericho The Band -
So Far So Good Bryan Adams Compilation
The Yellow Shark Frank Zappa -
3 Angels Cry Angra -
The Beavis and Butt-head Experience Various Artists -
8 Live at Donington Iron Maiden Live
Paul Is Live Paul McCartney Live
9 Both Sides Phil Collins -
The Colour of My Love Celine Dion North America
Enter the Wu-Tang (36 Chambers) Wu-Tang Clan -
Intimacy Jody Watley -
Love Tara Eric's Trip -
Midnight Marauders A Tribe Called Quest -
Poetenes Evangelium Morten Harket -
Stone Free: A Tribute to Jimi Hendrix Various Artists Jimi Hendrix tribute
15 Flashback Joan Jett and the Blackhearts Compilation
On Aphex Twin EP
16 Black Reign Queen Latifah -
Deluxe Better Than Ezra Swell Records; re-issued on Elektra in 1995
Desire Walks On Heart -
Hand on the Torch Us3 -
The One Thing Michael Bolton -
Romulus Hunt: A Family Opera Carly Simon -
Shock of the Hour MC Ren -
The Singles Collection David Bowie Compilation
Straight Up Sewaside Das EFX -
18 Montage Kenny G Compilation
21 Dreams Never Die Tiffany -
22 Jump Back: The Best of The Rolling Stones The Rolling Stones Compilation
Nightcap Jethro Tull UK; archive recordings
23 Doggystyle Snoop Doggy Dogg -
Duets Elton John -
Gypsy Bette Midler Soundtrack
Haddaway Haddaway -
High-Tech Redneck George Jones -
Live Shit: Binge & Purge Metallica Live Box
No Need for Alarm Del the Funky Homosapien -
Pale Sun Crescent Moon Cowboy Junkies -
The Sign Ace of Base North American/Japanese version of Happy Nation
"The Spaghetti Incident?" Guns N' Roses Covers album
Squint Steve Taylor -
Winter Light Linda Ronstadt -
26 Live MCMXCIII The Velvet Underground Live
29 Bastards Motörhead -
Espresso Logic Chris Rea U.K.
Freedom Yothu Yindi -
D
E
C
E
M
B
E
R
1 Dubnobasswithmyheadman Underworld -
6 Songs of Faith and Devotion Live Depeche Mode Live
The Cross of Changes Enigma -
7 Domino Domino -
Lethal Injection Ice Cube -
Right Back at Cha Shai EP
What's the 411? Remix Mary J. Blige Remix
8 Charlie Hunter Trio Charlie Hunter Trio -
9 Pop Smear The Verve Pipe -
14 Dance of December Souls Katatonia -
Desensitized Pitchshifter -
Wayne's World 2 Various Artists Soundtrack
21 Diary of a Mad Band Jodeci -
31 Now That's What I Call Music! 26 Various Artists Compilation

Release date unknown[edit]

Biggest hit singles[edit]

The following songs achieved the highest chart positions in the charts of 1993.

# Artist Title Year Country Chart entries
1 Meat Loaf I'd Do Anything For Love (But I Won't Do That) 1993 United States UK 1 – Oct 1993, US BB 1 of 1993, Holland 1 – Oct 1993, Austria 1 – Nov 1993, Switzerland 1 – Nov 1993, Norway 1 – Oct 1993, Germany 1 – Jan 1994, Éire 1 – Oct 1993, New Zealand 1 for 5 weeks Sep 1993, Australia 1 for 8 weeks Dec 1993, Sweden 2 – Oct 1993, Poland 5 – Nov 1993, Australia 5 of 1993, France 10 – Sep 1993, US BB 15 of 1993, Europe 20 of the 1990s, Germany 28 of the 1990s, US CashBox 32 of 1994, POP 34 of 1993, Belgium 210 of all time, OzNet 375
2 UB40 I Can't Help Falling in Love With You 1993 United Kingdom UK 1 – May 1993, US BB 1 of 1993, US CashBox 1 of 1993, Holland 1 – May 1993, Sweden 1 – Jun 1993, Austria 1 – Jul 1993, New Zealand 1 for 11 weeks Jun 1993, Australia 1 for 7 weeks Oct 1993, Switzerland 2 – Jun 1993, Germany 2 – Jun 1993, Australia 3 of 1993, Norway 4 – Jun 1993, US BB 6 of 1993, POP 6 of 1993, France 10 – May 1993, Poland 12 – Aug 1993, Scrobulate 48 of reggae, Germany 85 of the 1990s, Italy 88 of 1993, OzNet 836
3 4 Non Blondes What's Up? 1993 United States Holland 1 – Jul 1993, Sweden 1 – Aug 1993, Austria 1 – Aug 1993, Switzerland 1 – Jul 1993, Norway 1 – Jul 1993, Poland 1 – Jul 1993, Germany 1 – Jul 1993, Éire 1 – Jul 1993, UK 2 – Jun 1993, Italy 8 of 1993, Australia 10 of 1993, US BB 14 of 1993, Germany 17 of the 1990s, US BB 31 of 1993, Scrobulate 46 of 90s, US CashBox 50 of 1993, RYM 61 of 1993, Europe 62 of the 1990s, POP 67 of 1993, Belgium 209 of all time
4 Snow Informer 1993 Canada US BB 1 of 1993, Sweden 1 – Mar 1993, Switzerland 1 – Apr 1993, Norway 1 – Apr 1993, Germany 1 – Apr 1993, Éire 1 – Apr 1993, New Zealand 1 for 3 weeks May 1993, Australia 1 for 5 weeks Sep 1993, UK 2 – Mar 1993, Holland 2 – Mar 1993, Austria 3 – May 1993, Australia 6 of 1993, US CashBox 9 of 1993, US BB 13 of 1993, POP 51 of 1993, Germany 52 of the 1990s, Italy 68 of 1993
5 Haddaway What is Love? 1993 Trinidad and Tobago US BB 1 of 1993, Holland 1 – Apr 1993, France 1 – Apr 1993, Austria 1 – May 1993, Switzerland 1 – Apr 1993, Norway 1 – Apr 1993, Éire 1 – Jul 1993, POP 1 of 1993, UK 2 – Jun 1993, Sweden 2 – Mar 1993, Germany 2 – Mar 1993, Scrobulate 4 of 90s, Italy 5 of 1993, Germany 10 of the 1990s, US BB 11 of 1993, RYM 154 of 1993

Top hits[edit]

Top ten selling albums of the year[edit]

  1. The Bodyguard: Original Soundtrack AlbumWhitney Houston
  2. BreathlessKenny G
  3. Unplugged- Eric Clapton
  4. janet.Janet Jackson
  5. Some Gave AllBilly Ray Cyrus
  6. The ChronicDr. Dre
  7. Pocket Full Of KryptoniteSpin Doctors
  8. TenPearl Jam
  9. The ChaseGarth Brooks
  10. CoreStone Temple Pilots

Top ten best albums of the Year[edit]

All albums have been named albums of the year for their hits in the charts.[11]

  1. NirvanaIn Utero
  2. The Smashing PumpkinsSiamese Dream
  3. Wu-Tang ClanEnter The Wu-Tang (36 Chambers)
  4. Pearl JamVs.
  5. Counting CrowsAugust And Everything After
  6. BjörkDebut
  7. BlurModern Life is Rubbish
  8. Liz PhairExile in Guyville
  9. SuedeSuede
  10. SlowdiveSouvlaki

Classical music[edit]

Opera[edit]

Musical theater[edit]

Musical films[edit]

Births[edit]

Deaths[edit]

Awards[edit]

Filmfare Awards[edit]

Grammy Awards[edit]

Country Music Association Awards[edit]

Eurovision Song Contest[edit]

Japan Record Awards[edit]

Mercury Music Prize[edit]

Glenn Gould Prize[edit]

Charts[edit]

Triple J Hottest 100[edit]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Elvis Stamp: America elects a King". Postalmuseum.si.edu. Archived from the original on 23 June 2010. Retrieved June 28, 2010. 
  2. ^ Cream: Classic Artists (DVD). Emperor Media Holdings. 2005. 
  3. ^ CBS Business Library, retrieved January 7, 2012
  4. ^ All Michael Jackson – Oprah interview
  5. ^ Harry Nilsson
  6. ^ Celebrity Wonder – Lisa Bonet
  7. ^ On-This-Day.com
  8. ^ Daily Telegraph
  9. ^ "Whacking Day". The Simpsons. Season 4. Episode 20. April 29, 1993.
  10. ^ "PAS Hall of Fame - Keiko Abe". Accessed 31 July 2014
  11. ^ "Best albums of 1993". besteveralbums. 2005. Retrieved December 31, 2011.