Antonov An-24

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An-24
Polet Antonov An-24 Pichugin-2.jpg
Polet Airlines An-24
Role Transport aircraft
Manufacturer Antonov
First flight 29 October 1959[1]
Introduction 1962
Status Active service
Primary users Aeroflot
Soviet Air Force
PLA Air Force
Produced 1959–1979
Number built 1,367 (including the Chinese Y7)[1]
Variants Antonov An-26
Antonov An-30
Antonov An-32
Developed into Xian Y-7

The Antonov An-24 (Ukrainian: Антонов Ан-24) (NATO reporting name: Coke) is a 44-seat twin turboprop transport/passenger aircraft designed in 1957 and manufactured in the Soviet Union by the Antonov Design Bureau.[1]

Design and development[edit]

An-24 of United Arab Airlines at Cairo in July 1971.

First flown in 1959, over 1,000 An-24s were built and 880 are still in service worldwide, mostly in the CIS and Africa, with a total of 297 Antonov An-24 aircraft in airline service, as of May 2010.

It was designed to replace the veteran piston Ilyushin Il-14 transport on short to medium haul trips, optimised for operating from rough strips and unprepared airports in remote locations. The high-wing layout protects engines and blades from debris, the power-to-weight ratio is higher than that of many comparable aircraft and the machine is rugged, requiring minimal ground support equipment.

Due to its rugged airframe and good performance, the An-24 was adapted to carry out many secondary missions such as ice reconnaissance and engine/propeller test-bed, as well as further development to produce the An-26 tactical transport, An-30 photo-mapping/survey aircraft and An-32 tactical transport with more powerful engines. Various projects were envisaged such as a four jet short/medium haul airliner and various iterations of powerplant.

The main production line was at the Kiev-Svyatoshino (now "Aviant") aircraft production plant which built 985, with 180 built at Ulan Ude and a further 197 An-24T tactical transport/freighters at Irkutsk. Production in the USSR was shut down by 1978.

Production continues at China's Xi'an Aircraft Industrial Corporation which makes licenced, reverse-engineered and redesigned aircraft as the Xian [Yunshuji] Y7, and its derivatives. Manufacture of the Y7, in civil form, has now been supplanted by the MA60 derivative with western engines and avionics, to improve performance and economy, and widen the export appeal.

Variants[edit]

Cockpit
An-24
Original design and prototypes. Twin-engined 44-seat transport aircraft.[1]
An-24A
(first use) Airliner project powered by Kuznetsov NK-4 turbo-props, discontinued when the NK-4 was cancelled.[1]
An-24A
(second use) Production 50-seat airliners built at Kiev with the APU exhaust moved to the tip of the starboard nacelle.[1]
An-24ALK (Avtomatizeerovannaya [sistema] Lyotnovo Kontrolya – automatic flight check system)
Several An-24s were converted for navaids calibration tasks, with one An-24LR 'Toros' re-designated An-24ALK after conversion. This aircraft was fitted with a photo-theodolite and powerful light sources for the optical sensors.[1]
An-24AT
A 1962 project for a Tactical transport with rear loading ramp and powered by Isotov TV2-117DS coupled turboprops.[1]
An-24AT-RD (RD – Reaktivnyye Dvigateli – jet engines)
The An-24AT tactical transport project with two turbojet boosters pod-mounted under the outer wings and a wider loading ramp.[1]
An-24AT-U (Uskoriteli – boosters)
A projected Tactical transport from 1966 with three or five PRD-63 (Porokhovoy Raketnyy Dvigatel – gunpowder rocket engine) JATO bottles , wider cargo ramp and provision for up to three brake parachutes.[1]
An-24B
The second 50-seat airliner version with one extra window each side, simple-slotted flaps replacing the complex double-slotted flaps and extended chord of the centre-section to compensate for the lower performance flaps. Some aircraft were delivered with four extra fuel bladders in the wing centre-section.[1]
An-24D 

A projected long-range airliner version of the An-24B with a single RU-19 booster jet engine in the starboard nacelle, stretched fuselage with seating for 60, strengthened structure and increased fuel capacity.[1]

An-24LL (Letyushchaya Laborotoriya – flying laboratory)
The generic suffix LL can be applied to any test-bed, but in the An-24's case seems to refer to a single aircraft equipped for metrology (science of measurement), to be used for checking the airworthiness of production aircraft.[1]
An-24LP (LesoPozharnyy – forest fire fighter)
Three An-24RV aircraft converted into fire bombers/cloud seeders by installing a tank in the cabin , optical smoke and flame detectors, provision for a thermal imager, racks for carrying flare dispensers and the ability to carry firefighters for para-dropping.[1]
An-24LR 'Toros' (Ice Hummock)(Ledovyy Razvedchik – ice reconnaissance)
At least two An-24Bs converted to carry the 'Toros' SLAR(sideways looking airborne radar) either side of the lower fuselage, for ice reconnaissance, guiding icebreakers, convoys and other shipping.[1][note 1]
An-24LR 'Nit' (Thread)
One An-24B was converted to with 'Nit' SLAR in very large pods along the lower fuselage sides.[1]
An-24PRT (Poiskovo-spasahtel'nyy Reaktivnyy [Uskoritel'] Transportnyy – SAR boosted transport)
The production search and rescue aircraft based on the An-24RT, eleven built.[1]
An-24PS (Poiskovo-Spasahtel'nyy – SAR)
A single An-24B aircraft converted for search and rescue duties, rejected after acceptance trials in favour of a derivative of the An-24RT.[1]
An-24RR ([samolyot] Radiotsionnyy Razvedchik – radiation reconnaissance [aircraft])
Four aircraft converted as Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare reconnaissance versions of the An-24B, carrying RR8311-100 air sampling pods low on the forward fuselage and a sensor pod on a pylon on the port fuselage side.[1]
An-24RT (Reaktivnyy [Uskoritel'] Transportnyy – boosted transport)
Similar to the AN-24T, fitted with an auxiliary turbojet engine.[1]
An-24RT (Retranslyator – relay installation)
A few An-24T and An-24RT aircraft converted to Communications relay aircraft. Sometimes referred to as An-24Rt to differentiate from the An-24RT.[1]
SAT Airlines' Antonov An-24RV
An-24RV (Reaktivnyy [Uskoritel'] V – boosted V)
Turbojet boosted export version, similar to the An-24V but fitted with a 1,985-lb (900-kg) thrust auxiliary turbojet engine in the starboard nacelle.[1]
An-24ShT (Shtabnoy Transportnyy – Staff/HQ transport)
A tactical Airborne Command Post for use by commanders, also capable of forming ground based communications and HQ.[1]
An-24T (Transportnyy – transport)
(first use) Tactical transport version, rejected due to poor field performance during acceptance testing.[1]
An-24T (Transportnyy – transport)
(second use) A tactical transport version with a ventral loading hatch, cargo winch and escape hatch aft of the nose landing gear.[1]
An-24T 'Troyanda (Ukrainian – rose)
From the 1960s the Soviet Union was faced with nuclear submarine threats that were virtually undetectable with the technology available. To assist in the development of sophisticated, optical, chemical, sonic, infra-red and electromagnetic detection systems several aircraft were built or modified as test-beds. One significant aircraft was the An-24T 'Troyanda' which was built new, for the development of sonobuoy and infra-red detection systems. As well as equipment inside the cabin, sensors could be mounted in large teardrop fairings either side of the lower forward fuselage, and extra equipment could also be carried in extended wing centre-section fairings.[1]
An-24TV (Transportnyy V – transport V)
The export cargo version of the An-24T.[1]
An-24USh (Uchebno-Shturmanskiy (samolyot) – Navigator training aircraft)
Seven An-24Bs were converted to An-24USh navigator/air traffic controller trainers with five training stations and four standard rows of seats for trainees in waiting. Outwardly the Ush was distinguishable by the bulged windows at each trainee station.[1]
An-24V-I
The initial export version of the An-24B 50-seat airliner with the early narrow chord inner wings, double-slotted flaps, single ventral fin, powered by two 2,550 hp (1,902 kW) Ivchenko AI-24A turboprop engines.[1]
An-24V-II
Export late production 50-seat mixed passenger, cargo and freight aircraft with extended chord inner wing, single-slotted flaps, twin ventral fins and powered by AI-24T(SrsII) engines.[1]
An-26
Tactical transport with cargo ramp.
An-30
Survey/Photo-mapping aircraft.
An-32
Hot and high re-engined An-26.
An-34
The initial designation of the An-24T production tactical transport, discarded shortly after production began.[1]
An-50
A mid-1960s project for a jet-powered An-24, with four Ivchenko AI-25 turbofan engines in podded pairs, pylon mounted forward of the wings. Not proceeded with due to competition from the Yak-40.[1]
Xian Y-7
The Y-7 is a Chinese reverse-engineered version of The An-24 /An-26 family.[1]
MA60
Up-graded and Westernised Y7.
An-24
In the early 1990s, North Korea installed N-019 Topaz pulse-Doppler radars on at least one of its An-24 aircraft in an attempt to achieve a rudimentary Airborne Early Warning (AEW) capability.[2]

Operational history[edit]

Operators[edit]

Military An-24 operators

Military operators[edit]

 Angola
People's Air and Air Defence Force of Angola
 Armenia
Armenian Air Force
 Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan Air Force
 Belarus
Belarus Air Force
 Bulgaria
Bulgaria Air Force
 Cambodia
Royal Cambodian Air Force
 People's Republic of China
 Republic of the Congo
Congolese Air Force
 Cuba
Cuban Air Force
 Georgia
 Guinea
Military of Guinea
 Guinea-Bissau
Military of Guinea-Bissau
 Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial Guinea Air Force
 Hungary
Hungarian Air Force
 Iran
Iranian Air Force
 Mali
Air Force of Mali – 2
 North Korea
Korean People's Army Air Force - 6 (at least one converted to a rudimentary airborne early warning aircraft)
 Russia
 Sudan
Sudanese Air Force
 Syria
Syrian Air Force
 Turkmenistan
Military of Turkmenistan
 Ukraine
 Uzbekistan
Military of Uzbekistan
Former military operators[edit]
 Afghanistan
The Afghan Air Force received six from 1975.
 Algeria
Algerian Air Force
 Bangladesh
Bangladeshi Air Force, none in service, all retired
 Czech Republic
Czech air force (before 2005)
 Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakian Air Force – No longer in service.
 German Democratic Republic
Air Forces of the National People's Army
 Egypt
Egyptian Air Force
 Georgia
Georgian Air Force
 Iraq
Iraqi Air Force
 Kazakhstan
Military of Kazakhstan
 Laos
 Mozambique
Military of Mozambique
 Mongolia
Mongolian Air Force
 Nicaragua
Nicaraguan Air Force
 Poland
Polish Air Force- 6 operated from 1966 to 1977; replaced with An-26
 Romania
Romanian Air Force – the last An-24 of the RoAF was retired in 2007[3]
 Slovakia
Slovak Air Force last one retired in 2006
 Somalia
Somali Air Corps
 USSR
 Viet Nam
Vietnam People's Air Force
 Yemen
Yemen Air Force

Civil operators[edit]

Major operators of some of the 448 Antonov An-24 aircraft still in airline service at August 2006 include: Scat Air (20), Yakutia Airlines (10). Some 112 other airlines also operate smaller numbers of the type.[4]

Following fatal incidents in July 2011 Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev proposed the accelerated decommissioning of AN-24s,[5] which resulted in a ban for this type from scheduled flights inside Russia.[6]

 Cambodia
 North Korea
 Pakistan
 Poland
 Russia
 Somalia
 Ukraine
 United Arab Emirates
Former civil operators[edit]

Civil operators have included:

 Afghanistan
 Belarus
 Bulgaria
 People's Republic of China
 Congo
 Cuba
 German Democratic Republic
 Egypt
 Guinea
  • Air Guinee
  • Union des Transports Africains (West Coast Airways)
 Iraq
 Kyrgyzstan
 Laos
 Lebanon
 Mali
 Mongolia
 Philippines
 Poland
 Romania
 Sri Lanka
 Turkmenistan
 USSR
 Ukraine
 Uzbekistan
An-24 operators within Aeroflot and post break-up Commonwealth of Independent States[1]
UGA – (Oopravleniye Grazhdahnskoy Aviahtsii
- Civil Aviation Directorate)
OAO – (Otdel'nyy Aviaotryad – independent flight detachment) LO – (Lyotnyy Otryad – flight squad) / Aviaeskadril'ya – squadrons) Home base CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) Airline
Arkhangel'sk 2nd Arkhangel'sk 392nd Arkhangel'sk-Vas'kovo AVL Arkhangelsk Airlines
Azerbaijan Baku 360th / 1st & 3rd squadrons Baku-Bina AZAL (no An-24s)
Belorussian Gomel' 105th / 1st squadron Gomel' Gomelavia
1st Minsk 353rd Minsk-Loshitsa (Minsk-1) Belavia;Minsk-Avia
Mogilyov Mogilyov Mogilyov-Avia
Central Regions Belgorod Belgorod Belgorod Air Enterprise (no An-24s)
Bryansk Bryansk Bravia (Bryansk-Avia)
Bykovo 61st Moscow-Bykovo Bykovo Avia
Ivanovo Ivanovo-Yuzhnyy (Zhukovka) IGAP (Ivanovo State Air Enterprise)
Kostroma Kostroma Kostroma Air Enterprise
Kursk Kursk Kurskavia
Ryazan' Ryazan' Ryazan'aviatrans
Tambov 169th Tambov-Donskoye Aviata (Avalinii Tambova)
Tula 294th Tula Tula Air Enterprise
Voronezh 243rd Voronezh Voronezhavia
Vladimir Vladimir Vladimir Air Enterprise / Avialeso'okhrana
East Siberian Bobaido Bobaido Bobaido Air Enterprise
Chita 136th / 1st Squadron Chita Chita Avia
Irkutsk 134th Irkutsk-1 Baikal Airlines
Ust'-Ilimsk Ust'-Ilimsk Ust'-Ilimsk Air Enterprise
Ust'-Kut Ust'-Kut Ust'-Kut Air Enterprise
Ulan-Ude 138th Ulan-Ude / Mukhino Buryatia Airlines
Far Eastern Sakhalin CAPA / Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk UAD 147th / 1st Squadron Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk / Khomutvo Sakhalinskiye Aviatrassy
1st Khabarovsk 289th Khabarovsk Dalavia Far East Airlines Khabarovsk
Kazakh Chimkent 158th Chimkent Kazakstan Airlines;Chimkent-Avia
Gur'yev 156th Gur'yev Kazakstan Airlines;Atyrau Air Ways
Karaganda 14th Karaganda Kazakstan Airlines
Kustanay 155th Kustanay Kazakstan Airlines
Tselinograd 239th Tselinograd Kazakstan Airlines;Air Astana
Kirghiz (dissolved by 1987)
Komi Syktyvkar 366th Syktyvkar Komiavia;Komiinteravia
Krasnoyarsk Abakan 130th Abakan Khakassia Airlines (Abakan A.E.)
Latvian Riga 106th / 2nd Squadron Riga-Spilve Latavio
Leningrad Pskov 320th / 2nd Squadron Pskov
Lithuanian Vilnius 277th / 4th Squadron Vilnius Lithuanian Airlines
Magadan Anadyr' Anadyr'-Ugol'nyy Chukotavia
Chaunskoye 6th Chaunskoye Chaunskoye Air Enterprise
1st Magadan 185th / (1st or 3rd Squadron) Magadan-Sokol Kolyma-Avia
Moldavian Kishinyov 407th Kishinyov Air Moldova
North Caucasian Astrakhan' 110th Astrakhan'-Narimanovo Astrakhan' Airlines
Krasnodar 241st/ 3rd Squadron Krasnodar ALK Kuban Airlines
Makhachkala 111th Makhachkala Daghestan Airlines
Stavropol' Stavropol' SAAK (Stavropol' Joint Stock AL)
Taganrog Taganrog Tavia
Tajik Leninabad 292nd / 2nd Squadron Leninabad Tajikstan Airlines
Training Establishments Directorate KVLUGA (Kirovograd Civil Aviation Higher Flying School) Kirovograd Ukraine State Flight Academy
Turkmen Ashkhabad 165th / 1st Squadron Ashkhabad Turkmenistan Airlines/Akhal
Krasnovodsk 360th / 1st Squadron Krasnovodsk Turkmenistan Airlines/Khazar
Mary Composite Independent Air Squadron Mary
Tashauz Tashauz
Tyumen' Salekhard Salekhard Tyumen' Avia Trans
Surgut 358th Surgut Surgut Avia
Ukrainian Donetsk Donetsk DonbassEast Ukrainian Airlines
Kiev 86th / 2nd Squadron Kiev-Zhulyany Air Ukraine / Avialinïi Ukraïny
Kirovograd Kirovograd-Khmelyovoye Air URGA
L'vov 88th L'vov Lviv Airlines
Simferopol' 84th Simferopol' Aviakompaniya Krym / Crimea AL
Voroshilovgrad Voroshilovgrad
Urals Izhevsk Izhevsk Izhavia
Kirov Kirov Kirov Air Enterprises (no An-24s)
Magnitogorsk Magnitogorsk Magnitogorsk Air Enterprise
1st Perm' Perm'-Bolshoye Savino Perm Airlines
1st Sverdlovsk Sverdlovsk-Kol'tsovo Ural Airlines [Yekaterinburg]
Uzbek Samarkand 163rdrd Samarkand Uzbekistan Airways
Tashkent 160th Tashkent-Yuzhnyy Uzbekistan Airways
Volga Cheboksary Cheboksary Cheboksary Air Enterprise
Cheboksary Nizhnekamsk Independent air Squadron Nizhnekamsk Nizhnekamsk Air Enterprise
Gor'kiy Gor'kiy-Strigino Nizhegorodskie Airlines (sic)
TatarCAPA / 1st Kazan' 408th Kazan' Tatarstan Airlines
Orenburg 195th / 2nd Squadron Orenburg-Tsentral'nyy Orenburg Airlines
Penza 396th Penza Penza Air Enterprise
Saransk Saransk
Saratov Saratov
Ufa 415th Ufa BAL Bashkirian Airlines
Yoshkar-Ola Yoshkar-Ola
West Siberian Kemerovo 196th Kemerovo
Kolpashevo Kolpashevo
Novosibirsk 6th(?) Novosibirsk-Severnyy 2nd Novosibirsk Air Enterprise
Tolmachevo 448th Novosibirsk-Tolmachevo Sibir'
Novokuznetsk 184th Novokuznetsk Aerokuznetsk
Omsk 365th / 2nd Squadron Omsk Omsk-Avia
Tomsk 119trh Tomsk Tomsk Avia
Yakutian Yakutsk 271st Yakutsk Sakha Avia
Mirny Mirny Almazy Rossii – Sakha (Alrosa)
GosNII GVF ("state scientific test institute for civil air fleet") Moscow - Sheremetyevo-1
Preserved An-24 at Aleksotas airport (S. Dariaus / S. Gireno) (EYKS), Kaunas

Accidents[edit]

Specifications (An-24)[edit]

Antonov An-24 3view.svg

Data from [1]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 4
  • Capacity: 50
  • Length: 23.53 m (77 ft 3 in)
  • Wingspan: 29.2 m (95 ft 1 in)
  • Height: 8.32 m (27 ft 4 in)
  • Wing area: 74.97 m2 (807 ft2)
  • Empty weight: 13,300 kg (29,321 lb)
  • Gross weight: 21,000 kg (46,300 lb)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Ivchenko AI-24A Turboprop engines, 1,902 kW (2,550 hp) each

Performance

  • Cruising speed: 450 km/h (280 mph)
  • Range: 2,761 km (1,716 miles)
  • Service ceiling: 8,400 m (27,560 ft)

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The An-24 incident at Gambell, Alaska occurred February 27, 1974, when a Soviet Antonov An-24LR "Toros" (CCCP-47195) ice reconnaissance aircraft low on fuel, carrying three crew members and twelve scientists, landed at Gambell Airport.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Gordon, Yefim. Komissarov, Dmitry & Sergey. “Antonov's Turboprop Twins”. Hinkley. Midland. 2003. ISBN 1-85780-153-9
  2. ^ Bermudez, J. "MiG-29 in KPAF Service", The KPA Journal, vol. 2 No. 4, April 2011, p. 2
  3. ^ Marnix Sap, Carlo Brummer: Fortele Aeriene Romane in: Lotnictwo Nr. 4/2010 (Polish)
  4. ^ Flight International, 3–9 October 2006
  5. ^ Odynova, Alexandra (15 July 2011). "Medvedev’s Impossible Airplane Ban". article. The Moscow Times. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  6. ^ "Во исполнение поручения Президента Российской Федерации Минтрансом России рассматривается возможность вывода самолетов Ан-24 из эксплуатации на регулярных воздушных линиях". press release. The Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation. 11 July 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  • Gordon, Yefim. Komissarov, Dmitry & Sergey. “Antonov's Turboprop Twins”. Hinkley. Midland. 2003. ISBN 1-85780-153-9

External links[edit]