|Founded||1920 as CFRNA|
|Commenced operations||September 18, 1954|
|Frequent-flyer program||Flying Blue|
|Headquarters||Henri Coandă International Airport
Otopeni, Ilfov County, Romania
|Key people||Christian Edouard Heinzmann, CEO and Accountable Manager|
|Revenue||247 million € (2013)|
|Operating income||-29,5 million € (2013)|
S.C. Compania Națională de Transporturi Aeriene Române TAROM S.A., doing business as TAROM, is the flag carrier and oldest currently operating airline of Romania, based in Otopeni, with its headquarters and its main hub at Henri Coandă International Airport. It is currently the largest airline operating in Romania based on fleet size, international destinations, international flights and second largest measured by passenger carried, behind Wizz Air.
The brand name is an acronym for Romanian: Transporturile Aeriene ROMâne (Romanian Air Transport). Over ninety-seven percent (97.05%) of TAROM is owned by the Romanian Government (Ministry of Transport). The airline transported almost 2.2 million passengers in 2013, with an average load factor of 66%. The airline joined SkyTeam on 25 June 2010.
- 1 History
- 2 Corporate affairs
- 3 Destinations
- 4 Fleet
- 5 Incidents and accidents
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Romania's first national airline was founded in 1920 under the name CFRNA - (French-Romanian Company for Air Navigation). The airline used French-built Potez 15 aircraft for its passenger/mail service between Paris and Bucharest via several cities in Central Europe. In 1925, the city of Galaţi became the first destination in Romania served by regular flights followed, from 24 June 1926, by an extended service to Iaşi and Chişinău. Ten de Havilland DH.9 and five Ansaldo A.300, in addition to the Potez aircraft, operated the service. In 1928 the airline changed its name to SNNA - Serviciul Naţional de Navigaţie Aeriană (The National Air Navigation Service). In 1930, the company adopted the name LARES - Liniile Aeriene Române Exploatate de Stat (Romanian Air Line State Run) while 1937 saw the merger of LARES with its competitor, SARTA (Societatea Anonimă Română de Transporturi Aeriene).
Post-World War II
After World War II, when the Soviet Union had extended its influence across Eastern Europe, the airline TARS (Transporturi Aeriene Româno-Sovietice) was established on 8 August 1945, jointly owned by the governments of Romania and the Soviet Union. Domestic operations were started from Bucharest (Băneasa Airport) on 1 February 1946. The company's Soviet share was purchased by Romania and, on 18 September 1954, the airline adopted the name of TAROM - (Transporturi Aeriene Române - Romanian Air Transport). By 1960, TAROM was flying to a dozen cities across Europe. 1966 saw the operation of its first transatlantic flight. On 14 May 1974, it launched a regular service to New York City - (John F. Kennedy International Airport).
Being part of the regional group of airlines within Eastern Bloc states meant that for much of its history TAROM has operated Soviet-designed planes. These included the Li-2, Ilyushin Il-14, Ilyushin Il-18 long-range turboprop, Ilyushin Il-62 long-range jet airliner, Antonov An-24 regional turboprop, and the Tupolev Tu-154 medium-range tri-jet. As was the case with a number of other nations, the Il-62 was the first long-range jet airliner to be put into operation by Romania (1973). Five examples (three Il-62 and two later version Il-62M with a range of 10,000 km) were owned by TAROM, which also leased the planes to other operators.
An exception to Soviet-built planes was made in 1968, when TAROM bought the BAC One Eleven for European and Middle East destinations, and in 1974 when it acquired Boeing 707 aircraft to share its long-haul operations with the Il-62. In 1978, a contract was signed with the UK enabling Rombac to manufacture the BAC One Eleven at Baneasa near Bucharest. Meanwhile, the 707 and Il-62 long-range aircraft were operating New York (via Amsterdam, later London and finally Vienna), Abu-Dhabi-Bangkok-Singapore, and Karachi-Beijing. TAROM was the only Eastern Bloc airline to operate flights to Tel Aviv, Israel.
It was only after the collapse of the Communist Party in 1989 that the airline was able to acquire more Western-built jets. By 1993, TAROM had introduced long-haul flights to Montreal and Bangkok using Ilyushin Il-62 and Airbus A310 aircraft.
During the 1990s, TAROM replaced its long-haul fleet of Boeing 707s and IL-62s with two new A310 aircraft and a third one in lease (the last Il-62 being sold in 1999). In 2001, the airline cancelled its non-profitable long-haul services to Bangkok and Montreal and also terminated services to its remaining intercontinental destinations of Beijing in 2003, Chicago in 2002, and New York City in 2003.
TAROM terminated loss-making domestic services to Craiova, Tulcea, Caransebeş, and Constanţa, and focused its activity on service to key destinations in Europe and the Middle East. 2004 was the first profitable year of the last decade.
TAROM is recovering from a difficult period that began in the 1990s, when losses of up to $68 million per year were registered, caused by unprofitable routes. At the beginning of the new millennium, the airline initiated a programme that was aimed at restoring profitability. This was achieved by terminating loss-making intercontinental services.
TAROM has decided to focus its operations on Bucharest (Henri Coandă International Airport) (OTP) and Cluj-Napoca International Airport (CLJ), and initiated direct international flights from Sibiu International Airport (SBZ). Codeshare agreements with foreign partner airlines are in place for several international routes.
The airline had a frequent-flyer programme "Smart Miles", which was turned into Flying Blue on 5 June 2010.
On 25 June 2010, TAROM joined SkyTeam as the alliance's thirteenth member.
Starting by March 2013, the airline officials are in talks with Airbus, Embraer, Boeing and Mitsubishi to uniform the entire fleet around one turboprop aircraft type and a single type of jet aircraft.
TAROM is a state-owned company, with shareholding structure as follows:
|The Romanian State (held through the Ministry of Transport)||97.05%|
|Bucharest Airports National Company||1.55%|
|ROMATSA R.A.(Romanian Air Traffic Services Administration)||1.31%|
|Societatea de Investitii Financiare Muntenia||0.09%|
Figures for recent years are shown below (for years ending 31 December):
|Turnover (EUR millions)||220||234||261||257||193||218||279||238||247|
|Profits (EUR millions)||1.1||12.3||21.8||−1,7||−55||−79||−58||−54,5||−29,5|
|Number of employees (average for year)||2,289||2,333||2,338||2,471||2,517||2,353||2,200||2,070||2,006|
|Number of passengers (millions)||1.40||1.45||1.89||1.98||1.72||2.20||2.19||2.19||2.10|
|Passenger load factor (%)||61.0||62.3||67.2||61.9||55.6||60.9||60.6||66.0||65.9|
|Number of aircraft (at year end)||18||20||22||24||26||26||26||24||24|
Logo and livery
The TAROM logo, representing a swallow in flight, has been used on all TAROM aircraft since 1954. In the 1970s livery the logo on the tail was painted in red, with a red cheatline. The livery introduced in the early 1990s (on the Airbus A310 aircraft) is a "Eurowhite" scheme with the titles and the tailfin painted in dark blue. Today's color scheme (introduced in 2006 on the A318) is a slightly modified version of the previous one, with an oversized logo on the tailfin, and the engine pods also painted in dark blue.
All aircraft in the TAROM fleet receive a "name" which is a Romanian toponym. For instance, the names of the ATR aircraft in the fleet are related to the rivers of Romania, the Boeing aircraft bear names of Romanian cities, the Airbus long-haul aircraft bear Romanian historical province names, while the new Airbus A318 bear names of Romanian aviation pioneers.
The airline operates directly 52 destinations (including charters) in 22 countries (Europe, Middle East and northern Africa) including 10 domestic destinations.
In 2006, TAROM was scheduled to join SkyTeam as an associate member (sponsored by Alitalia), but the entry into the alliance was postponed until 2008. On 7 May 2008, SkyTeam signed a SkyTeam Alliance Associate Adherence Agreement (SAAAA) agreement with TAROM, indicating that the airline is on the track to join the alliance as an associate member (sponsored by Air France).
TAROM has codeshare agreements with the following airlines, * indicates fellow Sky Team members:
|Chișinău||Chișinău International Airport||
|Vienna||Vienna International Airport||
|Amsterdam||Amsterdam International Airport||
|Paris||Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport||
|Budapest||Budapest International Airport||
|Istanbul||Istanbul Ataturk Airport||
|Sofia||Sofia International Airport||
|Tel Aviv||Ben Gurion Airport||
|Airbus A310-325||2||0||20||189||209||To be phased out by 2016|
|YR-ATC painted in SkyTeam livery|
|Boeing 737-700||4||2||14||102||116||Equipped with winglets
YR-BGG painted in retro livery
YR-BGF painted in SkyTeam livery.
|Boeing 737-800||1||1||0||186||186||Equipped with winglets.|
Fleet expansion 2006 - 2009
In autumn 2006, TAROM's active fleet counted 16 airplanes (9 Boeing 737 classic & NG and 7 ATR 42-500).
In November and December 2006, TAROM took delivery of its first two Airbus A318-111, becoming the second commercial operator of this type of aircraft in Europe, after Air France. In the fall of 2007, two more Airbus A318 have joined the fleet, bringing the total number of aircraft to four. The Airbus A318 planes are being used on routes from Bucharest to Brussels, Frankfurt, Munich, Paris and Zurich.
Following airline's decision to cancel its long-haul operations both TAROM's Airbus A310 aircraft were grounded between 2003 and 2007 in Otopeni Airport. In 2008, after reintroducing them to the fleet, TAROM realized their inefficiency and decided to sell them. TAROM Executives stated discussions with Airbus and Boeing are still underway, but 3 Boeing 737-800 have been chosen as replacements and joined the fleet over the course of three months, beginning in November 2008, with the last one being delivered on January 24, 2009.
In order to meet demand on the domestic market, the airline decided to expand its fleet with 2 ATR 72-500 which joined the fleet in the first semester of 2009.
TAROM has announced an intention to standardize its fleet around either the 737 or the A320 series.
The average fleet age of the TAROM fleet is 12.8 years.
TAROM - Technical Division is an aircraft maintenance provider. It employs 800 staff and specializes in maintaining ATR, Boeing 737 series, Airbus A310 and A320 aircraft. Other maintenance providers in Romania are Aerostar SA in Bacău and Romaero located at Băneasa Airport, Bucharest.
Incidents and accidents
- On 24 February 1962 YR-IMB Ilyushin 18V operating on an international scheduled flight from Bucharest Otopeni Airport (OTP) to Tel Aviv, Israel via Nicosia, Cyprus lost power on all four engines and made belly landing on a grassy field in Cyprus. While cruising at 23 000 FT over the Mediterranean Sea and 43 miles off shore engine number 3 lost power, followed shortly by number 1 and 2. Then at 10 000 FT and 27 miles off shore engine 4 also quit. The airplane glided to shore and landed on a grassy field. All 100 occupants survived. The plane was transported to Moscow for repairs, but it never re-entered service.
- On 29 December 1974, an Antonov An-24 (YR-AMD) operating on a domestic scheduled flight from Bucharest to Sibiu crashed into the side of the Mountains (Muntii) Lotrului (22 km south of Sibiu) at an altitude of 1,700 m, killing all 28 passengers and 5 crew members. The crew's incorrect approach procedure execution, which led to the aircraft drifting south off course by 20 km, while the wind was increasing turbulence was present.
- On 7 August 1980, a Tupolev 154B-1 (YR-TPH) operating on an international scheduled flight from Bucharest Otopeni Airport (OTP), Romania to Nouadhibou Airport (NDB), Mauritania ditched in the water 300 m short of the runway at Nouadhibou Airport. The crew could not see the runway while descending through the 90 m decision height. A missed approach procedure was initiated when the pilot felt contact with the what he thought was ground, but was actually water. All of the 152 passengers and 16 crew members survived the impact, but a passenger suffered a heart attack and died before he could be rescued. Most of the passengers were sailors who were going to replace the crew of two Romanian ships located on the Mauritanian coast. Many passengers swam to the land, while sharks were kept away by the vibrations of an engine which continued to function for a few hours after the crash.
- On 5 September 1986, an Antonov An-24 (YR-AMF) operating on a domestic scheduled flight from Bucharest Băneasa (BBU) touched down nose wheel-first while landing at the Cluj Airport (CLJ). A fire erupted, killing three crew members who were trapped in the cockpit. The other two crew members and all fifty passengers survived.
- On 28 December 1989, during the Romanian revolution, an AN 24 aircraft flying from Bucharest to Belgrade, carrying journalist Ian Henry Perry, was shot down by a missile at Vişina, Dâmboviţa. All the people on board (six crew members and the passenger) died.
- On 24 September 1994, TAROM Flight 381, an Airbus A310 (YR-LCA) flying from Bucharest to Paris Orly, went into a sudden and un-commanded nose-up position and stalled. The crew attempted to countermand the plane's flight control system but were unable to get the nose down while remaining on course. Witnesses saw the plane climb to a tail stand, then bank sharply left, then right, then fall into a steep dive. Only when the dive produced additional speed was the crew able to recover steady flight. An investigation found that an overshoot of flap placard speed during approach, incorrectly commanded by the captain, caused a mode transition to flight level change. The auto-throttles increased power and trim went full nose-up as a result. The crew attempt at commanding the nose-down elevator could not counteract effect of stabilizer nose-up trim, and the resulting dive brought the plane from a height of 4,100 ft at the time of the stall to 800 ft when the crew was able to recover command. The plane landed safely after a second approach. There were 186 people aboard.
- On 31 March 1995, a TAROM Airbus A310 (YR-LCC) flying Flight 371 crashed near Baloteşti due to a fault in the throttles and lack of recovery from the flight crew. All 50 passengers and 10 crew members were killed.
- On April 1996 cargo IL-18 had landed by mistake on Cheshnegirovo Air Force base in Bulgaria, instead of Plovdiv International Airport. The crew justified with bad weather and thunderstorm.
- On 30 December 2007, a TAROM Boeing 737-300 (YR-BGC "Constanţa") hit a car on the runway of Bucharest Henri Coandă International Airport while taking off for Sharm-el-Sheikh. The plane stopped beside the runway and was severely damaged. None of the passengers were injured. Because of fog, neither the tower nor the pilots saw the car belonging to staff who were repairing a runway beacon.
- "Airline companies in Rumania (1918-1945) « European Airlines". Europeanairlines.no. 2010-06-17. Retrieved 2012-10-07.
- "Czech Airlines, Malév and Tarom all axe long-haul services". Anna.Aero. 2010-03-23. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
- TAROM ends 4th consecutive year on loss, Ziarul Financiar, Retrieved on 25 January 2013
- Under private management, TAROM continues on losses but exceeds loss-cut targets, Ziarul Finanaciar. Retrieved on 11 June 2014.
- TAROM faces competition as liberalisation brings LCCs to Romania, anna.aero. Retrieved on 25 January 2013
- "SKYTEAM CELEBRATES TENTH ANNIVERSARY" (Press release). SkyTeam. 2010-06-22. Retrieved 5 July 2010.
- "TAROM AIRLINES JOINS SKYTEAM" (Press release). SkyTeam. 2010-06-25. Retrieved 5 July 2010.
- "TAROM Fleet at airfleets.net".
- "TAROM Fleet at planespotters.net".
- "TAROM Fleet at atdb.aero". aerotransport.org.
- Airliner World, January 2007
- "Romania's Tarom to standardise jet fleet". flightglobal. 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-26.
- "Fleet age TAROM | Airfleets aviation". Airfleets.net. Retrieved 2013-02-03.
- Aviation Safety Network
- "Accident description". Aviation-Safety.net. 2006-04-14. Retrieved 5 July 2010.
- "Accident description". Aviation-Safety.net. 1 August 2004. Retrieved 5 July 2010.
- "Accident description". Aviation-Safety.net. 2009-03-15. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
- ""Nu înţeleg ce s-a întâmplat? De ce l-au lăsat să plece?". Pilotul Valter Jurcovan a murit la Revoluţie în timp ce aducea sânge pentru răniţi". Jurnalul.ro. 2011-12-12. Retrieved 2012-10-07.
- "Romania: TAROM". Airlineupdate.com. Retrieved 2012-10-07.
- "INCIDENT TAROM". UFCNA.com. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 5 July 2010.
- "Raport preliminar al accidentului de pe Henri Coanda: lipsa de coordonare intre turnul de control si echipa de balizaj". HotNews.ro. 2007-12-32. Retrieved 5 July 2010.
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