|ISO 639-3||bzg (with Babuza)|
Although Favorlang is considered by Taiwanese linguist Paul Jen-kuei Li to be a separate language, it is nevertheless very closely related to Babuza. In fact, the name Favorlang is derived from Babuza (Li 2003:3). Alternatively, Favorlang may also have represented a dialect of Babuza at an earlier stage, since Favorlang was documented in the mid-1600s, while Babuza was documented only around the turn of the 20th century by Japanese linguists (Li 2003:5).
Favorlang has gone through the following sound changes. Except for the *t, *s, *Z → /t/ merger, all of these sound changes are shared by the five Western Plains languages Taokas, Babuza, Papora, Hoanya, and Thao (Li 2003:6).
- Merger of PAn *n and *ŋ as /n/
- Merger of *t, *s, *Z as /t/
- Merger of *N and *S1 as /s/
- Complete loss of *k, *q, *H
- Partial loss of *R, *j, including the loss of final *-y and *-w
- *s (in initial and medial positions) → /t/
Favorlang data sources are (Li 2003:1):
- Woorden boek der Favorlangsche Taal (Favorlang Vocabulary) by Gilbertus Happart (1650), a Dutch pastor; later translated into English by W. H. Medhurst in 1840.
- 5 sermons and various prayers, questions, and answers on Christianity by Jacobus Vertrecht (1647–1651), a Dutch pastor
- Word lists collected by Naoyoshi Ogawa in the early 1900s (unpublished manuscripts dated 1900, 1901, and 1930; others are undated)
- Notebooks 1, 2, 3, and 5, now kept by ILCAA (Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa) and TUFS (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies) – call number "OA052"
- Notebook 4, now kept at the Anthropological Institute, Nanzan University – call number "v. 1-2-1"
Case markers include (Li 2003):
- ja 'nominative marker'
- ta 'personal name marker'
- o, no 'oblique (genitive and accusative, common noun)'
- i 'oblique (personal noun)'
- de 'locative'
- i 'directional'
Agent-focus verbal affixes include (Li 2003:11):
- -um- ~ -umm- (after consonant-initial verb stems) or um- ~ umm- (before vowel-initial verb stem except i-)
- -im-, -em- (lexically conditioned)
- Past tense (AF)
- -in-umm-, in-umm
- Future tense (AF)
- Reduplication of the first stem syllable
- Imperative (AF)
Non-agent-focus verbal affixes are (Li 2003:11):
- -an 'locative focus'
- -en, -in, -n 'patient focus'
- ipa- ... -a 'imperative (non-agent-focus)'
- -in-, in- 'past tense (non-agent-focus)'
- ino- 'future tense (non-agent-focus)'
When -in- and -umm- appear together in a word, -in- usually precedes -um- ~ -umm-, as in Ilokano, Bontok, and some Dusunic languages in Sabah (Rungus Dusun and Kimaragang Dusun). Occasionally, -umm- precedes -in- in several Favorlang lexical forms, but this is not very common.
The following Favorlang personal pronouns are from Li (2003:8). All of them are free forms. All genitive pronouns end with -a.
- Namoa tamau tamasea paga de boesum, ipa-dass-a joa naan.
- Our father, which art in Heaven, let Thy Name be praised! (Li 2003:8)
- Ka-ina paga ta Jehova oa Deosoe, tamasea pina-ijor ijo....
- I am the Lord, thy God, who led thee.... (Li 2003:8)
- The Lord's Prayer
Namoa tamau tamasea paḡa de boesum,
Ipádassa joa naan.
Ipáṣaija joa chachimit o ai.
Ipa-i-jorr'o oa airab maibas de boesum, masini de ta channumma.
Epé-e namo-no pia-dai torro uppo ma-atsikap.
Ṣo-o abó-e namo tataap o kakossi namoa,
maibas channumma namo mabo tamasea parapies i namo.
Hai pásabas i namo, ṣo-o barra'i namo innai rapies ai.
Inau joa micho chachimit o ai, ṣo-o barr'o ai, ṣo-o adas ai, taulaulan,
- "The articles of Christian instruction in Favorlang-Formosan, Dutch and English, from Vertrecht's manuscript of 1650 : with Psalmanazar's dialogue between a Japanese and a Formosan, and Happart's Favorlang vocabulary : Vertrecht, Jacob : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". Archive.org. 2001-03-10. Retrieved 2012-01-19.
- Happart, Gilbertus, Walter Henry Medhurst (trans.). 1840. Dictionary of the Favorlang dialect of the Formosan language, written in 1650. Batavia, Printed at Parapattan.
- Li, Paul Jen-kuei. 2003. "Introduction: Notes on Favorlang, an Extinct Formosan language." In Ogawa, Naoyoshi. 2003. English-Favorlang vocabulary, pp. 1–13. Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa.
- Ogawa, Naoyoshi. 2003. English-Favorlang vocabulary. Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa.
- Marsh, Mikell Alan. 1977. Favorlang-Pazeh-Saisiat: a putative Formosan subgroup. Ph.D. dissertation. Washington State University.
- Dictionary: Dictionary of the Favorlang dialect of the Formosan language, by Gilbertus Happart (1650), translated from Dutch to English by W. H. Medhurst (1840).