|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Trade names||Mydocalm and others|
|Legal status||℞ Prescription only|
|Half-life||1st phase: 2 hrs
2nd phase: 12 hrs
|ATC code||M02 M03|
|Mol. mass||245.36 g/mol|
|(what is this?)|
In Tolperisone is indicated for use in the treatment of pathologically increased tone of the cross-striated muscle caused by neurological diseases (damage of the pyramidal tract, multiple sclerosis, myelopathy, encephalomyelitis) and of spastic paralysis and other encephalopathies manifested with muscular dystonia.
Other possible uses include:
- Cervical and lumbar syndromes
- Arthrosis of the large joints
- Obliterating atherosclerosis of the extremity vessels
- Diabetic angiopathy
- Thromboangiitis obliterans
- Raynaud's syndrome
Contraindications and cautions
Manufacturers report that tolperisone should not be used in patients with myasthenia gravis. Only limited data are available regarding the safety in children, youths, during pregnancy and breastfeeding. It is not known whether tolperisone is excreted into mother's milk.
Adverse effects occur in fewer than 1% of patients and include muscle weakness, headache, arterial hypotension, nausea, vomiting, dyspepsia, and dry mouth. All effects are reversible. Allergic reactions occur in fewer than 0.1% of patient and include skin rash, hives, Quincke's edema, and in some cases anaphylactic shock.
Tolperisone does not have a significant potential for interactions with other pharmaceutical drugs. It cannot be excluded that combination with other centrally-acting muscle relaxants, benzodiazepines or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may make a dose reduction necessary in some patients.
Mechanism of action
Tolperisone is absorbed nearly completely from the gut and reaches its peak blood plasma concentration after 1.5 hours. It is extensively metabolised in the liver and kidneys. The substance is excreted via the kidneys in two phases; the first with a half-life of two hours, and the second with a half-life of 12 hours.
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- "Midocalm". Romania: InfoMedic.
- Ribi C, Vermeulen C, Hauser C (2003). "Anaphylactic reactions to tolperisone (Mydocalm)". Swiss Medical Weekly 133 (25–26): 369–371. PMID 12947534.
- Sporkert, F.; Brunel, C.; Augsburger, M. P.; Mangin, P. (2012). "Fatal tolperisone poisoning: Autopsy and toxicology findings in three suicide cases". Forensic Science International 215 (1): 101–104. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2011.05.025. PMID 21683537.
- Kocsis P, Farkas S, Fodor L, Bielik N, Thán M, Kolok S, Gere A, Csejtei M, Tarnawa I (2005). "Tolperisone-type drugs inhibit spinal reflexes via blockade of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels". Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 315 (3): 1237–1246. doi:10.1124/jpet.105.089805. PMID 16126840.
- Hofer D, Lohberger B, Steinecker B, Schmidt K, Quasthoff S, Schreibmayer W (2006). "A comparative study of the action of tolperisone on seven different voltage dependent sodium channel isoforms". European Journal of Pharmacology 538 (1–3): 5–14. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.03.034. PMID 16650844.