Jump to content

Evergrande Group

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

China Evergrande Group
中国恒大集团
Company typePublic
SEHK3333
OTC Pink: EGRNQ
IndustryReal estate
Founded1996; 28 years ago (1996)
FounderHui Ka Yan (Xu Jiayin)
Headquarters,
China
Area served
Mainland China
Key people
Hui Ka Yan (Chairman)
RevenueIncrease CN¥507.250 billion[1]
(US$77.713 billion, 2020)
Decrease CN¥63.520 billion[1]
(US$9.732 billion, 2020)
Decrease CN¥8.076 billion[1]
(US$1.238 billion, 2020)
Total assetsIncrease CN¥2,301 trillion[1]
(US$306.410 billion, 2020)
Total equityDecrease CN¥350.431 billion[1]
(US$53.687 billion, 2020)
Number of employees
123,276[2] (31 December 2020)
SubsidiariesHengda Real Estate Evergrande New Energy Auto
Websitewww.evergrande.com
China Evergrande Group
Simplified Chinese中国恒大集团
Traditional Chinese中國恆大集團

The China Evergrande Group was a Chinese property developer, and it was the second largest in China by sales.[3] It was founded in 1996 by Hui Ka Yan (Xu Jiayin). It sold apartments mostly to upper- and middle-income dwellers.[4]

Evergrande was incorporated in the Cayman Islands, a British Overseas Territory, and headquartered in the Houhai Financial Center in Nanshan District, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China.[5]

In 2018, Evergrande became the most valuable real estate company in the world,[6] but by 2021 it had collapsed financially and started the Chinese property sector crisis. The company eventually filed for bankruptcy in the United States in 2023,[7] which was followed by a court-ordered liquidation in Hong Kong in January 2024.[8]

History[edit]

Initially called the Hongda Group, Evergrande was founded by Hui Ka Yan in the southern Chinese city of Guangzhou in 1996, during a period of mass urbanization in China.[9]

In October 2009, the company raised $722 million U.S. in an initial public offering on the Stock Exchange of Hong Kong (SEHK).[10]

In 2021, the payments Evergrande had to make on its debt started the Chinese property sector crisis; Evergrande's total debts were estimated in the hundreds of billions of dollars. This was one of the reasons for a drop in many stock market indices on September 20, 2021.[11] At the end of 2021, the Chinese government was reportedly working to restructure Evergrande in order to resolve the crisis.[12][13] The group also sought a moratorium on the early repayment option on one of its yuan-denominated bonds from its bondholders on 7 January 2022.[14]

In 2022, the company announced it would move its headquarters to Guangzhou due to a need to reduce spending.[15]

In April 2022, Reuters reported that construction had been started again at many projects[16] and that the company still had liabilities of US$300 billion.

On 17 July 2023, Evergrande made public that it had made a net loss attributable to shareholders of 476 billion yuan (US$66.3 billion) for 2021 and of 105.9 billion yuan (US$14.7 billion) for 2022.[17] The group stated that its total liabilities on 31 December 2022 stood at 2.43 trillion yuan (roughly US$340 billion). Court hearings on the restructuring of the group's debts were to be held in July 2023 in Hong Kong and the Caribbean.[17]

On 17 August 2023, Evergrande filed for Chapter 15 of the U.S. bankruptcy code for protection from creditors, with the U.S. bankruptcy court in Manhattan.[18] On 28 August 2023, Evergrande stock plunged in Hong Kong as trading resumed after a 17-month suspension, tumbling by 79 per cent to 35 HK cents, as opposed to the pre-suspension price of HK$1.65 on 21 March 2022.[19]

In September 2023, Bloomberg reported that Hui Ka Yan (Xu Jiayin), the billionaire chairman of Evergrande, was placed under police control. Caixin reported that Xia Haijun, an ex-chief executive officer of Evergrande, and Pan Darong, a former chief financial officer, were detained by Chinese authorities.[20]

On 29 January 2024, a Hong Kong-based court ordered Evergrade to liquidate due to a lack of a viable restructuring plan.[21] Trading was halted for stocks in China Evergrande, China Evergrande New Energy Vehicle Group, and Evergrande Property Services.[22][23]

The Hong Kong court order came after bondholders decided that winding down Evergrande was better than Evergrande's plan to give control of most of the developer to Chinese banks and impose losses on foreign creditors. It was thought by investors that the restructuring plan would cause losses that would have potentially been steep enough that the losses of foreign creditors would be lower if Evergrande liquidated.[24]

The court order allowed liquidators from Alvarez and Marsal to take over all of Evergrande's subsidiaries around the world so that Evergrande's assets could be sold to repay its debt. However, 90% of Evergrande's assets were in mainland China and most of the assets had already been sold, pledged to Chinese domestic creditors, or frozen by Chinese banks at the time.[24]

Evergrande stated on 19 March 2024 that the China Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC) had found that the company had overstated its revenue in 2019 by 214 billion yuan (nearly $30 billion), or about half, and in 2020 its revenue was overstated by nearly 80%, or 350 billion yuan ($48.6 billion).[25] The CSRC also suspected problems with the bonds Evergrande issued. The regulator fined Evergrande 4.2 billion yuan ($579,5 million) for falsifying its revenue, among other financial misconduct.[25]

Operations and business interests[edit]

Automotive[edit]

In 2018, Evergrande acquired a 45% stake in electric vehicle company Faraday Future for $2 billion through its Evergrande Health subsidiary.[26]

In July 2019, the company partnered with State Grid Corporation of China to develop electric vehicle charging stations.[27] Later in November 2019, Evergrande announced that it would invest ¥45 billion (approximately $6.4 billion USD)[28] over the following three years to develop new energy vehicles, build three production bases in Nansha, Guangzhou and Shanghai, and launch electric vehicles branded as "Evergrande New Energy Vehicle" in 2020,[29][30] creating the Hengchi electric vehicle brand.[31]

In June 2020, Evergrande Group acquired the remaining 49% of NEVS for $380 million, after having acquired 51% of the shares for $931 million in 2019.[32] Evergrande NEV has stated that it will start making electric cars by 2022.[33][needs update]

On August 14, 2023, Evergrande Group received the first $500 million strategic investment from NWTN Group.[34][35]

Health[edit]

In March 2015, Evergrande acquired New Media Group Holdings and renamed it Evergrande Health.[36] Evergrande Health Group operates the "Evergrande Health Valley" in Nanning. The Health Valley is a health and wellness park, and retirement community.[37] It also works with Brigham and Women's Hospital in Massachusetts to manage Boao Evergrande International Hospital in Hainan.[38]

Evergrande Health is both a division and a listed company. However, the listed company portion was renamed into China Evergrande New Energy Vehicle Group Limited in August 2020.[39][40]

The health division is still part of China Evergrande New Energy Vehicle Group Limited and in turn part of Evergrande Group as of 2021.[41]

Entertainment[edit]

HengTen Networks was formed in 2015 in partnership with Tencent. In October 2020, HengTen Networks announced that it would acquire Ruyi Pictures for HK$7.2 billion.[42] In August 2021, the company sold a 7% stake in HengTen to Tencent for US$418 million.[43] Later in 2021, Evergrande sold off its remaining stake in HengTen, ending their relationship with Tencent.[44]

Finance[edit]

In November 2015, Evergrande acquired a 50% stake in Sino-Singapore Great Eastern Life Insurance Company for $617 million and changed its name to Evergrande Life.[45] It also owns shares in Shengjing Bank.[46] Evergrande has also sold wealth management products to consumers.[47]

Food and agriculture[edit]

Evergrande Group Mineral water Brand "EVERGRANDE SPRING "

In 2014, Evergrande Group launched its "Hengda Bingquan" (later "Evergrande Spring") mineral water brand and invested ¥5.54 billion in it, including hiring Jackie Chan to promote the brand.[48] Evergrande's water brand received significant negative attention from Korean consumers, as the water source on the label was listed as "Jang bai shan" (Changbai mountains) rather than the Korean name "Mount Baekdusan." The use of the Chinese name of the mountain—which borders China and North Korea—is a point of stress between China and South Korea.[49]

In September 2016, after a loss of ¥4 billion, Evergrande sold its agribusiness units, which included its mineral water brand, dairy business, and grain and oil business, for ¥2.7 billion.[50][51] Later that year, Evergrande announced it was investing ¥300 million to build more than 110 pig farms in southwestern Guizhou province.[52]

Real estate[edit]

Evergrande Group owned 565 million square meters (6,080 million square feet) of development land and real estate projects in 22 cities, including Guangzhou, Tianjin, Shenyang, Wuhan, Kunming, Chengdu, Chongqing, Nanjing, Zhengzhou, Luoyang, Changsha, Nanning, Xi'an, Taiyuan and Guiyang in Mainland China.[53] Notable projects by the company include Ocean Flower Island in Hainan.

Evergrande Real Estate is the second-largest real estate developer in Mainland China. It is known as "Wan Heng Bi" with the other two top three real estate companies: Vanke (pinyin: Wànkē) and Country Garden (pinyin: Bìguìyuán). The firm has developed projects in over 170 cities in Mainland China.

Evergrande Plaza, in Chengdu, was designed by Aedas, and completed in 2014.[54]

Sports[edit]

In 2010, it acquired football club Guangzhou Evergrande F.C. and invested heavily to acquire top players. In 2013, under Marcello Lippi, the club won the 2013 AFC Champions League. Alibaba also has a 50% stake in the football club.[55]

On 16 April 2020, Evergrande opened the construction of Guangzhou Evergrande Football Stadium in Xie Village, Panyu District, Guangzhou.[56]

Evergrande Football School is a football tutoring school.[57]

The company was a sponsor of the Women's Guangdong Evergrande Volleyball Club, terminating their contract after 8 years in October 2021.[58]

Tourism and recreation[edit]

Evergrande owns two major theme park brands "Hengda children of the world", "Hengda water world", and Hainan has a large tourist complex "Chinese island of Hainan to spend".[59][60][61] The under-construction Ocean Flower Island in Hainan is one of its major projects.[62]

Financial data per annual reports[edit]

Financial data in CNY[63][64][65](Financial year ends on 31 December)[66]
Year Revenue Net Income Assets Equity
2010[67] 45,801,401,000 8,024,676,000 104,452,464,000 21,366,225,000
2011[68] 61,918,185,000 11,726,593,000 179,023,408,000 34,130,753,000
2012[69] 65,260,838,000 9,181,921,000 238,990,551,000 41,691,325,000
2013[70] 93,671,780,000 12,611,778,000 159,950,689,000 79,342,634,000
2014[71] 111,398,112,000 12,604,053,000 206,225,229,000 112,378,004,000
2015[72] 133,130,000,000 10,460,000,000 757,035,000,000 142,142,000,000
2016[73] 211,444,000,000 5,091,000,000 1,350,868,000,000 192,532,000,000
2017[74] 311,022,000,000 24,372,000,000 1,761,752,000,000 242,208,000,000
2018[75] 466,196,000,000 37,390,000,000 1,880,028,000,000 308,626,000,000
2019[76] 477,561,000,000 17,280,000,000 2,206,577,000,000 358,537,000,000
2020[66] 507,248,000,000 8,076,000,000 2,301,159,000,000 350,431,000,000
2021[77] 250,013,000,000 -476,035,000,000 2,107,096,000,000 -473,054,000,000
2022[78] 230,067,000,000 -105,914,000,000 1,838,338,000,000 -599,074,000,000

Financial problems and audits[edit]

In 2016, the Hong Kong Market Misconduct Tribunal suspended American short seller and Citron Research founder Andrew Left for five years, due to the publication of a highly critical report on the company, "finding him culpable of disclosing false or misleading information inducing transactions under the Securities and Futures Ordinance (SFO) in the publication of a research report on Evergrande Real Estate Group Limited (Evergrande) in June 2012."[79][80][81] The trading ban "has raised concerns over freedom of speech in Hong Kong's financial markets" according to the New York Times.[82]

The Chinese government initiated a major deleveraging campaign in 2016.[83]: 74  Evergrande had been one of the most active Chinese developers in the global junk bond market, but after the 2016 campaign such avenues became more difficult for Evergrande and similarly situated developers.[83]: 74  Evergrande responded by increasing its use of supply-side finance, seeking advanced payments from customers for unfinished apartments and expanding its borrowing form suppliers and contractors.[83]: 74  The company was facing a liquidity crisis, even going so far as to encourage employees to purchase financial products from the company.[84][83]: 74 

In 2020, CCP General Secretary Xi Jinping's government started to tighten the real estate market based on the principle that "property is to be lived in, not to be speculated on."[85]: 161  He had previously articulated this principle during the 19th Party Congress and it led to a series of financial rules known as the three red lines.[83]: 73  In an effort to curb risky borrowing by property development firms, the three red lines required that (1) develops have a liability-to-assets ratio of less than 70 percent, (2) a net gearing ratio of less than 100 percent, and (3) a cash to short-term debt ratio of at least one.[83]: 73  Companies that complied with all three rules could increase their debt by 15 percent in the next year.[83]: 73–74  New restrictions lead to a downturn in the property market, with sales declining by 30% in 2021.[85]: 168 

Evergrande crossed all three red lines, resulting in a liquidity crisis and its later insolvency.[83]: 74  In summer of 2021, payments due on its debt, estimated in the hundreds of billions of dollars, resulted in the Evergrande liquidity crisis.[86][87][88][89][90] This was one of the reasons for a drop in many stock market indices on 20 September 2021.[91]

On October 15 2021, the accounting regulator in Hong Kong announced an investigation into PwC's auditing of Evergrande. PwC had signed off the 2020 accounts of Evergrande without reference to its uncertainties as a growing concern. Evergrade itself reported concerns as to continuing operations in its half-year accounts for 2021.[92][93]

On 21 October 2021, Evergrande announced that a $2.6 billion asset sale that would have been used to pay an $83 million interest payment it missed in September, 2021 had failed to close.[94] On 10 November 2021, Evergrande defaulted on 3 more bonds after missing the grace period for interest payments.[95] A major news outlet reported they fulfilled the payments after the deadline.[96]

In November 2021, although the scale of debt was huge, from the perspective of financial data alone, Evergrande had not yet reached the point of "insolvency". According to the aforementioned financial report, Evergrande's land reserve was worth RMB 456.8 billion, and together with 146 old reform projects, the total value of the land reserve was nearly RMB 2 trillion. In addition, there are many completed commercial properties and holdings, such as the headquarters building in Hong Kong, worth around RMB 10 billion.[97][98]

On 17 December 2021, Evergrande was officially declared to be in default by S&P Global after missing a bond payment earlier in the month.[99] On 3 January 2022, Evergrande shares were suspended from trading, without a reason being provided by the company.[100] Trading resumed a day later and its stock price rose by 10%.[101] On 15 March 2022, Evergrande's share price sank to a new all-time low of HK$1.16 (US$0.15), down from a high of over HK$31 in October 2017.[102]

On 30 March 2022, Evergrande announced the decision to sell its Crystal City Project in Hangzhou for 3.66 billion yuan to Zhejiang Zhejian Real Estate Group and Zhejiang Construction Engineering Group, using the proceeds to repay construction debt of 920.7 million yuan to Zhejiang Construction Engineering. The deal is expected to post a gain of about 216 million yuan.[103]

In January 2023, PwC quit in disagreement over the audit of Evergrande´s 2021 accounts.[104]

In July 2023 it became known that Evergrade made a loss of 476 billion yuan in 2021 and 106 billion yuan in 2022.[105]

On 17 August 2023, Evergrande filed for Chapter 15 bankruptcy in New York.[106]

On 28 September 2023, trading in Evergrande shares was suspended after a report was released stating that its chairman, Hui, was under police investigation for suspicion of crimes.[107]

In February 2024, Evergrande liquidators prepared for a potential lawsuit against its former auditor PwC.[108]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "China Evergrande Group financials". finance.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 27 June 2021. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  2. ^ "China Evergrande Group profile". finance.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 9 September 2021. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  3. ^ "Evergrande draws eight strategic investors for Shenzhen listing". South China Morning Post. 2 January 2017. Archived from the original on 23 July 2021. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  4. ^ Martin, Nik (16 September 2021). "Evergrande: Why the Chinese property giant is close to collapse". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 15 September 2021. Retrieved 16 September 2021.
  5. ^ "Contact". Evergrande Group. Archived from the original on 28 June 2021. Retrieved 5 February 2021. 35 / f, excellent houhui financial center, no. 1126 Hyde [sic] road, nanshan district, shenzhen - Chinese address Archived 6 November 2020 at the Wayback Machine: "深圳市南山区海德三道1126号" (based on the Chinese address it is Haide Third Road)
  6. ^ "China's Evergrande tops world's most valuable real estate brand". Xinhua News Agency. 5 September 2018. Archived from the original on 5 September 2018.
  7. ^ Delouya, Samantha (17 August 2023). "China's Evergrande files for bankruptcy". CNN. Archived from the original on 17 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  8. ^ Sanyal, Shreyashi (29 January 2024). "Evergrande shares halted after Hong Kong court orders liquidation". CNBC. Archived from the original on 29 January 2024. Retrieved 29 January 2024.
  9. ^ Stevenson, Alexandra; Li, Cao (10 August 2021). "Evergrande Went From China's Biggest Developer to One of Its Worst Debtors". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 21 September 2021. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
  10. ^ Or, Amy (30 October 2009). "Evergrande Gets $722 Million". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 20 September 2021. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
  11. ^ "Struggling Evergrande Group says it will make bond payment this week". CBS News. 22 September 2021. Archived from the original on 10 April 2023. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  12. ^ Zhai, Keith; Yu, Elaine; Bao, Anniek (10 November 2021). "China's Plan to Manage Evergrande: Take It Apart, Slowly". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 16 June 2022. Retrieved 10 November 2021.
  13. ^ "Evergrande Braces for Debt Restructuring – December 6, 2021". Daily News Brief. 6 December 2021. Archived from the original on 25 January 2022. Retrieved 6 December 2021.
  14. ^ "Evergrande Unit Seeks Delaying Possible Yuan Bond Repayment". finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  15. ^ "China Evergrande moves from Shenzhen HQ building to cut costs". Reuters. 10 January 2022. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  16. ^ "Construction has resumed at 95% of China Evergrande projects, unit says". Reuters. 2 April 2022. Archived from the original on 19 April 2022. Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  17. ^ a b "China Evergrande reports steep losses, offers update on offshore debt revamp". South China Morning Post. 17 July 2023. Archived from the original on 18 July 2023. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  18. ^ "China Evergrande seeks Chapter 15 protection in Manhattan bankruptcy court". Reuters. 17 August 2023. Archived from the original on 17 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  19. ^ "Evergrande sinks 79% in Hong Kong trading before creditors vote on rescue plan". South China Morning Post. 28 August 2023. Archived from the original on 28 August 2023. Retrieved 28 August 2023.
  20. ^ "China Puts Evergrande's Billionaire Founder Under Police Control". Bloomberg.com. 27 September 2023. Archived from the original on 27 September 2023. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  21. ^ Davidson, Helen (29 January 2024). "Evergrande collapse: Hong Kong court orders liquidation of China property giant". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 29 January 2024. Retrieved 29 January 2024.
  22. ^ "China Evergrande ordered to liquidate in landmark moment for crisis-hit sector". Reuters. reuters.com. 29 January 2024. Retrieved 29 January 2024.
  23. ^ "Timeline: Worsening crisis at Evergrande". Reuters. reuters.com. 29 January 2024. Retrieved 29 January 2024.
  24. ^ a b Alexander Saeedy; Rebecca Feng (2 February 2024). "Evergrande's Collapse Followed Backroom Battle Between Bondholders and Chinese Banks". The Wall Street Journal.
  25. ^ a b "China accuses property developer Evergrande and founder of £60bn fraud". The Independent. 19 March 2024. Retrieved 19 March 2024.
  26. ^ O'Kane, Sean (26 June 2018). "Faraday Future reveals the source of its $2 billion investment as a co-founder steps away". The Verge. Archived from the original on 26 June 2018. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
  27. ^ Xuewan, Chen; Kirton, David (17 July 2019). "State Grid, Evergrande Team Up to Build Electric-Car Charging Network". Caixin. Archived from the original on 22 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  28. ^ "China Evergrande Plans to Build Electric Cars, Batteries in Qingdao - Caixin Global". www.caixinglobal.com. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  29. ^ "Xinhua Silk Road: Evergrande teams up with global partners to promote NEV development" (Press release). PR Newswire. 13 November 2019.
  30. ^ "The road gets bumpy for billionaires investing in China's electric cars". The Japan Times. 3 December 2019. Archived from the original on 22 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  31. ^ "Evergrande to introduce first EV in 2020". Electrive. 13 November 2019. Archived from the original on 22 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  32. ^ "Evergrande to buy up the rest of NEVS". Electrive. 17 June 2020. Archived from the original on 22 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  33. ^ Kharpal, Arjun (12 October 2021). "Evergrande plans to roll out electric cars in 2022, sending shares of its auto unit 4.5% higher". CNBC. Archived from the original on 15 November 2021. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  34. ^ Sebastian, Dave. "迪拜车企纽顿集团5亿美元入股恒大汽车". 华尔街日报中文网 (in Chinese (China)). Archived from the original on 20 August 2023. Retrieved 20 August 2023.
  35. ^ "恒大汽车:获得NWTN集团首笔5亿美元战略投资". www.yicai.com. Archived from the original on 20 August 2023. Retrieved 20 August 2023.
  36. ^ "Evergrande Acquires New Media and to Rename it Evergrande Health" (Press release). PR Newswire. 1 March 2015. Archived from the original on 22 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  37. ^ "Evergrande Health Valley in Nanning Airport Economic Zone". nanning.gov.cn. 15 November 2020. Archived from the original on 14 October 2021.
  38. ^ "Boao Evergrande International Hospital". en.lecityhn.com. Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  39. ^ Chiu, Joanne (13 August 2020). "Search For Next Tesla Fuels Rally in Chinese Auto Stocks". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 17 December 2021. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
  40. ^ "CHANGE OF COMPANY NAME, STOCK SHORT NAMES AND COMPANY'S WEBSITE" (PDF) (Press release). China Evergrande New Energy Vehicle Group Limited. 26 August 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 December 2021. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
  41. ^ INTERIM REPORT 2021 (PDF). China Evergrande New Energy Vehicle Group. 30 September 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 December 2021. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
  42. ^ "Online Home Furnishing Group Makes Surprise $1 Billion Bid for TV Production Company". Caixin. 28 October 2020. Archived from the original on 14 October 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  43. ^ Zaharia, Marius (1 August 2021). "China's Evergrande to sell stakes in HengTen internet unit for $418 mln". Reuters. Archived from the original on 22 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  44. ^ Baoat, Anniek (18 November 2021). "China Evergrande to shed stake in Tencent-backed venture for $273 million". Archived from the original on 18 December 2021. Retrieved 18 December 2021.
  45. ^ Baldwin, Clare (22 November 2015). "Chinese developer Evergrande strikes $617 million life insurance deal". Reuters.
  46. ^ "Evergrande Raises $154 Million Paring Stake in Key Bank Unit". Bloomberg News. 17 August 2021. Archived from the original on 22 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  47. ^ "Lured by promises of high returns, thousands gave Evergrande cash". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 11 December 2021. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  48. ^ "How Beijing's Debt Clampdown Shook the Foundation of a Real-Estate Colossus". The Wall Street Journal. 18 September 2021. Archived from the original on 22 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  49. ^ Herald, Korea (2 July 2014). "Kim Soo-hyun's controversial Chinese ad revealed". The Korea Herald. Archived from the original on 10 November 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  50. ^ "Evergrande Sells Food, Beverage Units to Focus on Real Estate". Bloomberg News. 28 September 2016. Archived from the original on 22 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  51. ^ "DISPOSAL OF NON-CORE BUSINESSES IN GRAIN AND OIL, DIARY PRODUCTS AND SPRING WATER" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 October 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  52. ^ Yuanke, Zhang (9 December 2020). "Evergrande, Vanke, Over 1,000 Chinese Developers Try Their Hand at Pig Farming". Shanghai Media Group. Archived from the original on 21 September 2021. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
  53. ^ Lee, Georgina (2 June 2021). "China Evergrande unit slides by record in US$1.9 billion sell-off as seller offloads stock after lock-up period expires". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 22 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  54. ^ Evergrande Plaza, a Hong Kong-style shopping mall,[clarification needed] opens in Chengdu. [1] Archived 2021-11-10 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  55. ^ "Alibaba, Evergrande-owned soccer club files for China IPO in Asian first". Reuters. 2 July 2015. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  56. ^ Duerden, John (17 April 2020). "Chinese club Guangzhou Evergrande building world's biggest stadium for $1.7bn". ESPN.com. Archived from the original on 26 September 2020. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  57. ^ Stayton, Jonathan (16 March 2016). "Guangzhou Evergrande: Inside China's $185M football factory". CNN. Archived from the original on 25 March 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  58. ^ White, Jonathan (10 October 2021). "Evergrande's women's volleyball team fate uncertain amid financial trouble". Archived from the original on 20 March 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  59. ^ Jeremy Goldkorn (24 September 2020). "Is indebted real estate developer Evergrande Group seeking government support?". supchina.com. Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  60. ^ Qu Hui,Yang Ge (22 October 2020). "Environmental Violations Dog Struggling Evergrande's Hainan Mega-Resort". caixinglobal.com. Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  61. ^ "Evergrande Group's Ocean Flower Island". ravensuncreative.com. Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  62. ^ "HAINAN OCEAN FLOWER RESORT » LAVA". www.l-a-v-a.net. Archived from the original on 19 February 2020. Retrieved 18 December 2021.
  63. ^ "China Evergrande Group (3333.HK) Income Statement". finance.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 27 June 2021. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  64. ^ "China Evergrande Group (3333.HK) Balance Sheet". finance.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 10 September 2021. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  65. ^ "Revenue of Evergrande Real Estate Group Ltd. from 2010 to 2020". Statista. Archived from the original on 9 April 2023. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  66. ^ a b "2020 Annual Report" (PDF). doc.irasia.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 July 2021. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  67. ^ "2010 Annual Report" (PDF). doc.irasia.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 September 2021. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  68. ^ "2011 Annual Report" (PDF). doc.irasia.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 September 2021. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  69. ^ "2012 Annual Report" (PDF). doc.irasia.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 September 2021. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  70. ^ "2013 Annual Report" (PDF). doc.irasia.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 September 2021. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  71. ^ "2014 Annual Report" (PDF). doc.irasia.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 September 2021. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  72. ^ "2015 Annual Report" (PDF). doc.irasia.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 September 2021. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  73. ^ "2016 Annual Report" (PDF). doc.irasia.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 September 2021. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  74. ^ "2017 Annual Report" (PDF). doc.irasia.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 September 2021. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  75. ^ "2018 Annual Report" (PDF). doc.irasia.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 September 2021. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  76. ^ "2019 Annual Report" (PDF). doc.irasia.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 September 2021. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  77. ^ "ANNOUNCEMENT OF RESULTS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 2021" (PDF). CHINA EVERGRANDE GROUP. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 July 2023. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  78. ^ "ANNOUNCEMENT OF RESULTS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 2022" (PDF). CHINA EVERGRANDE GROUP. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 July 2023. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  79. ^ "Market Misconduct Tribunal bans Andrew Left of Citron Research from trading securities in Hong Kong" (Press release). Hong Kong: Securities and Futures Commission. 20 October 2016. Archived from the original on 17 June 2020. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  80. ^ "The report of the Market Misconduct Tribunal into dealings in the shares of Evergrande Real Estate Group Limited on 21 June 2012 (Part I)" (PDF). Market Misconduct Tribunal. 26 August 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 April 2023. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  81. ^ "The report of the Market Misconduct Tribunal into dealings in the shares of Evergrande Real Estate Group Limited on 21 June 2012 (Part II)" (PDF). Market Misconduct Tribunal. 10 November 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 January 2021. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  82. ^ Gough, Neil (20 October 2016). "Hong Kong Tribunal Suspends Investor Who Criticized Chinese Firm". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 20 January 2022. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  83. ^ a b c d e f g h Zhang, Angela Huyue (2024). High Wire: How China Regulates Big Tech and Governs Its Economy. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oso/9780197682258.001.0001. ISBN 9780197682258.
  84. ^ Tham, Engen; Zhu, Julie; Jim, Clare (31 August 2023). "How Evergrande's downfall signaled China's property crisis". Reuters. Archived from the original on 31 August 2023. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
  85. ^ a b Jin, Keyu (2023). The New China Playbook: Beyond Socialism and Capitalism. New York: Viking. ISBN 978-1-9848-7828-1.
  86. ^ "Evergrande on course to hit record number of legal cases". Financial Times. 17 August 2021. Archived from the original on 21 August 2021. Retrieved 19 August 2021.
  87. ^ Yu, Sun; Mitchell, Tom; McMorrow, Ryan (14 September 2021). "China's Evergrande faces investor protests as liquidity crunch worsens". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 9 April 2023. Retrieved 18 September 2021.
  88. ^ "Heavily indebted Chinese developer Evergrande warns of default risk". Financial Times. 31 August 2021. Archived from the original on 22 September 2021. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
  89. ^ Farrer, Martin (20 September 2021). "Shares in China's Evergrande plunge again as fears of contagion grow". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 April 2023. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  90. ^ "Evergrande Market Fallout Grows as Local Unit Halts Bond Trading". Bloomberg News. 16 September 2021. Archived from the original on 3 February 2022. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  91. ^ Doorn, Philip van. "Here are the worst-performing U.S. stocks as the Evergrande crisis rattles investors". MarketWatch. Archived from the original on 22 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  92. ^ John, Alun (15 October 2021). "Hong Kong audit watchdog investigating Evergrande and PwC". Reuters. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
  93. ^ Foy, Simon (15 October 2021). "Hong Kong watchdog to investigate PwC audit of Evergrande accounts". The Telegraph. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
  94. ^ "Evergrande Shares Drop after $2.6b Deal Fails - October 21, 2021". Daily News Brief. 21 October 2021. Archived from the original on 24 January 2022. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  95. ^ "Evergrande officially defaulted - DMSA is preparing bankruptcy proceedings against Evergrande Group". www.prnewswire.com. 10 November 2021. Archived from the original on 10 November 2021. Retrieved 10 November 2021.
  96. ^ Bray, Chad; Liu, Pearl (11 November 2021). "Evergrande pays overdue interest but faces deadline on US$366 million". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 11 November 2021.
  97. ^ "恒大危机背后可能被忽略的四大问题". BBC News 中文 (in Simplified Chinese). 15 September 2021. Archived from the original on 1 October 2021. Retrieved 29 November 2021.
  98. ^ "四位学者把脉 恒大危机后中国经济的主要隐患". BBC News 中文 (in Simplified Chinese). Archived from the original on 29 November 2021. Retrieved 29 November 2021.
  99. ^ "S&P dumps Chinese property giant Evergrande into default". Reuters. 17 December 2021. Archived from the original on 2 August 2022. Retrieved 20 December 2021.
  100. ^ "Embattled China Evergrande shares halt trading". Reuters. 2 January 2022. Archived from the original on 3 January 2022. Retrieved 3 January 2022.
  101. ^ "Evergrande shares rise as they resume trading after suspension". the Guardian. 4 January 2022. Archived from the original on 27 July 2022. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
  102. ^ "3333 Stock Price | China Evergrande Group Stock Quote (Hong Kong)". MarketWatch. Archived from the original on 15 March 2022. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  103. ^ "China Evergrande to sell Crystal City Project for $575 mln". Reuters. 30 March 2022. Archived from the original on 30 March 2022. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  104. ^ "China Evergrande's auditor PwC quits over 2021 audit-related matters Reuters". 17 January 2023. Retrieved 20 March 2024.
  105. ^ "Evergrande: Crisis-hit Chinese property giant reveals $81bn loss". BBC News. 18 July 2023. Archived from the original on 30 January 2024. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  106. ^ Delouya, Samantha (17 August 2023). "China's Evergrande files for bankruptcy | CNN Business". CNN. Archived from the original on 17 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  107. ^ "China Evergrande chairman under scrutiny on suspicion of illegal crimes". Reuters. 28 September 2023. Archived from the original on 27 September 2023. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  108. ^ "China Evergrande's liquidators prepare to sue PwC over audits, FT reports". Reuters. 17 February 2024.

External links[edit]

Media related to Evergrande Group at Wikimedia Commons

  • Business data for China Evergrande Group: