^ abcdefIn many of the dialects that have an apicalrhotic consonant, a recursive Sandhi process of retroflexion occurs, and clusters of /r/ and dental consonants /rd/, /rl/, /rn/, /rs/, /rt/ produce retroflex consonant realizations: [ɖ], [ɭ], [ɳ], [ʂ], [ʈ]. In dialects with a guttural R[ʁ], such as Southern and Western Norwegian dialects, they are [ʁd], [ʁl], [ʁn], [ʁs], [ʁt].
^ abcdThe distinction between compressed [ʉ] and protruded [y] is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
Norwegian compressed [ʉ] sounds very close to German compressed [ʏ] (as in müssen[ˈmʏsn̩]).
Norwegian protruded [y] sounds more similar to English unrounded [ɪ] (as in hit) than to German compressed [ʏ], and it is very close to Swedish protruded [ʏ] (as in syll[sʏlː]).
Norwegian compressed [ʉː] sounds very close to German compressed [yː] (as in üben[ˈyːbn̩]).
Norwegian protruded [yː] sounds more similar to English unrounded [iː] (as in leave) than to German compressed [yː], and it is very close to Swedish protruded [yː] (as in syl[syːl]).
^ abc/ɑi, ei, ɔy/ appear only in loanwords. /ei/ is used only by some younger speakers, who contrast it with /æi/; speakers who do not have /ei/ in their diphthong inventory replace it with /æi/ (Kristoffersen (2000:19)).