It provides a set of symbols to represent the pronunciation of Norwegian in Wikipedia articles, and example words that illustrate the sounds that correspond to them. Integrity must be maintained between the key and the transcriptions that link here; do not change any symbol or its value without establishing consensus on the talk page first.
^ abIn contemporary Urban East Norwegian there is no difference between the historical /rl/ and the simple /l/; both are realized as non-velarized apical alveolar [l]. The laminal [l̪] (in this guide transcribed the same as [l]) occurs after /n, t, d/ and also after back vowels (though not always in the case of the close /ʊ, uː/), where it can contrast with the apical alveolar [l]. The laminal variant is velarized [ɫ̪] (transcribed in this guide without the diacritic) after back vowels but not after the central /ə/ (Kristoffersen (2000:25)).
^ abcdeThe lack of distinction between the consonants traditionally transcribed with ⟨l⟩ and ⟨ɭ⟩ in the literature leaves no trace of the historical /r/ after some vowels, most notably the close front /ɪ, iː, ʏ, yː/ and the close central /ʉ, ʉː/. After the mid front /ɛ, eː/ the contrast is maintained by lowering the vowels to [æ, æː] before the historical /rl/, whereas after the back vowels (the mid /ɔ, oː/ and the open /ɑ, ɑː/ in particular) the contrast often surfaces as a contrast between a plain apical [l] (which corresponds to historical /rl/) and a velarized laminal [ɫ] (which corresponds to historical /l/).
^ abWhen the lateral is followed by a stressable vowel (i.e. any vowel other than /ə/) in a compound word, it is realized as non-velarized [l] regardless of the backness of the preceding vowel (as in Hordaland[ˈhɔ̂rdɑlɑn]), except when it occurs in a morpheme-final position. This means that the non-velarized allophone is more common than the velarized one.
^ abcdBefore /r/, the quality of non-high front vowels is changed: /eː/ and /ɛ/ lower to [æː] and [æ].
^ abcdThe distinction between compressed [ʉ] and protruded [y] is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
Norwegian compressed [ʉ] sounds very close to German compressed [ʏ] (as in müssen[ˈmʏsn̩]).
Norwegian protruded [ʏ] sounds more similar to English unrounded [ɪ] (as in hit) than to German compressed [ʏ], and it is very close to Swedish protruded [ʏ] (as in syll[sʏlː]).
Norwegian compressed [ʉː] sounds very close to German compressed [yː] (as in üben[ˈyːbn̩]).
Norwegian protruded [yː] sounds more similar to English unrounded [iː] (as in leave) than to German compressed [yː], and it is very close to Swedish protruded [yː] (as in syl[syːl]).
^ abc[ɑɪ, ɛɪ, ɔʏ] appear only in loanwords. [ɛɪ] is used only by some younger speakers, who contrast it with [æɪ]; speakers who do not have [ɛɪ] in their diphthong inventory replace it with [æɪ] (Kristoffersen (2000:19)).