Mid front unrounded vowel

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Mid front unrounded vowel
ɛ̝
IPA number 302 430
Encoding
Entity (decimal) e​̞
Unicode (hex) U+0065 U+031E
X-SAMPA e_o
Braille ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠣ (braille pattern dots-126)
Sound

The mid front unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. While there is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the exact mid front unrounded vowel between close-mid [e] and open-mid [ɛ], it is normally written ⟨e⟩. If precision is required, diacritics may be used, such as ⟨⟩ or ⟨ɛ̝⟩ (the former, indicating lowering, being more common). In Sinology and Koreanology⟩, (small capital E, U+1D07, ᴇ) is used sometimes.

For many languages that have only one phonemic front unrounded vowel in the mid-vowel area (i.e. neither close nor open), this vowel is pronounced as a true mid vowel, phonetically distinct from either a close-mid or open-mid vowel. Examples are Spanish, Romanian, Japanese, Korean, Greek and Turkish. A number of dialects of English also have such a mid front vowel. However, there is no general predisposition for this. Igbo, for example, has a close-mid [e], whereas Bulgarian has an open-mid [ɛ], even though neither language has another phonemic mid front vowel.

The Kensiu language spoken in Malaysia and Thailand is claimed to be unique in having true-mid vowels that are phonemically distinct from both close-mid and open-mid vowels without differences in other parameters such as backness or roundedness.[1]

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i • y
ɨ • ʉ
ɯ • u
ɪ • ʏ
ɪ̈ • ʊ̈
ɯ̽ • ʊ
e • ø
ɘ • ɵ
ɤ • o
 • ø̞
ə • ɵ̞
ɤ̞ • 
ɛ • œ
ɜ • ɞ
ʌ • ɔ
æ • 
ɐ • ɞ̞
a • ɶ
ä • ɒ̈
ɑ • ɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[2] [example needed] Contrasts close-mid /e/, true-mid /e̞/ and open-mid /ɛ/ front unrounded vowels.[2]
Czech Bohemian[3] led [lɛ̝̈t] 'ice' Near-front; may be open-mid [ɛ] instead.[3] See Czech phonology
Danish[4] Conservative[5] hæl [ˈhɛ̝ːˀl] 'heel' Realized as close-mid [] in contemporary standard Danish;[6][7] most often, it is transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛː⟩. See Danish phonology
Dutch Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[8] wel [β̞ɛ̝ɫ] 'well' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛ⟩. See Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect phonology
English Broad New Zealand[9] cat [kʰɛ̝t] 'cat' Lower in other New Zealand varieties;[9] corresponds to [æ] in other accents.
Cardiff[10] square [skwɛ̝ː] 'square' May be open-mid [ɛː] instead.[10]
Cultivated New Zealand[9] let [le̞t] 'let' Higher in other New Zealand varieties.[9] See New Zealand English phonology
Received Pronunciation[11] Many speakers pronounce a more open vowel [ɛ] instead. See English phonology
Inland Northern American[12] bit [bë̞t̚] 'bit' Near-front,[12][13] may be [ɪ] (also [ə] in Scotland) instead for other speakers. See Northern Cities vowel shift
Scottish[13] [bë̞ʔ]
Yorkshire[14] play [ple̞ː] 'play'
Estonian[15] keha [ˈke̞ɦɑ̝ˑ] 'body' See Estonian phonology
Finnish[16][17] menen [ˈme̞ne̞n] 'I go' See Finnish phonology
German Standard[18] Bett [bɛ̝̈t] 'bed' Near-front;[18] also described as open-mid front [ɛ].[19] See Standard German phonology
Bernese dialect[20] rède [ˈrɛ̝d̥ə] 'to speak' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛ⟩. See Bernese German phonology
Hebrew[21] כן [ke̞n] 'yes' Hebrew vowels are not shown in the script, see Niqqud and Modern Hebrew phonology
Hungarian[22] hét [he̞ːt̪] 'seven' Also described as close-mid [].[23] See Hungarian phonology
Ibibio[24] [sé̞] 'look'
Japanese[25] 笑み About this sound [e̞mʲi]  'smile' See Japanese phonology
Jebero[26] [ˈiʃë̞k] 'bat' Near-front; possible realization of /ɘ/.[26]
Korean[27] 베개 [pe̞ˈɡɛ] 'pillow' See Korean phonology
Limburgish Maastrichtian[28] bèd [bɛ̝t] 'bed' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛ⟩.
Weert dialect[29] zègke [ˈzɛ̝ɡə] 'to say'
Norwegian Standard Eastern[30] nett [ne̞tː] 'net' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛ⟩. See Norwegian phonology
Ripuarian Kerkrade dialect[31] birk [be̞ʁk] [translation needed] Allophone of /ɪ/ before /m, n, ŋ, l, ʁ/.[31]
Russian[32] человек [t͡ɕɪlɐˈvʲe̞k] 'human' Occurs only after soft consonants. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[33] питање /
pitanje
About this sound [pǐːt̪äːɲ̟e̞]  'question' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak Standard[23][34][35] behať [ˈbe̞ɦäc̟] 'to run' Backness varies between front and near-front.[35] See Slovak phonology
Slovene[36] velikan [ʋe̞liˈká̠ːn] 'giant' Unstressed vowel,[36] as well as an allophone of /e/ before /j/ when a vowel does not follow within the same word.[37] See Slovene phonology
Spanish[38] bebé [be̞ˈβ̞e̞] 'baby' See Spanish phonology
Swedish Central Standard[39] häll [hɛ̝l̪] 'flat rock' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛ⟩. Many dialects pronounce short /e/ and /ɛ/ the same. See Swedish phonology
Tera[40] ze [zè̞ː] 'spoke'
Turkish[41][42] ev [e̞v] 'house' See Turkish phonology
Upper Sorbian[43] njebjo [ˈɲ̟ɛ̝bʲɔ] 'sky' Allophone of /ɛ/ between soft consonants and after a soft consonant, excluding /j/ in both cases.[43] See Upper Sorbian phonology
Yoruba[44] [example needed] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛ̃⟩. It is nasalized, and may be open-mid [ɛ̃] instead.[44]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bishop, N. (1996). A preliminary description of Kensiw (Maniq) phonology. Mon–Khmer Studies Journal, 25.
  2. ^ a b Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  3. ^ a b Dankovičová (1999:72)
  4. ^ Uldall (1933), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:289)
  5. ^ Ladefoged & Johnson (2010:227)
  6. ^ Grønnum (1998:100)
  7. ^ Basbøll (2005:45)
  8. ^ Peters (2010:241)
  9. ^ a b c d Gordon & Maclagan (2004:609)
  10. ^ a b Collins & Mees (1990:95)
  11. ^ Roach (2004:242)
  12. ^ a b Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles (15 July 1997). "A National Map of the Regional Dialects of American English". Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved March 7, 2013. 
  13. ^ a b Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006:7)
  14. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999:179)
  15. ^ Asu & Teras (2009:368)
  16. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:60, 66)
  17. ^ Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008:21)
  18. ^ a b Kohler (1999:87)
  19. ^ Mangold (2005:37)
  20. ^ Marti (1985), p. ?.
  21. ^ Laufer (1999:98)
  22. ^ Szende (1994:92)
  23. ^ a b Kráľ (1988:92)
  24. ^ Urua (2004:106)
  25. ^ Okada (1991:94)
  26. ^ a b Valenzuela & Gussenhoven (2013:101)
  27. ^ Lee (1999:121)
  28. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:159)
  29. ^ Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998:107)
  30. ^ Vanvik (1979:13)
  31. ^ a b Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997:16)
  32. ^ Jones & Ward (1969:41)
  33. ^ Landau et al. (1999:67)
  34. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:375)
  35. ^ a b Pavlík (2004:93, 95)
  36. ^ a b Tatjana Srebot-Rejec. "On the vowel system in present-day Slovene" (PDF). 
  37. ^ Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999:138)
  38. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:256)
  39. ^ Engstrand (1999:140)
  40. ^ Tench (2007:230)
  41. ^ Zimmer & Orgun (1999:155)
  42. ^ Göksel & Kerslake (2005:10)
  43. ^ a b Šewc-Schuster (1984:34)
  44. ^ a b Bamgboṣe (1969:166)

Bibliography[edit]

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