Mid front unrounded vowel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Mid front unrounded vowel
IPA number 302 430
Entity (decimal) e​̞
Unicode (hex) U+0065 U+031E
Braille ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠣ (braille pattern dots-126)

The mid front unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. While there is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the exact mid front unrounded vowel between close-mid [e] and open-mid [ɛ], it is normally written e. If precision is required, diacritics may be used, such as or ɛ̝ (the former, indicating lowering, being more common). In Sinology and Koreanology , (small capital E, U+1D07, ᴇ) is used sometimes.

For many languages that have only one phonemic front unrounded vowel in the mid-vowel area (i.e. neither close nor open), this vowel is pronounced as a true mid vowel, phonetically distinct from either a close-mid or open-mid vowel. Examples are Spanish, Japanese, Korean, Greek and Turkish. A number of dialects of English also have such a mid front vowel. However, there is no general predisposition for this. Igbo, for example, has a close-mid [e], whereas Bulgarian has an open-mid [ɛ], even though neither language has another phonemic mid front vowel.

The Kensiu language spoken in Malaysia and Thailand is claimed to be unique in having true-mid vowels that are phonemically distinct from both close-mid and open-mid vowels without differences in other parameters such as backness or roundedness.[1]


IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Hejazi[2] ليش [le̞ːʃ] 'why' Typically transcribed /eː/.
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic h [he̞ː] 'yes' Usually shifted to [e] and [ɪ] in the Urmia and Jilu dialects.
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[3] [example needed]
Catalan Modern Alguerese[4] sec [se̞k] 'dry' /ɛ/ and /e/ merge into [e̞] in these dialects. See Catalan phonology
Czech Bohemian[5] led [lë̞t] 'ice' Near-front; may be open-mid [ɛ] instead.[5] See Czech phonology
Danish[6] Conservative[7] hæl [ˈhe̞ːˀl] 'heel' Described variously as close-mid [e][8][9][10][11][12] and open-mid [ɛ][13] in contemporary Standard Danish. Most often, it is transcribed [ɛ(ː)]. See Danish phonology
Dutch Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[14] wel [β̞e̞l] 'well' Typically transcribed in IPA as ɛ. See Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect phonology
English Cardiff[15] square [skwe̞ː] 'square' Corresponds to /ɛə/ in RP.
Received Pronunciation[16] let [le̞t] 'let' Corresponds to [ɛ] in other dialects. See English phonology
Inland Northern American[17] bit [bë̞t̚] 'bit' Near-front,[17][18] may be [ɪ] (also [ə] in Scotland) instead for other speakers. See Northern Cities vowel shift
Scottish[18] [bë̞ʔ]
Yorkshire[19] play [ple̞ː] 'play'
Estonian[20] keha [ˈke̞ɦɑ̝ˑ] 'body' See Estonian phonology
Finnish[21][22] menen [ˈme̞ne̞n] 'I go' See Finnish phonology
German Bernese dialect[23] rède [ˈre̞d̥ə] 'to speak' Typically transcribed in IPA as ɛ. See Bernese German phonology
Standard[24] Bett [bɛ̝̈t] 'bed' Near-front;[24] also described as open-mid front [ɛ].[25] See Standard German phonology
Greek φαινόμενο /
[fe̞ˈno̞me̞no̞] 'phenomenon' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew[26] כן [ke̞n] 'yes' Hebrew vowels are not shown in the script, see Niqqud and Modern Hebrew phonology
Hungarian[27] hét [he̞ːt̪] 'seven' See Hungarian phonology
Ibibio[28] [sé̞] 'look'
Italian Piedmont bene [ˈbe̞ːne̞] 'good' Corresponds to /ɛ/ and /e/ in standard Italian. See Italian phonology
Japanese[29] 笑み About this sound [e̞mʲi]  'smile' See Japanese phonology
Jebero[30] [ˈiʃë̞k] 'bat' Near-front; possible realization of /ɘ/.[30]
Korean[31] 베개 [pe̞ˈɡɛ] 'pillow' See Korean phonology
Limburgish Maastrichtian[32] bed [be̞t] 'bed' Typically transcribed in IPA as ɛ.
Weert dialect[33] zegke [ˈze̞ɡə] 'to say'
Norwegian Standard Eastern[34] nett [n̻e̞t̻ː] 'net' Typically transcribed in IPA as ɛ. See Norwegian phonology
Portuguese Brazilian energia [ẽ̞ne̞ɦˈʑi.ɐ] 'energy' Unstressed vowel.[35] See Portuguese phonology
Ripuarian Kerkrade dialect[36] birk [be̞ʁk] [translation needed] Allophone of /e/ before /m, n, ŋ, l, ʁ/.[36]
Romanian fete [ˈfe̞t̪e̞] 'girls' See Romanian phonology
Russian[37] человек [t͡ɕɪlɐˈvʲe̞k] 'human' Occurs only after soft consonants. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[38] питање /
About this sound [pǐːt̪äːɲ̟e̞]  'question' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak Standard[39][40][41] behať [ˈbe̞ɦäc̟] 'to run' Backness varies between front and near-front.[41] See Slovak phonology
Slovene[42] velikan [ʋe̞liˈká̠ːn] 'giant' Unstressed vowel,[42] as well as an allophone of /e/ before /j/ when a vowel does not follow within the same word.[43] See Slovene phonology
Spanish[44] bebé [be̞ˈβ̞e̞] 'baby' See Spanish phonology
Swedish Central Standard[45] häll [he̞l̪] 'flat rock' Typically transcribed in IPA as ɛ. Many dialects pronounce short /e/ and /ɛ/ the same. See Swedish phonology
Tagalog daliri [dɐˈliɾe̞] 'finger' See Tagalog phonology
Tera[46] ze [zè̞ː] 'spoke'
Turkish[47][48] ev [e̞v] 'house' See Turkish phonology
Upper Sorbian[49] njebjo [ˈɲ̟e̞bʲɔ] 'sky' Allophone of /ɛ/ between soft consonants and after a soft consonant, excluding /j/ in both cases.[49] See Upper Sorbian phonology
Võro [example needed]
West Frisian[50] ik [e̞k] 'I' Also described as close-mid [e];[51] typically transcribed in IPA as ɪ. See West Frisian phonology
Yoruba[52] [example needed] Typically transcribed in IPA as ɛ̃. It is nasalized, and may be open-mid [ɛ̃] instead.[52]


  1. ^ Bishop, N. (1996). A preliminary description of Kensiw (Maniq) phonology. Mon–Khmer Studies Journal, 25.
  2. ^ Jarrah, Mohamed Ali Saleh (1993)
  3. ^ Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  4. ^ a b Recasens (1996:59-60)
  5. ^ a b Dankovičová (1999:72)
  6. ^ Uldall (1933), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:289)
  7. ^ Ladefoged & Johnson (2010:227)
  8. ^ Grønnum (1998:100)
  9. ^ Grønnum (2005:268)
  10. ^ Grønnum (2003)
  11. ^ Basbøll (2005:45)
  12. ^ "John Wells's phonetic blog: Danish". 5 November 2010. Retrieved 11 March 2015. 
  13. ^ Allan, Holmes & Lundskær-Nielsen (2000:17)
  14. ^ Peters (2010:241)
  15. ^ Coupland (1990:95)
  16. ^ Roach (2004:242)
  17. ^ a b Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles (15 July 1997). "A National Map of the Regional Dialects of American English". Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved March 7, 2013. 
  18. ^ a b Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006:7)
  19. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999:179)
  20. ^ Asu & Teras (2009:368)
  21. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:60, 66)
  22. ^ Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008:21)
  23. ^ Marti (1985), p. ?.
  24. ^ a b Kohler (1999:87)
  25. ^ Mangold (2005:37)
  26. ^ Laufer (1999:98)
  27. ^ Szende (1994:92)
  28. ^ Urua (2004:106)
  29. ^ Okada (1991:94)
  30. ^ a b Valenzuela & Gussenhoven (2013:101)
  31. ^ Lee (1999:121)
  32. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:159)
  33. ^ Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998:107)
  34. ^ Vanvik (1979:13)
  35. ^ Corresponds to /ɛ/, or /ɨ/ and /i/ (where Brazilian dialects have [i ~ ɪ ~ e̞]), in other national variants. May be lowered to [ɛ̝ ~ ɛ] in amazofonia, nordestino, mineiro (MG) and fluminense (RJ) if not nasalized ([ẽ̞] does not corresponds to phoneme //), or be raised and merged to /e/ in sulista, paulistano, caipira and sertanejo.
  36. ^ a b Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997:16)
  37. ^ Jones & Ward (1969:41)
  38. ^ Landau et al. (1999:67)
  39. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:375)
  40. ^ Kráľ (1988:92)
  41. ^ a b Pavlík (2004:93, 95)
  42. ^ a b Tatjana Srebot-Rejec. "On the vowel system in present-day Slovene" (PDF). 
  43. ^ Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999:138)
  44. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:256)
  45. ^ Engstrand (1999:140)
  46. ^ Tench (2007:230)
  47. ^ Zimmer & Orgun (1999:155)
  48. ^ Göksel & Kerslake (2005:10)
  49. ^ a b Šewc-Schuster (1984:34)
  50. ^ Sipma (1913:10)
  51. ^ Tiersma (1999:10)
  52. ^ a b Bamgboṣe (1969:166)


  • Allan, Robin; Holmes, Philip; Lundskær-Nielsen, Tom (2000), Danish: An Essential Grammar, London: Routledge, ISBN 0-19-824268-9 
  • Asu, Eva Liina; Teras, Pire (2009), "Estonian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 39 (3): 367–372, doi:10.1017/s002510030999017x 
  • Bamgboṣe, Ayọ (1966), A Grammar of Yoruba, [West African Languages Survey / Institute of African Studies], Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 
  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5 
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003), The Phonetics of English and Dutch, Fifth Revised Edition (PDF), ISBN 9004103406 
  • Coupland, Nikolas (1990), English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, p. 95, ISBN 1-85359-032-0 
  • Dankovičová, Jana (1999), "Czech", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 70–74, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 140–142, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Göksel, Asli; Kerslake, Celia (2005), Turkish: a comprehensive grammar (PDF), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415114943, archived from the original (PDF) on 26 November 2014 
  • Grønnum, Nina (1998), "Illustrations of the IPA: Danish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28 (1 & 2): 99–105, doi:10.1017/s0025100300006290 
  • Grønnum, Nina (2003), Why are the Danes so hard to understand? 
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association (University of Nijmegen, Centre for Language Studies) 29: 155–166, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006526 
  • Hanulíková, Adriana; Hamann, Silke (2010), "Slovak" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 40 (3): 373–378, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000162 
  • Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28: 107–112, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006307 
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), "Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (1): 59–71, doi:10.1017/S002510030500191X 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Kohler, Klaus J. (1999), "German", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 86–89, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Kráľ, Ábel (1988), Pravidlá slovenskej výslovnosti, Bratislava: Slovenské pedagogické nakladateľstvo 
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8. 
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Johnson, Keith (2010), A Course in Phonetics (6th ed.), Boston, Massachusetts: Wadsworth Publishing, ISBN 978-1-4282-3126-9 
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarića, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Laufer, Asher (1999), "Hebrew", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, pp. 96–99 
  • Lee, Hyun Bok (1999), "Korean", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 120–122, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden, p. 37, ISBN 9783411040667 
  • Marti, Werner (1985), Berndeutsch-Grammatik, Bern: Francke, ISBN 3-7720-1587-5 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Okada, Hideo (1991), "Japanese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 21 (2): 94–96, doi:10.1017/S002510030000445X 
  • Pavlík, Radoslav (2004), "Slovenské hlásky a medzinárodná fonetická abeceda" (PDF), Jazykovedný časopis 55: 87–109 
  • Peters, Jörg (2010), "The Flemish–Brabant dialect of Orsmaal–Gussenhoven", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 40 (2): 239–246, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000083 
  • Roach, Peter (2004), "British English: Received Pronunciation", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 239–245, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001768 
  • Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn (1999), A Course in Phonology, Blackwell Publishing 
  • Scobbie, James M; Gordeeva, Olga B.; Matthews, Benjamin (2006), Acquisition of Scottish English Phonology: an overview, Edinburgh: QMU Speech Science Research Centre Working Papers 
  • Šewc-Schuster, Hinc (1984), Gramatika hornjo-serbskeje rěče, Budyšin: Ludowe nakładnistwo Domowina 
  • Sipma, Pieter (1913), Phonology & grammar of modern West Frisian, London: Oxford University Press 
  • Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997) [1987], Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (2nd ed.), Kerkrade: Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer, ISBN 90-70246-34-1 
  • Suomi, Kari; Toivanen, Juhani; Ylitalo, Riikka (2008), Finish sound structure, ISBN 978-951-42-8983-5 
  • Šuštaršič, Rastislav; Komar, Smiljana; Petek, Bojan (1999), "Slovene", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 135–139, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Szende, Tamás (1994), "Hungarian", Journal of the International Phonetic Alphabet 24 (2): 91–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005090 
  • Tench, Paul (2007), "Tera", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (1): 228–234, doi:10.1017/s0025100307002952 
  • Tiersma, Peter Meijes (1999) [First published 1985 in Dordrecht by Foris Publications], Frisian Reference Grammar (2nd ed.), Ljouwert: Fryske Akademy, ISBN 90-6171-886-4 
  • Traunmüller, Hartmut (1982), "Vokalismus in der westniederösterreichischen Mundart.", Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik 2: 289–333, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006290 
  • Uldall, Hans Jørgen (1933), A Danish Phonetic Reader, The London phonetic readers, London: University of London Press 
  • Urua, Eno-Abasi E. (2004), "Ibibio", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 105–109, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001550 
  • Valenzuela, Pilar M.; Gussenhoven, Carlos (2013), "Shiwilu (Jebero)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 43 (1): 97–106, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000370 
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetik, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6 
  • Zimmer, Karl; Orgun, Orhan (1999), "Turkish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet (PDF), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 154–158, ISBN 0-521-65236-7