Anal language

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Native toIndia and Burma
RegionSoutheast Manipur
EthnicityAnal people
Native speakers
120,000 (2011 census)[1]
  • Langet?
Language codes
ISO 639-3anm
qfs Langet

Anal, also known as Namfau after the two principal villages it is spoken in, is a Northern Naga language, part of the Sino-Tibetan language family, spoken by the Anal people in India and a dwindling number in Burma. It had 83,000 speakers in India according to the 2001 census, and 55000 in Burma in 2010.[1] It has two principal dialects, Laizo and Malshom, and is closest to Lamkang. The language of wider communication is Meithei. Langet may be a dialect, though its position within Kukish is uncertain (Shafer 1955:106).[needs update] Anal is written in the Latin script,[4] with a literacy rate of about 87%.[1]


The Namfau (Anal Naga) language started to be written down in the 19-20th century.

Geographical distribution[edit]

Anal is spoken in Chandel district, southeastern Manipur, on the banks of the Chakpi River in Chandel, Chakpikarong, and Tangnoupal subdivisions (Ethnologue).


The Latin alphabet is used. It consists of 26 letters.


The following vocabulary exemplifies words in the language.[5]

Anal gloss Anal gloss
khol 'deep hole'; 'social division' ahno 'kind of short skirt'
lunguin 'kind of long shawl' zupar 'rice beer'
piruili 'elopement' Jol min 'bride price'
ithin 'divorce' sinnuperu 'adultery'
pakum 'hearth' mote 'first-born'
kopu 'second-born' cakhow 'brown rice'
khon 'fifty rupees' thunlon 'grave'
dao 'kind of iron blade' shingkho 'plate'
vopum 'basket' athiru 'kind of marble necklace'
akarfo 'kind of China necklace' sanamba 'kind of fiddle'
tilli 'kind of flageolet' tuklee 'kind of loom'


  1. ^ a b c Anal at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ DeLancey, Scott; Krishna Boro; Linda Konnerth1; Amos Teo. 2015. Tibeto-Burman Languages of the Indo-Myanmar borderland. 31st South Asian Languages Analysis Roundtable, 14 May 2015
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Anal". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ Bareh 2007, p. 120
  5. ^ Bareh 2007, pp. 119–128