Outline of marketing

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to marketing:



Marketing – the social and managerial processes by which products, services, and value are exchanged in order to fulfill individuals' or groups' needs and wants. These processes include, but are not limited to, advertising, promotion, distribution, and product management.

Core concepts in marketing[edit]

Actors and relationships[edit]

Needs, wants and demand[edit]

A need is something required for a healthy life. A want is a desire or a wish. When needs and wants are backed by purchasing power, they have the potential to become demands.

Nature of exchange[edit]

Perceptions of value[edit]

Foundation economic concepts[edit]

Given that marketing has its roots in economics, it shares many foundation concepts with that discipline.

Planning levels and planning tools[edit]

Planning levels[edit]

Marketing planning is just one facet of the overall company's plans. Marketing plans therefore should be guided by the overall strategic plan. The distinction between strategic planning and managment planning is that they are two phases with different goals. Strategic planning is fundamentally concerned with the policies that will improve the firm's competitive position. On the other hand, marketing management is focused on the implementation of specific action plans designed to achieve objective targets. Strategic planning is sometimes called higher-order planning.

Marketing strategies[edit]

Growth strategies[edit]

Marketing warfare strategies[edit]

Planning tools and techniques[edit]

Analytical techniques used in marketing planning and strategy development[edit]

Techniques used in strategic planning[edit]

Techniques used in positioning analysis[edit]

Branches of Marketing[edit]

The book titled, The Marketing Book, 7th ed., Routledge, Oxon, UK, 2016 edited by Michael J. Baker and Susan Hart identifies the distinct branches of marketing practice as consumer marketing, Business-to-business marketing, relationship marketing, environmental marketing, international marketing, services marketing (including not-for-profit marketing and destination marketing), retailing and social marketing. For a more detailed breakdown of the relevant topics for each of these key themes, see Branches of Marketing: Detailed Topics on this page.

Marketing orientations[edit]

Marketing orientations are the philosophies or mindsets that guide and shape marketing planning and marketing practice.

The marketing management framework[edit]

Consumer behaviour[edit]

Consumer basics[edit]

Consumer decision-making[edit]

Influences on consumer decision-making[edit]

Market research and marketing research[edit]

Marketing research refers to research activities designed to understand the marketing environment, including competitors, the socio-cultural environment and the politico-legal operating environment. Market research specifically refers to research concerned with understanding the market, that is consumers and is designed to yield actionable consumer insights.

Specific research tools and techniques[edit]

Scale/Questionnaire Design[edit]

Quantitative research methods[edit]

Quantitative methods may also be known as [Scientific method]]s.

Qualitative research methods[edit]


Market segmentation and targeting[edit]

List of abbreviations for market segments

Market segmentation[edit]

Specific approaches to segmenting markets[edit]
(a) Segmenting consumer markets
(b) Segmenting business or industrial markets
Measuring market segment size[edit]


Proprietary segmentation databases and software[edit]

Statistical techniques used in segmentation analysis[edit]

Marketing management: The marketing program (also known as the marketing mix or the 4 Ps)[edit]

The marketing program, also known as the marketing mix or the 4 ps consists of the product, price, place and promotion.


New product development (NPD)[edit]

Brand management[edit]

Branding strategies[edit]

Brand protection[edit]

Packaging and labelling[edit]

New product development[edit]


Pricing strategies[edit]

Pricing tactics[edit]

Place (distribution)[edit]

The following methods are prohibited in most nations:

Promotion (also known as marketing communications or integrated marketing communications (IMC))[edit]

Elements of the promotional mix[edit]


Advertising models: How does advertising work?[edit]

Advertising research[edit]
Advertising Media[edit]
Award-winning advertising campaigns[edit]
Main types of internet promotion
E-mail spam, e-mail marketing, post-click marketing, Website monetizing, Search engine marketing (SEM), search engine optimization (SEO), Display advertising, * Contextual advertising
Internet advertising methods
Advertising methods: Ad filtering, ad serving, central ad server, pop-up ad, contextual advertising, web banner
Search engine marketing payment methods
pay per click, click fraud, paid inclusion
Internet metrics
Click through rate (CTR), cost per action (CPA), cost per click (CPC), cost per impression (CPI), cost per mille (CPM), effective cost per mille (eCPM)


Direct and digital marketing[edit]

Personal selling[edit]

Sales promotion[edit]

Public relations[edit]


Communications planning[edit]

Measuring communications effects[edit]

The extended marketing mix[edit]

The extended marketing mix is used in the marketing of services, ideas and customer experiences and typically refers to a model of 7 Ps and includes the original 4 Ps plus process, physical evidence and people. Some texts use a model of 8 Ps and include performance level (service quality) as an 8th P.


Physical evidence[edit]


Measuring marketing performance: Marketing metrics[edit]

Special topics in marketing[edit]

Branches of Marketing: Detailed topics[edit]

Business Marketing[edit]

Environmental marketing[edit]

International marketing[edit]

Relationship marketing[edit]

Services Marketing[edit]

Social marketing[edit]


Types of retailer[edit]

Types of retail outlet and shopping precincts[edit]

Special applications of marketing and promotion[edit]


Influential marketing thinkers[edit]

  • Wroe Alderson (1898-1965) - proponent of marketing science and instrumental in developing the functional school of marketing
  • Igor Ansoff (1918-2002)
  • David Aaker - highly awarded educator and author in the area of marketing and organisational theory
  • Leonard Berry (professor) - author and educator with strong interest in health marketing and relationshp marketing
  • Neil H. Borden (1922-1962) - coined the term, 'marketing mix'
  • Clayton Christensen - educator, author and consultant, published in the areas of innovation and entrpreneurship
  • George S. Day - author and educator; has published in the area of strategic marketing
  • Ernest Dichter (1907-1991) - pioneer of motivational research
  • Andrew S. C. Ehrenberg (1926-2010) - made contributions to the methodology of data collection, analysis and presentation, and to understanding buyer behaviour and how advertising works
  • Edward Filene (1860-1937) - early pioneer of modern retailing methods
  • Seth Godin - Popular author, entrepreneur, public speaker and marketer
  • Paul E. Green -academic and author; the founder of conjoint analysis and popularised the use of multidimensional scaling, clustering, and analysis of qualitative data in marketing.
  • Shelby D. Hunt -former editor of the Journal of Marketing and organisational theorist
  • John E. Jeuck (1916-2009) - early marketing educator
  • Philip Kotler (1931-) - popularised the managerial approach to marketing; prolific author
  • E. St. Elmo Lewis - developed the AIDA model used in sales and advertising
  • Christopher Lovelock (1940-2008) - author of many books and articles on services marketing
  • Theodore Levitt (1925-2006) - former editor of Harvard Business Review, prolific author of marketing articles and famed for his article, "Marketing Myopia"
  • E. Jerome McCarthy - popularised the managerial approach and developed the concept of the 4Ps
  • David Ogilvy (businessman) - advertising guru, early pioneer of market positioning
  • Vance Packard - journalist and author, wrote The Hidden Persuaders (1957) which explored the use of motivational research in marketing practice
  • Charles Coolidge Parlin(1872-1942) - pioneer of market and advertising research methods
  • Rosser Reeves - advertising guru; advocate of frequency
  • Al Ries - advertising executive, author and credited with coining the term, 'positioning' in the late 1960s
  • Arch Wilkinson Shaw (1876-1962) - early management theorist, proponent of the scientific approach to marketing
  • Henry Charles Taylor (1873-1969) - the agricultural marketer
  • Richard S. Tedlow - author and educatator; published in the area of marketing history
  • Jack Trout - together with Al Ries, popularised the positioning concept
  • Don E. Schultz - father of 'integrated marketing'
  • Stephen Vargo- together with R.F. Lusch developed the service-dominant approach to marketing
  • Henry Grady Weaver (1889-1949) - developed the survey questionnaire for use in market research
  • Jerry (Yoram) Wind - former editor of the Journal of Marketing, educator and marketer
  • Byron Sharp - N.Z. academic; one of the first to document buyer loyalty in empirical work
  • Daniel Starch - developed the so-called Starch scores to measure impact of magazine advertising; Starch scores are still in use
  • Gerald Zaltman - developed the Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET)
  • Valarie Zeithaml - together with A. Parasurman and L.L. Berry, developed the model of service quality and the SERVQUAL instrument

Influential trade magazines and academic journals[edit]

Marketing & advertising associations, societies and peak industry associations[edit]

Archives, museums and galleries (dedicated to marketing and/or advertising)[edit]


Marketing education[edit]

There is a marketing group call list marketing group

External links[edit]