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Pema Khandu

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Pema Khandu
Khandu in 2016
9th Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh
Assumed office
17 July 2016
GovernorJyoti Prasad Rajkhowa
Tathagata Roy
V. Shanmuganathan
Padmanabha Acharya
B. D. Mishra
Kaiwalya Trivikram Parnaik
DeputyChowna Mein
Preceded byNabam Tuki
Member of Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
Assumed office
Preceded byDorjee Khandu
Leader of the House in the Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
Assumed office
17 July 2016
DeputyChowna Mein
Preceded byNabam Tuki
Personal details
Born (1979-08-21) 21 August 1979 (age 44)
Tawang, Arunachal Pradesh, India
Political partyBharatiya Janata Party (since 2016)[1]
Other political
Children4 (2 sons and 2 daughter)
RelativesDorjee Khandu (father)
Tsering Tashi (brother)
Residence(s)Tawang and Itanagar
Alma materHindu College, University of Delhi
Source: [[2]]

Pema Khandu (born 21 August 1979) is an Indian politician and the Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh. He is the son of former Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh Dorjee Khandu. Since assuming the office of the Chief Minister in July 2016, he and his government have twice changed their party affiliation; in September from the Indian National Congress to the Peoples Party of Arunachal,[3] and then in December 2016 to the Bharatiya Janata Party.[4] Previously he had served as Minister of Tourism, Urban Development and Water Resources in Nabam Tuki's government.[2]

Personal life[edit]

Khandu is the eldest son of former Chief Minister Dorjee Khandu, who died in a helicopter accident on 30 April 2011 on a constituency visit to Tawang. He is a graduate from Hindu College (Delhi University).[5] Khandu is a Buddhist by religion.[6] He has two sons and two daughters.

Pema Khandu hails from the Monpa tribe, an indigenous community primarily residing in the Tawang district of Arunachal Pradesh, India.[7] The Monpas are known for their rich cultural heritage, which includes vibrant festivals, traditional dance forms, and unique rituals.

Early life and education[edit]

Pema Khandu, the Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh, India, was born on August 21, 1979, in Tawang. He attended Government Secondary School in Bomba, Tawang, where he completed his schooling in 1995. Subsequently, he pursued his higher secondary education at Donyi-Polo Vidya Bhawan in Itanagar, completing it in 1997.[8]

His academic journey took a significant turn when he enrolled at Hindu College, Delhi University, to pursue a Bachelor of Arts (Honors) in History. In 2000, he successfully graduated, marking the completion of his formal education.[9] His educational background significantly influenced his perspective and laid the foundation for his subsequent political career.


Indian National Congress[edit]

Post his father's death, Khandu was included in the state government as Cabinet Minister for Water Resource Development and Tourism.[10][11] He won the by election to his father's constituency uncontested Mukto on 30 June 2011 as an Indian National Congress candidate.[12][13]

Khandu became a secretary of the Arunachal Pradesh Congress Committee in 2005 and the Tawang District Congress Committee president in 2010.[2] He was elected Congress Legislature Party leader on 16 July 2016 replacing Nabam Tuki.[14]

Khandu was re-elected unopposed from Mukto in the 2014 Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly election.[15]

Khandu took the oath as the chief minister of Arunachal Pradesh on 17 July 2016 at the age of 36 years following a year-long political crisis.

Peoples Party of Arunachal[edit]

On 16 September 2016, 43 MLAs from the ruling party, under the CM Pema Khandu, defected from Indian National Congress to People's Party of Arunachal, an ally of Bharatiya Janata Party.[16]

Bharatiya Janata Party[edit]

On 21 December 2016 in a high octane drama Khandu was suspended from the party by the party president and Takam Pario was named as the next likely Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh replacing Khandu after People's Party of Arunachal suspended Khandu along with 6 other MLAs.[17][18][19]

In December 2016, Khandu proved majority on the floor of the house with 33 of the People's Party of Arunachal’s 43 legislators joining the Bharatiya Janata Party as the BJP increased its strength to 45 with support of two independents as it had 11 MLAs already. He became second Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh of Bharatiya Janata Party in Arunachal Pradesh after 44 days Gegong Apang led government in 2003.[20][21]

In 2019 Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly election, Khandu won a landslide victory for Bharatiya Janata Party by winning 41 of 60 seats and its allies Janata Dal (United) with 7 states and National People's Party won 4 seats. Khandu took oath as Arunachal Pradesh Chief Minister on 29 May 2019.[22]

Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh[edit]

Taking Office[edit]

Pema Khandu assumed office as the Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh on July 17, 2016. State's administrative landscape saw a transformation with inclusive and transparent governance.[23][24]

Special Campaigns[edit]

In 2018, the government of Arunachal Pradesh initiated the "Arunachal Rising Campaign" to highlight key state and central flagship programs at the grassroots level.[25][26] Since its inception, extensive efforts have been undertaken in the remotest corners of each district to raise awareness among the beneficiaries.

The Chief Minister visited every district, addressing mass public rallies during the Jan Sampark Yatra.[27] During these rallies, ASHA members, Anganwadi workers, and progressive farmers were honored, while Gram Preraks (Publicity Agents) were appointed for each CD Block to disseminate information about state and central government flagship programs in villages where awareness was lacking.[28] As part of this comprehensive campaign, teachers from secondary and higher secondary schools were designated as communicators to share information about government flagship programs and sensitize school children under the "Chief Minister's Youth Outreach Programme".[29][27] This concerted effort aimed to ensure that the benefits of various schemes reached even the most remote areas of the state.

Sarkar Aapke Dwaar[edit]

Introduced in 2018, Sarkar Aapke Dwar (Government at Your Doorstep) stands as Arunachal Pradesh government's expansive initiative for public outreach and grievance redressal. Led by Deputy Commissioners at the district level, the program entails Jan-Sunwai camps in blocks and panchayats on the first day of each month, addressing and resolving people's grievances on the spot.[30] This initiative has now been termed as 'Seva Apke Dwar'.[31]

The primary objective of Jan-Sunwai Sammelan is to streamline government services, offering citizens hassle-free access. Services encompass Aadhaar enrollment, e-ILP, Schedule Tribe certificates, Residence certificates, Income certificates, Driving licenses, renewal of arms and weapons licenses, new account opening, distribution of items under the Ujala Yojana, and various other government programs, ensuring a comprehensive and efficient service delivery during the initiative.[32][33]

Hamara Arunachal Abhiyan[edit]

Launched on October 2, 2019, the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, Hamara Arunachal Abhiyan is a comprehensive mass campaign initiated by the Government of Arunachal Pradesh. This campaign unfolds through a series of programs aimed at fostering a robust police-public partnership and dispelling social stigmas associated with the police force. The overarching goal is to engage all segments of society in maintaining law and order, fostering a sense of security and confidence among entrepreneurs, investors, and tourists.[34][35]

Embedded within Hamara Arunachal Abhiyan are various sub-campaigns, each addressing specific social issues affecting the people of the state. These initiatives strive to oversee and investigate diverse challenges, contributing to a more inclusive and secure environment for Arunachal Pradesh.[36]

Chief Minister Arogya Arunachal Yojana[edit]

Launched in 2018, the Chief Minister Aarogya Arunachal Yojana, aligned with the Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana, focuses on providing healthcare to economically disadvantaged tribal communities in Arunachal Pradesh.[37] Offering cashless services up to Rs 5 lakh per household member for Secondary and Tertiary Care, the scheme covers 23 treatment processes. As of May 2022, it has benefited about 1,14,193 families and 4,91,458 individuals.[38] Empanelled hospitals include R.K Mission Hospital, TRIHMS, Bakin Pertin Government Hospital, and 32 other government hospitals. The Itanagar Capital Region leads in enrollment, and CHC Pakke Kessang recently joined the program.[39]

Work as Chief Minister[edit]

Over the past seven years, from 2016 to 2023, Arunachal Pradesh has witnessed notable infrastructure augumentation.[40] This development includes the expansion of road networks, the establishment of modern facilities, and enhancements in essential services.[41][42]

Infrastructre Development: Roads and Highways[edit]

A total of 50,555 km of roads now span Arunachal Pradesh, marking a 64% increase in the past 7 years from 30,692 km in 2016.[43] The road construction pace soared over 9 times, averaging almost 2,838 km per year—significantly surpassing the 300 km average built in the previous 70 years.[44] Road density in Arunachal Pradesh rose by 65% in the last 7 years,[45] increasing from 36.65 km to 60.36 km per 100 km2.

Over the same period, National Highways (NH) expanded to 2,482 km, a 138% total length increase in Arunachal Pradesh—more than doubling the network.[46] The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH) has granted an additional INR 44,000 Cr to construct 2,857 km of National Highway in the next 5 years.[47][48]

Two crucial national highways, the Arunachal Frontier Highway and the Trans-Arunachal Highway, have been commissioned in Arunachal Pradesh.[49][50] A substantial segment of the 1,600 km Trans-Arunachal Highway project is already accomplished.[51]

Seven highway projects, covering a combined length of 385.38 km, have reached completion.[52] The initial phase of the Itanagar to Banderdewa NH is concluded, and efforts on Package B & C will gain momentum shortly.[53] The construction of 2,506 km of roads in border areas has connected 252 habitations in recent years.[54] BRO is managing five infrastructure projects in Arunachal Pradesh, with Sela Tunnel and Nechiphu Tunnel set for completion this year.[55][56]

Road connectivity has been extended to two remote administrative circles—Vijoynagar on the Indo-Myanmar border and Tali on the Indo-Tibetan border.[57] The state government inaugurated 365 physical infrastructure projects within the Golden Jubilee year period between January 20, 2022, and January 20, 2023.[58] Over the last 7 years, Arunachal Pradesh has enhanced connectivity by constructing river bridges, including the Suspension Bridge over River Siang, Steel Arch Bridge over River Yangne, Bridge over River Kabung, RCC bridge over Sille River, and Bridge over Namchik River.[59][60]

Over the last 7 years, various disconnected locations have been linked through the construction of bridges over rivers, including a motorable suspension bridge over River Siang in the Upper Siang district,[61] a steel arch bridge over River Yamne at Parak,[62] a bridge over River Kabung on the Dosing Pareng-Yibuk-Ligging road, an RCC bridge over Sille River on Mirem, Mikong, Jonai Road, and a bridge over Namchik River to connect Hetlong village.[63]

Under the National Master Plan (NMP) Portal, 24+ data layers have been mapped, and a PM Gati Shakti Data Centre has been established in Itanagar.[64] Additionally, Empowered Group of Secretaries (EGoS), Network Planning Group (NPG), and Technical Support Unit (TSU) have been formed under the same.


Progress has been achieved in key health indicators in Arunachal Pradesh, according to the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 2020-21 compared to 2015–16. The Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) has seen a substantial decrease from 22.9 to 12.9, representing the most significant drop in the country since NFHS-4.[65] Noteworthy improvements include a rise in institutional deliveries from 52.2% to 79.2%.[66]

Arunachal Pradesh has maintained an impressive 99% Covid recovery rate, marking one of the lowest fatality rates in India.[67]

In addressing the Human Resource gap in the health sector, the state has successfully reduced it from 34% to 6% within 2021–2023. This accomplishment positions Arunachal Pradesh as one of the best health-human resourced states.[68] The Health Department is currently spearheading a comprehensive infrastructure upgrade initiative. Eighteen District Hospitals and 2 CHCs are undergoing rejuvenation, and Intensive Care Units and Paediatric Care Units are being established at 11 locations.[69] This initiative aims to bolster the capacity of ICU, Paediatric ICU, and High Dependency Unit Oxygen beds.[70]

Furthermore, sixty identified PHCs/CHCs (one each in every Constituency) are undergoing transformation into Golden Jubilee PHCs/CHCs, adhering to basic Indian Public Health Standards.[71] The Bakin Pertin General Hospital (BPGH) in Pasighat, one of the state's oldest hospitals, is undergoing a transformation into a state-of-the-art 300-bed hospital. Approval for a 50-bed Critical Care Block through PM ABHIM has also been granted for BPGH Pasighat.[72]


Arunachal Pradesh observed the year 2021-22 as the 'Year of Education'[73] and introduced 'Mission Shiksha' to emphasize the significance of education in individual and societal development.[74][75] Notably, the male and female literacy rates in 2021 have shown improvement, reaching 73.69% and 59.57%, respectively, compared to 2011 figures of 63.83% and 43.53%.

Government initiatives, including enhanced school infrastructure and accessible free education, have led to a consistent rise in enrollment in Government schools to 2.15 lakh over the past three years, up from 1.5 to 1.8 lakh during 2016–17.[76] Furthermore, the Central Board of Secondary Examination (CBSE) results indicate progress, with Class X pass rates improving from 57.74% in 2016 to 65.55% in 2021, and Class XII pass rates surging from 51.44% to 91.73% during the same period.[77][78]

In a recent development aimed at improving learning outcomes in over 3,000 government schools, a memorandum of understanding was signed between the Government of Arunachal Pradesh, NITI Aayog, and the Reach to Teach Foundation.[79][80] The state has also witnessed a significant reduction in the school dropout rate, dropping to below 2.3% in 2021–22, well below the national average, compared to 9% in 2016–17.[81]

The government allocated a special grant of INR 500 Cr for the development of 50 model schools, designed as Golden Jubilee Schools adhering to global standards in teaching pedagogy, infrastructure, and extracurricular facilities.[82][83] As of 2021–22, Arunachal Pradesh boasts a total of 3,603 schools, including 2,944 government schools and 659 government-aided and private schools.

Under the Samagra Shiksha initiative, 840 Early Childhood Care Centers (ECCE) have been established, and vocational education in the fields of Tourism & Hospitality and IT has been introduced in higher secondary schools. Additionally, 118 government upper primary schools have been upgraded under the Building as Learning Aid (BaLA) Scheme, focusing on foundational and numeracy skills, with plans to cover more schools.[84][85]

A positive shift has been observed in pre-primary education, with the availability of pre-primary classes in schools increasing from 3% in 2016 to 27% in 2022. Furthermore, the establishment of 50 Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV) for girls and 12 Ekalavya Model Residential Schools (EMRS) has strengthened educational opportunities in the state.[86]

In a move toward digital monitoring and enhancing learning outcomes, the Vidya Samiksha Kendra has been established, drawing inspiration from Gujarat's model.[87] The Vidya Samiksha Kendra database system, currently active, maintains information about teachers and students, with ongoing efforts to integrate various NDEAR compliant portals for comprehensive monitoring.


Arunachal Pradesh has implemented impactful agricultural initiatives, exemplified by the 'Atma Nirbhar Krishi Yojana,' providing front-end subsidies to over 10,000 farmers and Self-Help Groups, covering an extensive 3,000 hectares.[88][89] 99,656 farmers are provided an income support of INR 143 Cr from the GoI under PM Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN) scheme. Additionally, the state achieved 99.26% saturation in issuing over 96,492 Kisan Credit Cards (KCC) through a single window system by January 2023.[90] The National Food Security Mission facilitated a remarkable 30% increase in wheat yield from 1,510 kg to 1,970 kg per hectare between 2013–14 and 2019–20. Furthermore, Arunachal Pradesh strategically embraced The National Mission on Edible Oils - Oil Palm (NMEO-OP), covering 4,246 hectares and signing MoUs for two oil palm manufacturing units.[91][92]

Initiatives like Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) and the Sub-Mission on Agricultural Mechanization (SMAM) have significantly expanded micro and protective irrigation, benefiting 27,943 farmers. The irrigation potential created through Surface Micro Irrigation scheme is 26,700+ ha with 27,300+ poor and marginal tribal farmer beneficiaries. Soil health management is prioritized with the issuance of nearly 1,07,170 Soil Health Cards.[93]


Arunachal Pradesh has undertaken impactful initiatives in horticulture, notably through the 'Atma Nirbhar Bagwani Yojana,' providing financial assistance to over 3,500 farmers and 350 Self-Help Groups for new plantations spanning 2,300 hectares, featuring diverse crops like apple, kiwi, persimmon, and more.[89] The Mission Organic Value Chain Development (MOVCD) has certified over 13,110 hectares under NPOP, supporting 15,000+ farmers in the organic production, processing, and marketing of produce.[93] The state has achieved remarkable distinctions, ranking first in kiwi production,[94] second in Large Cardamom production in India,[95] and emerging as the largest producer of Khasi Mandarin Oranges, with exports to the UAE.[96] Arunachal Pradesh stands out as the first Indian state to obtain Organic Certification for Kiwi fruit.[97]

The Area Expansion Programme, encompassing 8,500 hectares, focuses on crops like kiwi, orange, large cardamom, walnut, apple, and medicinal plants, benefiting around 8,500 farmers. Noteworthy accomplishments include the establishment of bamboo plantations and the Arunachal Pradesh Bamboo Resources and Development Agency (APBRDA)[98][99] as well as the cultivation of medicinal plants under National Mission on Medicinal Plants (NMMP) and National AYUSH Mission (NAM). The state has also entered into a tripartite MoU for a 'Post Entry Quarantine Centre' for temperate fruit crops and supported 1,500 Self-Help Group members under the 'PM Formalization of Micro Food Processing Enterprises Scheme.' The state also completedthe Natural Resources Inventory for Micro Level Agriculture Planning in specific districts.

Indigenous affairs[edit]

The Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India (TRIFED), operating under the Ministry of Tribal Affairs, has collaborated with Arunachal Pradesh in the establishment of 85 Van Dhan Vikas Kendras (VDVK).[100] This initiative has played a role in supporting the income and employment of approximately 30,000 members within the tribal ecosystem. Another development in 2021 was the launch of the National Education Society for Tribal Students (NESTS), benefiting 350 teachers from CBSE and Eklavya Model Residential Schools in Arunachal Pradesh.

Furthermore, the Department of Art & Culture has entered into a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) under the Ministry of External Affairs.[101] The aim is to preserve and promote the rich indigenous tribal culture of Arunachal Pradesh. The Department of Indigenous Affairs is actively involved in documenting the cultural heritage of five tribes initially, with plans to extend coverage to 14 tribes.[102] This effort involves prioritizing local languages through the publication of books and souvenirs containing folktales and folklore in the indigenous language.[103]

In a tribute to the state's heroes, the names of 220 war heroes from Arunachal Pradesh, including 18 unsung heroes, 76 martyrs, and 126 freedom fighters, were documented and recognized on the 37th Statehood Day. Additionally, a list of 15 'Unsung Heroes' has been submitted to the Government of India for formal recognition.[104][105]

A significant cultural research institution, the Research Institute of World's Ancient Traditions, Cultures and Heritage (RIWATCH), is making strides in linking vibrant and living cultures with sustainable prosperity. The state also inaugurated a unique museum established by RIWATCH in 2017.[106][107]

The Government of Arunachal Pradesh is committed to constructing indigenous prayer halls and Gurukuls in every district to facilitate the practice of indigenous festivals and pass on traditional knowledge to younger generations.[108] Currently, three Gurukuls for Galo and Nyishi tribes are operational, and two more Gurukuls for Adi and Tangsa tribes are proposed.[109][110]

Acknowledging the importance of indigenous priests in preserving and propagating culture, the state has registered 3,000 indigenous priests, providing them with identity cards and a monthly honorarium of INR 1,000.[111][112] In the digital realm, the state government is actively developing an online platform, the E-Indigenous Culture Portal, featuring folk tales and music of all major tribes.

Lastly, various events such as 'Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat' are organized to promote and showcase the indigenous culture of Arunachal Pradesh to the rest of the country.

Environment and forestry[edit]

Arunachal Pradesh has adopted the 'Pakke Declaration 2047,' which designates Arunachal Pradesh as the first state in the country and among the first sub-national efforts globally to assert its commitments to climate-resistant development, marking an important historical milestone.[113][114] Under the Panch-Dharas objectives, 75 strategies have been identified, namely Livelihoods and Opportunities, Sustainable and Adaptive Living, Evidence Generation and Collaborative Action, Environment, Forest, and Climate Change, Health, and Well-being for All. Moreover, 23 out of 75 climate actions have been accomplished, and the rest are in various stages.[115]

The state has introduced Climate Targeted Budgeting (CTB) from FY22-23 in collaboration with the declaration-implementing departments. An integrated initiative observed and enforced in the context of the financing commitments under the 'Pakke Declaration 2047.'[116]

The Department of Environment and Forests of Arunachal Pradesh was rewarded with the national award for e-governance 2019-2020 for 'e-Forest Fire Prediction.'[117] Under the Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats (IDWH), the state has made intensive efforts in the protection of wildlife species and ecosystems. Currently, 13 wildlife sanctuaries and three National Parks have been established in Arunachal Pradesh.

The state has led the way in the maintenance and conservation of Pakke Tiger Reserve, Namdapha Tiger Reserve, and the recently notified Kamlang Tiger Reserve, spanning over 4112.77 sq. km, under the 'Project Tiger' launched by the Government of India (GOI).[118][119]


In recognition of the state’s efforts towards promoting tourism, Arunachal Pradesh has received awards like the ‘Best Emerging Destination’ at the Lonely Planet Travel Awards 2019 and ‘Best Emerging Green Tourist’ by the Travel & Leisure Magazine 2019.[120] [121]The State government offered entrepreneurs in the tourism sector value-added subsidies under the Chief Minister Paryatan Vikas Yojana (CMPVY) to start homestays, restaurants, culinary hubs, bakeries, and adventure equipment purchases. More than 500 people have benefited from the program.[122]

In addition to the ten existing tourist circuits in Arunachal Pradesh, four additional tourist circuits have been authorized, increasing the tally to fourteen. These circuits encompass all of the main tourist locations in the area and include the Dibrugarh–Deomali–Hukanjuri–Khonsa route, the Dibrugarh–Kanubari–Longding route, the Tezpur–Bhalukpong–Bomdila–Tawang route, and the Doimukh–Sagalee–Pake Kessang–Seppa route. [123][124] An initiative of the Government of Arunachal Pradesh, called "Dekho Apna Pradesh" was launched on March 22, 2021, with the theme "Restarting Tourism for Everyone," under the guidance of Honorable Chief Minister Shri Pema Khandu.[125] So, far the under Dekho Apna Pradesh has successfully conducted 08 familiarization tours including tourism stakeholders for various sectors consisting of 160 stakeholders.[126][127]

As part of the first phase of the ‘Dekho Apna Pradesh’ campaign, a group of 60 participants undertook a 10-day journey of various tourism circuits including western, eastern, and central Arunachal to promote intra-state travel among local people.[128] To boost tourism within the state, Leave Travel Concession (LTC) are provided to the government employees. In addition to the Chief Minister Paryatan Shiksha Yojana (CMPSY), 80+ individuals enrolled in the three years B.Sc. in Hospitality & Hotel Administration and Diploma Courses related to Tourism and Hospitality.

Over 225+ youths were trained in adventure and related sports under the Chief Ministers Skilled Advanced Certificate (CMSACC). To execute this, the government of Arunachal Pradesh has partnered with the National Institute of Mountaineering and Allied Sports (NIMAS) in Dirang, India. In order to provide targeted infrastructure development in pilgrimage and historical tourism locations, the Ministry of Tourism approved the "Development of Parshuram Kund" project under the Pilgrimage Rejuvenation and Spiritual, historical Augmentation Drive (PRASHAD) Scheme.[129]

With the construction of hotels, information centers, parks, and training facilities at ecological reserves, the state is actively promoting ecotourism. Among the numerous botanical gardens in the state, a Rrhododendron park was established in Tawang. In order to serve affluent tourists eager to experience the state and its unspoiled beauty, Arunachal Pradesh displayed six caravans equipped with all the standard facilities. In terms of foreign tourists (24%) and domestic tourists (65%) — the state has seen a 64% rise in overall tourist foot traffic between 2014 and 2019. Four Tourist Facilitation Centers have been proposed at entry points of Ruksin, Hukanjuri, Namdang, and Kanubari.[130]

Civil Aviation[edit]

In November 2022, Arunachal Pradesh achieved a significant milestone with the installation of its first Greenfield Donyi Polo Airport at the Hollongi site in Itanagar, connecting the state's capital to Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, and Guwahati.[131] Additionally, in May 2018, the state met another milestone by establishing an airport in Pasighat, East Siang.[132]

Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. has leased two Dornier-228 aircraft to Alliance Air Limited exclusively for use in Arunachal Pradesh.[133] Pasighat, Tezu, and Ziro are connected by ATR-72 commercial flight services.[134] The state was recognized as the "Best Emerging State in the Aviation Sector" during the "WINGS INDIA 2022" and "WINGS INDIA 2024" Conferences, both in 2022 and 2024.[135] Furthermore, there are currently seven operational Advanced Landing Grounds (ALGs), with civil commercial flights operating at Ziro and Pasighat. Three additional ALGs, namely Mechuka, Tuting, and Walong, are prepared for civil commercial flight operations.[136]

The seven operational ALGs are located in Aalo (West Siang District), Pasighat (East Siang District), Walong (Anjaw District), Tuting (Upper Siang District), Ziro (Lower Subansiri District), Vijaynagar (Changlang District), and Mechukha (Shi-Yomi District). Under the PM DeVINE scheme, the state has proposed the development of two more ALGs in Anini and Dirang to enhance intra-state air connectivity.

Arunachal Pradesh currently boasts 25 active helipads, and the Regional Connectivity Scheme (RCS-UDAN) has approved the development of six heliports.[137]

Information technology[edit]

The government of Arunachal Pradesh declared the year 2022-2023 as the 'Year of e-Governance,' heralding a digital revolution with the introduction of 22 innovative initiatives in governance.[138] Of these, 19 initiatives have been successfully implemented, ushering in a new era of faster and more efficient delivery of Government-to-Citizen (G2C), Government-to-Government (G2G), and Government-to-Business (G2B) services.

The state proudly hosts marquee e-governance projects such as CM Dashboard, Jansunwai, e-DBT, e-Pragati, and e-Seva Portal, e-ILP, showcasing its commitment to technological advancement.[139] Arunachal Pradesh has set a remarkable precedent by achieving 100% e-Office implementation in the Civil Secretariat, all District Headquarters, and Directorates—making it the leading state in e-Office usage among all Northeastern states. More than 28 lakh files have seamlessly been controlled and shared electronically across offices, exemplifying the digital transformation.[140][141]

Critical digital modules like e-Cabinet, e-Assembly, and e-Pragati have been fully commissioned, providing an end-to-end Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solution for streamlined coordination among departments. Over 17 meetings, reviewing more than 200 projects and schemes, have been conducted through the e-Pragati platform.[142] The adoption of e-Vidhan and e-Akbari has significantly improved the speed, transparency, and accountability in governance, ushering in reforms and enhancing collections.[143][144]

The state government's monitoring of Centrally Sponsored Schemes has reached new heights with the implementation of the CSS Tracker, ensuring a close watch on progress and aiming for 100% saturation. In a pioneering move, Arunachal Pradesh has developed a satellite-based monitoring system to track infrastructure project development, identify funding inconsistencies, and provide frequent reports.[145] North East Space Application Centre (NESAC), Shillong has been engaged for use of space technology in 36 projects[146]

Additionally, e-Service websites have been developed in every district, offering 18 services, including certificates for Scheduled Tribes, Permanent Residency, Income, Dependents, Tax Returns, and Marriage. Inspiring national recognition, the e-ILP Program introduced in November 2022 has received two awards for being the "best government-to-citizen-centric service application," drawing the attention of the Sikkim delegation.[147][148] The Jeevan Pramaan portal has facilitated the issuance of digital life insurance to 800+ pensioners, with 96% of pension cases settled through the 'Centralized Information and Pensioner Employees Management system' software developed by IT&C, deployed in the Directorate of Audit & Pension, Naharlagun.[149][150]

The 'Arunachal MyGov' portal has become a vibrant platform with over 13,000 registered members actively voicing their opinions and contributing to state building. Underlining its commitment to transparency, all beneficiary-oriented programs are now registered on the Public Finance Management Systems (PFMS) in accordance with a state government mandate. PFMS monitors funds issued under 10 state and 273 federal programs, ensuring effective financial governance.[151]


1,705 villages have been surveyed for 4G saturation (BSNL) to install 713 towers in 1,904 villages.[152] The Deputy Commissioner (DC) is coordinating with the state for land acquisitions and installations.[153] Additionally, 250 new 4G towers have been erected in 336 villages of Arunachal Pradesh to enhance mobile and internet connectivity.[154] This initiative has also brought Internet and broadband connectivity to 70,000 residents living near the Line of Actual Control (LAC) in the Indian territory.[155] 4G network connectivity has been extended to the first village, Kibithoo, on the Indo-Tibet border in Arunachal Pradesh.[156]

Furthermore, under the Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF) project in Arunachal Pradesh, 233 villages are within the coverage of 137 4G Towers. Out of 561 sites, 373 have been acquired, and 827 sites are operational under Bharat Broadband Network Limited (BBNL) VSAT (93.76%). By 2024, the remaining sites are slated to be made operational.[157]

Moreover, as part of the effort to connect police stations, girls' schools, Primary Health Centers (PHCs), etc., a total of 391 BSNL VSATs have been commissioned. Following the completion of the first phase of the State Wide Area Network (SWAN) Project, the extension phase is underway, awaiting approval from the Government of India (GoI).[158]

Additionally, the state now boasts 138 Airtel towers, and the Itanagar Capital Region has experienced the introduction of 5G services.[159] Out of 882, 827 sites are now covered by BBNL VSAT.[160] [161] Airtel's 4G USO telecom network spans 561 towers, covering 1036 villages. As of March 6, 23, 106 towers, encompassing 176 communities, were operational. BSNL has plans to cover 1,243 unconnected villages with 655 towers for 4G saturation, including 118 border villages in total.[162]


100% rural electrification has been achieved in over 5,311 villages in Arunachal Pradesh.[163] The benefits of 'SAUBHAGYA' and 'Deen Dayal Upadhayay Gram Jyoti Yojana' have reached more than 3.02 lakh households with the support of the state government. [164] [165]Additionally, twenty thousand solar lamps have been installed in various villages, Circle Headquarters, and District Headquarters, funded by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), promoting green electricity. [166] In towns like Tawang, Seppa, Namsai, and Changlang, the state has installed more than 2,466 Smart Street Lights. These lights are centrally controlled and monitored through a Single Mobile App, making it a more cost-effective solution.[167]

More than one lakh consumers from 25 towns have been approved for the Online Billing & Payment System. As of April 30, 2023, over Rs. 50 crore in revenue has been collected through the Online System. [168]

SMS Services, E-Billing, a Centralized Customer Care Centre, and a Mobile Billing Payment App are some of the digital services that the Department of Power plans to implement in 25 towns.[169] With support from the Indian government, the state government has launched a major results-driven and reform-based infrastructure project known as the 'Revamped Distribution Sector Scheme' (RDSS). [170]

The installed capacity in the State has increased by 213% in just 7 years, from 405 MW in FY 2015–16 to 1,270 MW in FY 2022–2023.[171] With the recent launch of the 600 MW Kameng Hydro Power project, Arunachal Pradesh is now the second state in the Northeast with excess electricity.[172] The state administration is strengthening the "power backbone" by adding 132 KV lines, totaling 383 km in 2015–16. In addition to over 2,000 km of 33 KV lines, Arunachal Pradesh will have over 2,141 km of 132 KV lines by 2024.

The Completed Comprehensive Scheme for Strengthening of Transmission and Distribution System (CSST&DS-AP) involves 535 Ckt. Km of 33 kV Line and 48 Ckt. Km of 132 kV Line. Seventy new 33/11 kV substations and twenty-seven new 132/33 kV substations are under construction. To provide digital connectivity throughout the State, optical fiber is being installed across these transmission cables.[173]

The Government of India approved the 2,880 MW Dibang Multipurpose Project in February 2023, with an estimated cost of INR 31,876 Cr.[174] This project is part of an important national infrastructure drive. The expected benefits are roughly INR 560 Crores annually (12% free power) and INR 47 Cr annually (1% free power) for the Local Area Development Fund.

The state's proposal has been approved by the Ministry of Power, Government of India to revive 29 hydropower projects by assigning them to Central Public Sector Undertakings, specifically NHPC, NEEPCO, SJVN, and THDCIL. [175] The total installed capacity of the 29 indicated projects is 32,415 MW. Phase One has prioritized six projects: Etalin, Tato I & II, Heo, Nafra, and Kamala, with a total potential of 6,063 MW.

Border Security[edit]

A total of 1,451 vibrant villages have been mapped, and 455 priority villages have been designated as part of the Vibrant Village Program (VVP), which was unveiled in the Union Budget. Zemithang, Taksing, Tuting, Chayangtajo, and Kibithoo Kaho Meshai are the five village clusters chosen as pilot projects.[176] [177] Various activities, including local festival celebrations, sporting events, cultural gatherings, and Seema Darshan, have been initiated in the selected villages. A trial initiative has been started in Kaho, Kibithoo, and Meshai, located close to the Tibet border. [178][179]

The state adopted the Model Village Cluster Strategy in 2021–2022, emphasizing the coordinated development of border villages and settlements up to 50 kilometers from the Line of Actual Control (LAC). Cluster, Convergence, and Community have been prioritized, and foot suspension bridges (FSBs) and strategically significant roadways will be constructed.[180][181]

To achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2070, the Golden Jubilee Border Villages Illumination Programme has installed around 6,000 solar streetlights in 728 border villages across 13 border districts.[182] In border villages, 50 micro and mini-hydro projects are underway, of which 9 have been completed in Phase I.[183][184]

To supply fruits and vegetables to the Indian Army and paramilitary soldiers stationed in the state, the state government initiated the popular Mission Krishi Veer initiative.[185][186]

Social Life[edit]

Serving as the Chairman of the Bodhi Language and Literature Promotional Society,[187][188] Pema Khandu has also worked for preservation of cultural and linguistic heritage. He has undertaken significant initiatives for environmental conservation and community health, including a widespread plantation drive in Tawang district[189][190] and organizing periodic medical camps.[191][192][193] Pema Khandu has actively promoted education through various programs in Tawang district,[194][195] while also nurturing cultural vibrancy by patronizing talent searches and preserving traditional songs through singing talent shows in Tawang and West Kameng districts.[196][197][198]

He has also fostered community engagement through organized games and sports at village, block, and district levels,[199][200] and promoting civil-military relations through the annual celebration of Maitree Diwas, aiming for unity and cooperation between civilians and the military in the region.[201][202]


In addition to his political engagements, Pema Khandu has been a patron of music, with a specific emphasis on highlighting the cultural heritage of the Monpa tribe by endorsing musicians and promoting Monpa songs.[203][204]

Pema Khandu has been enthusiastic for various sports, including football, cricket, badminton, and volleyball.[205][206] He has promoted sports by organizating cricket tournaments within his constituency. He also advocates for uplifting the state's athletes, enabling their participation in a diverse range of national and international sporting events.[207][208][209] Since 2019, Khandu has served as the President of the Arunachal Pradesh Football Association.[210][211][212]


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Political offices
Preceded by Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh
17 July 2016 - Present
Succeeded by