Kakinada

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Kakinada
కాకినాడ
Co–Canada[1]
City
Aerial view of water, a curved shore and a sandspit
Kakinada aerial view
Kakinada is located in Andhra Pradesh
Kakinada
Kakinada
Coordinates: 16°56′N 82°20′E / 16.93°N 82.33°E / 16.93; 82.33Coordinates: 16°56′N 82°20′E / 16.93°N 82.33°E / 16.93; 82.33
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
Region Coastal Andhra
District East Godavari
Mandal Kakinada (Urban)
Government
 • MP Thota Narasimham (TDP)
 • MLA Vanamadi Venkateswararao(TDP) (Kakinada City)
Pilli Anantha Lakshmi(TDP) (Kakinada Rural)
Area[2]
 • City 30.51 km2 (11.78 sq mi)
Elevation 2 m (7 ft)
Population (2011)[3] 312,255
 • Rank 8th (in AP) , List of most populous cities in India -142
 • Metro[4] 442,936
Languages
 • Official Telugu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 533 xxx
Telephone code 91 884
Vehicle registration AP-05
Literacy 81.23%
Lok Sabha constituency Kakinada
Vidhan Sabha constituency Kakinada City, Kakinada Rural
Website Kakinada Municipal Corporation

Kakinada About this sound pronunciation  is a city and municipal corporation in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is located 215 kilometres (134 mi) east of the state capital, Vijayawada and located 65 kilometres (40 mi) away from Rajahmundry. It is the Headquarters,Largest City of East Godavari district The city has a population of 376,861 in 2011 it the 6th-largest city by area and 8th-largest by population in Andhra Pradesh. Its literacy rate was 81.23 percent—84.88 percent for men and 77.76 percent for women. Kakinada covers an area of 192.3 square kilometres (74.2 sq mi).

Kakinada is part of a Special Economic Zone and a proposed Petroleum, Chemical and Petrochemical Investment Region (PCPIR).

Etymology[edit]

A theory about the origin of the city's name holds that the area was called "Kakinandiwada" during the reign of Nandi chiefs before the arrival of the Europeans, and the name became truncated over time. The British called it "Cocanada" (pronounced "Caa-key-naada"), or Coninga. After independence the name returned to Kakinada, although a few organisations established during British colonial rule retain the old name (e.g. Cocanada Chamber of Commerce). Kakinada's two railway stations are codenamed CCT (Kakinada Town Junction) and COA (Kakinada Port) by Indian Railways. The area was historically rich in ponds filled with red lotus (known as Kokanadamu in Telugu). Kakinada is known as "Pensioners Paradise" due to its calm, pleasant environment.

Geography[edit]

Kakinada is located at 16°56′N 82°13′E / 16.93°N 82.22°E / 16.93; 82.22.[5] The 82-degrees east longitude passes through the city. It has an average elevation of 2 metres (6 ft), and many areas of the city are below sea level. The city has a rough north-south orientation in a long, narrow strip parallel to the coast. The average width of the city is about 6 kilometres (3.7 mi), and it is about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) long.

The city consists of two regions, connected by bridges. The southern part, Jagannathapuram, is separated from the rest of the city by the Buckingham Canal. The canal and its branches form Medaline Island, which abuts the city in the southwest. During the colonisation of the Dutch Coromandel coast, the Dutch East India Company maintained a trading post known as Jaggernaikpoeram or Jaggernaickpuram (among other spellings) to the English.

The northern area of Kakinada is the more modern part of the city, with its recent extension. An industrial belt, running north–south the length of the city, separates the eastern part from the coast. Kakinada is bordered on the southeast by Kakinada Bay and a marshy wetland, home to India's second largest mangrove forest and the Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary. A branch of the Godavari River, the Gouthami, flows into the Bay of Bengal at this point.

White script on green background
"Kakinada", written in Telugu on a park bench

Climate[edit]

Kakinada has a tropical savanna climate with hot, humid weather most of the year. The warmest time of the year is late May and early June, with maximum temperatures around 38–42 °C (100–108 °F). January is the coolest month, with minimum temperatures of 18–20 °C (64–68 °F). The city gets most of its seasonal rainfall from the southwest monsoon, although considerable rain also falls during the northeast monsoon (from mid-October to mid-December). Cyclones in the Bay of Bengal frequently strike the city. Kakinada's prevailing winds are from the southwest for most of the year, except from October to January when they are from the northeast. The city's average annual rainfall is 110–115 centimetres (43–45 in).

Climate data for Kakinada
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29
(84)
31
(88)
34
(93)
36
(97)
38
(100)
36
(97)
33
(91)
32
(90)
33
(91)
32
(90)
31
(88)
29
(84)
32.8
(91.1)
Average low °C (°F) 20
(68)
22
(72)
24
(75)
26
(79)
28
(82)
27
(81)
26
(79)
26
(79)
26
(79)
25
(77)
23
(73)
21
(70)
24.5
(76.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 41
(1.61)
4
(0.16)
50
(1.97)
29
(1.14)
127
(5)
147
(5.79)
217
(8.54)
211
(8.31)
167
(6.57)
255
(10.04)
192
(7.56)
18
(0.71)
1,458
(57.4)
Source: Sunmap

Administration[edit]

Gold-coloured, seated Buddha statue on a pedestal
Statue of Buddha in Gandhinagar Park

Kakinada is run by the Kakinada Municipal Corporation, consisting of elected representatives and a commissioner. The city is divided into 50 wards, and each ward elects a corporator. A mayor is elected for the city from the elected corporators by indirect ballot. The commissioner (part of the IAS) is appointed by the state government. The city is represented at the state level in the Andhra Pradesh State Legislative Assembly by two MLAs, and at the federal level in the Lok Sabha by an MP.

Economy[edit]

During the late 1940s (around the time of Indian independence) there was little industry in or around Kakinada; the local economy was based on agriculture and fishing. Until the early 1980s (before the fertiliser companies began operation), the local economy revolved around the textile industry, auto parts, steel-related ancillary units, agriculture and fishing. Kakinada's economy is diverse, due to its seaport and port-based industry.

Port[edit]

Hope Island, about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from the coast, makes Kakinada Port a natural harbour. It is home to two ports: an anchorage port and a deep-water port. Kakinada's deep-water port is the second-largest in the state (after Visakhapatnam port) and the first in the country built in a public-private partnership, in 1996. It is operated by Kakinada Seaports.[6] Before the deep-water port was built, the anchorage port was the largest of India's 40 minor ports. A shipyard is under construction (a joint venture of Singapore-based Sembawang Shipyard and Kakinada Seaports) to provide support services to ships around Kakinada and the east coast of India.[7]

Red-and-white lighthouse at night
The Vakalapudi Lighthouse serves the port of Kakinada.

Kakinada's principal exports include seafood (prawns, shrimp, fish) and related products, agricultural products (including rice and corn,[8] oilmeals, processed food products, chemicals, iron ore, bauxite powder and biofuel.[9] Imports include chemicals, edible oils and agricultural products[10] (including wheat and sugar).

Industries[edit]

Fertilizer

Factory with two smokestacks
Godavari Fertilizer plant

Kakinada is known as the "Fertilizer City" of Andhra Pradesh. The city is home to two fertiliser producers: Nagarjuna Fertilizers[11] (the largest urea manufacturer in coastal Andhra) and Godavari Fertilizers (owned by Murugappa Group, and producing diammonium hydrogen phosphate).

Agro−products

Coconuts are exported by several companies in and around Kakinada. The Murugappa Group-owned EID Parry (India) and Cargill International joint venture, Silk Road Sugars, has a port-based stand-alone sugar refinery in Kakinada with a capacity of 600,000 tonnes.[12][13]

Glass-block office building at night
ONGC India—Kakinada office

Edible oil refineries and biofuel plants

In 2002, several edible-oil refineries were established in Kakinada, with a refining capacity of 3,000 tons per day; they include Acalmar Oils and Fats (taken over by Adani Wilmar), Ruchi Infrastructure and Nikhil Refineries. The port facilitates the importation of crude palm and soybean oil.[14]

Vakalapudi Industrial Park has attracted over $10 million in investment from biodiesel companies such as Reliance Industries, Naturol Bioenergy and Universal Bio Fuel.[15][9] Andhra Pradesh has entered into an agreement with Reliance Industries for jatropha planting. The company selected 200 acres (81 ha) of land in Kakinada to grow jatropha for quality biodiesel fuel.[16]

Information technology

Kakinada is a tier-II city in India and Andhra Pradesh where Software Technology Parks of India (STPI) established a facility in 2007. Since its inception, several companies have begun operations in the city due to its educated workforce.

About 35 companies are operating in Kakinada. Godavari IT Association of East and West Godavari districts (GITA) is an association of IT companies in the twin Godavari districts, which is based in the city.[17] Some IT companies in the city are Infotech Enterprises,[18] a Hyderabad-based multinational software company; Avineon,[19] a US-based technology company providing GIS and engineering services;[20] [21] Firstobject Technologies,[22] a BPO firm and Krify,[23] a UK- and India-based mobile-app development company.

Small-to-midsize software companies in Kakinada include Prominere Software Solutions,[24] 3One Technologies,[25] TrewPort Technologies,[26] Aaspire Technologies,[27] Traceout Technologies,[28] ForeTell Technologies, Mythrii Solutions, [29] Nyros Technologies, [30] Meconzee InfoTech and Software Services.[31][32] Kakinada is home to Andhra Electronics,[33] an electronic-components manufacturing company which began in 1977.

Fabrication and machine shops

Kakinada is home to Decon Engineers,[34] an fabrication cum machine shop, which started its operations in 1984. Founded by the legendary Colossus of process industry - Mr K.N.Rao Himself. Today, they stand as the perfect choice for professional and special engineering services. Their engineering services are widely recognized and acknowledge all over world.

Resources[edit]

Power generation

There are several power plants in and around Kakinada. Spectrum Power Generation has a 208-MW plant, and was one of the first Independent Power Producers in the country. The company is planning to expand the capacity to 1350 MW in phases. Tenders for a 350-MW expansion have been requested.[35] A 220-MW power station (being expanded to 2400 MW at a cost of Rs 100 billion) owned by Reliance Energy[36] and a 464-MW combined-cycle power plant by GVK Group are in operation at Samalkota (Kakinada Rural). These plants supply electricity to the state's transmission utility, AP Transco, under a power purchase agreement.

Natural gas and petroleum

Kakinada is the base for Oil and Natural Gas Corporation's Eastern Offshore Asset. Several oil companies use Kakinada for oil and gasoline shipments. Baker Hughes and Schlumberger[37] are field-development companies working on offshore natural-gas fields near the city. The Krishna Godavari Basin is considered the largest natural-gas basin in India.[38] Significant discoveries of oil and natural gas were made by Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC), Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation and Reliance, which has been extracting gas from its KG D6 block off the Kakinada coast. Reliance has an onshore terminal in Gadimoga, about 25 kilometres (16 mi) from Kakinada, to process and distribute gas to other parts of the country. Reliance Gas Transportation Infrastructure (RGTIL) has built a 1,440-kilometre (890 mi) pipeline from Kakinada to Bharuch (Gujarat) to transport 120 million cubic meters per day (mcmd) of natural gas from the Krishna-Godavari fields (owned by Reliance Industries)[39] across India to its west coast.

In 2010, the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board awarded Kakinada's gas-distribution project to Bhagyanagar Gas, a consortium of GAIL and Hindustan Petroleum.[40] Construction is underway to supply gas to Kakinada and the surrounding towns of Samalkot, Peddapuram and Pithapuram, making Kakinada the third city in Andhra Pradesh to have a piped gas supply for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes (along with Hyderabad and Vijayawada).

Transportation[edit]

Small, old boat at ramshackle dock, with other boats in background
Boats at harbour in Kakinada
Train at station, photographed from walkway
Kakinada Railway Station entrance from the Bhanugudi side
Highway at night, with billboards
NH 214 junction at Sarpavaram, Kakinada

Road[edit]

Kakinada is connected by road to the rest of the state and India. NH-214 from Kathipudi to Ongole (both on NH-5) passes through the city, and state highways connect it to Rajahmundry and other towns in the district.

Air[edit]

The nearest airport is about 65 kilometres (40 mi) away, at Rajahmundry. Another airport, 145 kilometres (90 mi) away at Visakhapatnam, has service on a number of airlines to major Indian cities.

Rail[edit]

Four-lane road, with narrow grass median
City road
Large, white statue of Mahatma Gandhi seated in lotus position
Mahatma Gandhi statue in Gandhinagar Park

As a shore city, Kakinada is a railway terminus. It has three stations: Kakinada Town Junction (CCT), Kakinada Port (COA) and Sarpavaram. The city is connected to Samalkot Junction (13 km away) on the Chennai-Howrah trunk line, where express trains connect Kakinada with the rest of India. There is service to Hyderabad, Secundrabad, Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai, Tirupati, Shirdi, Bhavnagar and Ernakulam.

Health care[edit]

Kakinada has a number of public and private health-care facilities, including the Government General Hospital (GGH),Sri Bala ENT Care Center, Apollo Hospitals, Christian Cancer Center, Care Hospital, Siddhartha hospital,Sai Sudha Hospital, Sravani ENT Care, Trust Hospital, Star hospital, Safe Emergency Hospital, Sri Satya Sai Multispeciality Hospital and New Life Hospital.

The city has eye hospitals such as the D. V. Raju Eye Hospital, which has been serving the city and the district of East Godavari for three generations. Nayana Eye Care, established in 1997 by Sriram Ravula, offers comprehensive eye care in Kakinada.[41][page needed]

Education[edit]

Two gateways next to white building
Rangaraya Medical College entrance

Kakinada is an educational hub, meeting the growing educational demands of the state. Several professional colleges in and around the city offer courses in engineering, medicine, information technology and management at the graduate and postgraduate levels. The Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kakinada offers engineering courses and has a business school, and Rangaraya Medical College is a respected medical college in the state.

Andhra University Postgraduate Centre, established in 1977, is another college in Kakinada. The university is located on a 50.93-acre (20.61 ha) campus in Thimmapuram, six kilometres from the Kakinada Town Railway Station.[42]



High School to Degree College with Choultry facility founded by Late. Malladi Satyalingam Naikar

Tourism[edit]

Kakinada is noted for its temples, beaches, mangrove forests and the Godavari delta. Attractions include Tholi Thirupathi Sri Srungara Vallaba Temple, Annavaram Satyanarayana Swamy Temple, Pithapurm sri dattatreya temple,famous Shakti Peetha in Pithapuram is Purukitha devi Shakti Peetam. This Shakti peetha forms an integral part of Shiva temple, the Kukkuteshwara Swami temple, Draksharama Shiva Temple, Samalkot Shiva Temple, Sri Bhimeswaraswamy Vari Temple (Sri Chalukya Kumararama Temple, one of the five Pancharama Kshetras and a National Heritage site) (10 kilometres (6.2 mi) away in Samalkota), Kukkuteshwara Swamy Temple, Kotipalli Kotilingeswara Temple, Shri Bhavanarayana Swamy Temple (Sun God), Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, part of the Godavari delta, Hope Island, India, a sandspit formed by the Godavari, Konaseema, scenic Godavari delta islands.

Uppada beach is primarily considered as Kakinada beach which is having one of longest coastlines in Indian beaches. Kakinada beach is meant for its mild blue waters and cold breeze all the day.

Scenic view of Kakinada beach during evening

Notable residents[edit]

Culture[edit]

Cuisine

East Godavari is noted for its traditional Andhra cuisine: pickles (aavakaaya) made from mangoes, vegetables (e.g. cauliflower aavakaaya), chicken, shrimp, mutton and fish. Kakinada is known for Kakinada Kaaja, a sweet made from maida flour and dipped in a sugar syrup.[43] The sweet was popular not only in Andhra, but as far away as Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. Kotiah Sweets (founded in 1900) is the best-known maker of Kakinada Kaaja. Street-corner carts selling bhajis and pidatha kindha pappu (a mixture of onions and toasted rice).

Kakinada is one of the few places in Andhra Pradesh with bananas and mangoes. Kakinada is also known for pesarattu, a breakfast or brunch crêpe made from moong daal (pesara pappu), green chillies, ginger and cumin which is sold in restaurants and street stalls. Pootarekulu is a coastal-Andhra sweet made of thin sugar wafers. The city has several Udupi vegetarian hotels, some of which provide overnight accommodations.

Kakinada Beach Festival also Sagara Sambaralu is a music festival held in Kakinada in Andhra Pradesh.[44] It was declared as an annual festival by the government of Andhra Pradesh.[45] It is a three-day event where many artists perform.[44][46]

Sports[edit]

Cricket is the most popular game in the city, followed by badminton and athletics. Kakinada is home to a number of local cricket teams participating in district and zone matches, with a stadium used for Ranji Trophy matches. The East Godavari District Sports Authority has a sports complex in the city with an indoor stadium and swimming pool. Tennis is taught to students by the KTA (Kakinada Tennis Academy) at the tennis courts of Rangaraya Medical College There is a roller-skating rink in Vivekananda Park.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "About Kakinada". Kakinada Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
  2. ^ "GENERAL VIEW OF AS ON 20-12-2011". Kakinada Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 10 August 2014. 
  3. ^ "Cities having population 1 lakh and above". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 July 2014. 
  4. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 July 2014. 
  5. ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Kakinada". Fallingrain.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  6. ^ Kakinadaseaports.in "Kakinada Port". apports.in. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  7. ^ "Sembmarine Kakinada Ltd". Sembcorpmarine.com.sg. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  8. ^ "UPDATE 1-India corn exports up to Sept set to treble-trade". Reuters. 21 July 2008. 
  9. ^ a b ">> News >> Business >> Bio-fuel is next big bet if crude continues to rise". Moneycontrol. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  10. ^ "WB floats tender to import 1.86 lakh tonnes of wheat". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 16 April 2008. 
  11. ^ "Nagarjunagroup.com". Nagarjunagroup.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  12. ^ ""EID Parry teams up with Cargill for sugar EoU", The Hindu (25 April 2006)". The Hindu (India). 25 April 2006. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  13. ^ ""Murugappa group turnover up by 15%", Sify Business". Sify.com. 6 May 2008. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  14. ^ "Nikhil, Acalmar edible oil refineries go on stream". The Hindu. 29 March 2002. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  15. ^ "Universalbiofuelsltd.com". Universalbiofuelsltd.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  16. ^ "Reliance's new biofuel business model to provide fuel with food". Livemint.com. 20 July 2008. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  17. ^ "Kakinada zooms ahead as an IT hub-". The Times of India (India). 14 February 2011. 
  18. ^ "Infotech-enterprises.com". Infotech-enterprises.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  19. ^ "Avineon.com". Avineon.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  20. ^ "Avineon expanding". Sify.com. 2 April 2008. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  21. ^ "Andhra Pradesh News: US IT firm opens shop in Kakinada". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 3 April 2008. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  22. ^ "Firstobjectindia.com". Firstobjectindia.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  23. ^ "Krify.com". Krify.com. Retrieved 16 October 2011. 
  24. ^ "SEO & Web Designing and Development Company". www.prominere.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  25. ^ "3one.in". 3one.in. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  26. ^ "Trewport.com". Trewport.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  27. ^ "Aaspiretechnologies.com". Aaspiretechnologies.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  28. ^ "Traceout.com". Traceout.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  29. ^ "Mythrii.com". Mythrii.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  30. ^ "Nyros.com". Nyros.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  31. ^ "Meconzee.com". Meconzee.com. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  32. ^ Eastysolutions.com
  33. ^ "Andhraelec.com". Andhraelec.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  34. ^ "Decon Engineers". 
  35. ^ "SPGL.co.in". SPGL.co.in. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  36. ^ "Anil Ambani monitors progress at Samalkot Plant". The Times of India (India). 22 January 2011. 
  37. ^ "SLB.com". SLB.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  38. ^ "Hemangi Balse, "Reliance gas-find 40 times bigger than Bombay High"". Rediff.com. 31 October 2002. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  39. ^ ""Reliance gets ready to test east-west gas pipeline" (Apr 14 2008) CNBC Money control.com". Moneycontrol.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  40. ^ "Piped gas in eighteen months: official". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 2 October 2010. 
  41. ^ http://apos.co.in/images/1st%20issue.pdf
  42. ^ "Andhrauniversity.info". Andhrauniversity.info. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  43. ^ "Kotaiah's Foods Pvt. Ltd Since 1900 – Kotaiahs's Kaja". Kakinadakaja.com. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  44. ^ a b "Beach festival to be held every year". Deccan Chronicle. 2012-12-22. Retrieved 2013-10-19. 
  45. ^ "AP set to become a tourist destination". The Hindu. 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2013-10-19. 
  46. ^ "Singer Muralidhar dies during train journey". The Hindu. 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2013-10-19. 

External links[edit]