|Region of Andhra Pradesh|
Map of India with Coastal Andhra highlighted in red
|Time zone||IST (UTC+05:30)|
Coastal Andhra (Telugu : కోస్తాంధ్ర) or Kosta, is a region of India's Andhra Pradesh State. This region was part of Madras State before 1953 and Andhra State from 1953 to 1956. According to the 2011 census, it has an area of 92,906 square kilometres (35,871 sq mi) which is 33.77% of total state area and a population of 34,193,868 which is 40.39% of Andhra Pradesh state population. This area includes the coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal, from the northern border with Odisha to south of the delta of the Krishna River. It is subdivided into two different regions Uttarandhra and Dakshina Coasta Andhra. Uttarandhra includes the districts of Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, Visakhapatnam while central coasta includes East Godavari, West Godavari, Krishna, and dakshina coasta includes Guntur, Prakasam and Nellore.
Coastal Andhra has rich agricultural land, owing to the delta of the Godavari and Krishna rivers. The prosperity of Coastal Andhra can be attributed to its rich agricultural land and an abundant water supply from these two rivers. Rice grown in paddy fields is the main crop, with pulses and coconuts also being important. The fishing industry is also important to the region.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Composition
- 4 Diversity
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Cultural elements
- 7 List of cities in the region
- 8 Lakes and wetlands
- 9 Transportation
- 10 Image Gallery
- 11 Politics
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The state of Andhra emerged to a political power during the reign of Maurya Dynasty. Megasthenes mentioned that Andhra was a flourishing empire of the Satavahana's from the times before christ. Coastal Andhra was also ruled by the famous Chalukyas in between the period of the 7th Century and the 10th Century CE. This period was followed by the reign of many other dynasties such as the Cholas, the Kakatiyas as well as the Vijayanagar Empire.
According to 11th century inscriptions, Andhra is bounded by Mahendragiri mountains (in north-eastern border with Gajapati district of Orissa), Kalahasti temple (in Chittoor district near the border of Nellore district), Srisailam temple (in Kurnool district near the border of Mahbubnagar district and Prakasham district). This region represent coastal Andhra region of Andhra Pradesh state.
Coastal Andhra is one of the major Buddhist hub's in India after the Gangetic plain Buddhist Hub of Bihar, Jharkand and Uttar Pradesh. Many Remnants from Large Monasteries to small Stupas are found in this region from Srikakulam District in the North to Nellore District in the South. The major Buddhist Remnant sites in Coastal Andhra are as follows:
- Salihundam in Srikakulam District
- Danthavarapukota (Dantapuri) in Srikakulam District
- Ramatheertham in Vizianagaram District
- Pavurallakonda in Visakhapatnam District
- Thotlakonda in Visakhapatnam District
- Bavikonda in Visakhapatnam District
- Bojjannakonda (Sankaram) in Visakhapatnam District
- Kotturu Dhanadibbalu in Visakhapatnam District
- Gopalapatnam in Visakhapatnam District
- Kummarilova (Tuni) in East Godavari District
- Kodavali in East Godavari District
- Kapavaram in East Godavari District
- Guntupalli in West Godavari District
- Pedavegi in West Godavari District
- Ghantasala in Krishna District
- Gudivada in Krishna District
- Jaggaiahpet in Krishna District
- Amaravati in Guntur District
- Bhattiprolu in Guntur District
- Anupu in Guntur District
- Chandavaram in Prakasam District
- Kanuparti in Prakasam District
- Ramatheertam in Nellore District
Pilgrimages of Kosta
- Indrakeeladri (Vijayawada)
- Dwaraka Tirumala
- Penchala Kona
- Sri Kurmam
- Kotappa Konda
- Panchadhaarla (Visakhapatnam District)
- Sri Mukhalingam
- Vadapalli,Atreyapuram mandal
Places of historical importance
Coastal Andhra is located to the east of Telangana and Rayalaseema regions bordered by Odisha to the North and Rayalseema to the south and Telangana to the west.The coastal line of this region is the second largest in India, extending 960KM.
Coastal Andhra comprises Circar districts:
- East Godavari
- West Godavari
The Northern Circars correspond in the main to the Coastal Andhra region of Andhra Pradesh, including the districts of:
- East Godavari
- West Godavari
The Gajapati and Ganjam districts of Odisha were granted to the French East India Company around 1752. Later they were transferred by the French to the British.
Nellore, which extends as far as Ongole Taluk, was later received from the Nawab of Arcot, under an establishment. Some parts of present day Nellore and Chitoor were in the hands of Venkatagiri Rajas. The British made an arrangement with the Raja of Venkatagiri in 1802 to claim power in those territories also. At present Coastal Andhra extends from Srikakulam to the Nellore district, mainly because of geographical proximity.
Currently, Coastal Andhra comprises nine districts. Unlike Telangana and Rayalaseema, Coastal Andhra does not have unique cultural and linguistic identities throughout the region. Coastal Andhra hosts six dialects of Telugu: Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam, Godavari, Krishna, Ongole and Nellore. Parts of this region are ruled by different rulers, leading to diversity within the region. Coastal Andhra in turn can be divided into Northern Region (Srikakulam, Vizianagaram and Visakhapatnam districts), Central Region (East Godavari, West Godavari, Krishna and Guntur districts) and Southern Region (Prakasam and Nellore districts). Food varieties vary from each sub region.
- Area: 92,906 km2
- Population: 34,193,868 as per the 2011 census
- Literacy: 63%
- Language: 96% of people speak Telugu
Classical dance in Andhra may be performed by both men and women; though women tend to learn it more commonly. Kuchipudi is the state's best-known classical dance form. It was born in the Kuchipudi village, of Krishna district, which is in the center of coastal Andhra.
Individuals who contributed to Telugu literature, arts and cinema
- Gurajada Apparao
- Devulapalli Venkata Krishna Sastri
- Tripuraneni Ramaswamy Chowdary
- Gurram Jashuva
- Sri.Gunturu Seshendra Sharma
- S. V. Ranga Rao
- B.Haranath Raju
- Ghantasala (singer)
- Pingali Venkayya
- Nandamuri Taraka Ramarao
- Akkineni Nageswara Rao
Rice is the staple food in the Kosta cuisine and is usually consumed with a variety of curries and lentil soups or broths. Cuisine of Coastal Andhra is influenced by Sea Food varieties. Godavari and Krishna districts have numerous varieties of foods, which are famous through the state. Food varieties in some parts of Nellore and Prakasam are influenced by Rayalaseema.
List of cities in the region
- Visakhapatnam - Greater Visakhapatnam also termed as the "City of Destiny" is the most populous city and is the industrial centre of coastal Andhra. It contains the Eastern Naval Command headquarters, Hindustan shipyard, Dockyards, Vizag Steel Plant, and the Hindustan Petroleum refinery. It has a cosmopolitan culture and many educational institutes, including Andhra University. Vizag, as it is colloquially called, is also a tourist place of Andhra Pradesh. It is also the city with the highest GDP (as of 2008) of Rs.6698 crores, compared to Rs.5726 crores of Vijayawada, the second richest city of this region. Visakhapatnam Port is an important harbour for the region. The district is endowed with picturesque places, hill stations like Aruku Valley, Borra Caves, Paderu and Sileru, and beaches like RK, Bhimili, Rishi Konda, Yarada and Kailasagiri Hill
- Vijayawada, the second largest city, is situated on the banks of the River Krishna. It is the cultural, historic, and commercial capital of Andhra Pradesh. It is also one of the major educational hubs of India and a bustling business trading place. Vijayawada is a transportation hub for both Rail and Road networks connecting south and north India.Vijayawada and Guntur regions is more likely to form as SCR (State Capital Region). Being the city with high potential for commercial and trade activities it lacks in providing sufficient employment opportunities to its people due to the fact that the land rates are very high in and around this region and so the governments find it difficult to allot Dedicated Economic Zones in this region and so the multinational and top companies in India aren't able to set up their organizations even though this region is available with plenty of skilled manpower,ease of accessibility(It is well connected to all major cities of India),power generation capabilities and feasibility to run a company etc..
- Greater Guntur is third largest city in the region and a greater municipal corporation and a major centre of business & learning. It is the heart of the textiles, tobacco, chillies, and cotton industries. With a major business of textiles & tobacco, Guntur city lacks in industrial development.It also has many ancient sites nearby. The upcoming commercial belt between Guntur & Vijayawada has a great scope of merging the cities into twins.
- Rajahmundry,the fifth largest city & it is one of the largest cities in the Andhra Pradesh and a municipal corporation in the East Godavari district. Located on the banks of the River Godavari, it is a major business center. It is known as the Cultural Capital of Andhra Pradesh, since it has a rich cultural past.It is also known as the Agricultural Capital of Andhra Pradesh
- Kakinada is one of the largest cities in the region and a municipal corporation in East Godavari district. It is one of the major educational and industrial centre in the Coastal Andhra. This city is the most well planned city in Asia after Chandigarh. It is a serene city which also called a Pensioner's Paradise. It is well known for the recent investments made in the Petrol, chemical and Petrochemical sectors. It is also called Fertilizer City. Kakinada is fourth largest City in Andhra Pradesh(area wise).
- Nellore is a younger city in the region.It is fourth largest city in the region.Nellore is famous for its production of mica (gudur), lemon (gudur) and agricultural products such as rice. It is also famous for Aqua culture, hence called as Aquaculture capital of India.
- Ongole is the youngest city in the region. The major production of Ongole is Patty, Millet, Maize, Greengram, Blackgram, Turmeric, Tobacco, Groundnut, Chillies, Cotton. The major minerals in this region are late stone, granite (Cheemakurthy). It is also famous for zebu breed of oxen, Hence the breed was named after Ongole as 'Ongolu Gitta'.
Other major towns in the region are; Kavali, Amalapuram, Bhimavaram, Chirala, Eluru, Gudivada, Machilipatnam, Narasaraopet, chilakaluripet, Markapur, Narsapuram, Palasa, Srikakulam, Tadepalligudem, Tanuku, Tenali, Bapatla Vizianagaram Tuni,Narsipatnam.
Lakes and wetlands
Andhra Pradesh contains 259 coastal wetlands, covering an area of 18,552 km2., out of which 88 are manmade.
Lakes Kolleru and Pulicat are the two major lakes in Coastal Andhra. Kolleru, a natural sweet-water lake, is situated in the West Godavari district and serves as a natural flood-balancing reservoir for the two rivers. The lake is also an important habitat for up to 50,000 resident and migratory birds. The lake was declared a wildlife sanctuary in November 1999 under India's Wildlife Protection Act, and designated a wetland of international importance in November 2002 under the international Ramsar Convention. Pulicat is the largest salt water lake in the country, located in Nellore and spreads between Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. This is one of the famous attractions in south India.
Part of the Godavari delta of the State is also known as Konaseema, a rich delta region in East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh. Konaseema is known for its green coconut orchards, lush green paddy fields and numerous canals. In this region, the river Akhanda Godavari splits into several distributary branches, including the Gouthami, Vasishta, Vainatheya, and Vruddha Gouthami, before emptying into the Bay of Bengal.
- The East Coast Railway serves Srikakulam, Vizianagaram District, and part of Visakhapatnam district including Visakhapatnam City. Vijayawada Railway Station is the one of the busiest railway junctions in India. The 2nd largest Railway station in the South.
- The airports in the Kosta Area are Visakhapatnam Airport is only International Airport, Vijayawada Airport and Rajahmundry Airport.
- Kosta has two of the major ports of India, at Visakhapatnam and Kakinada, and three minor ports at Krishnapatnam (Nellore), Machilipatnam, and Nizampatnam (Guntur). A private port has been developed at Gangavaram, near Visakhapatnam. This deep seaport will accommodate ocean liners of up to 200,000–250,000 tons.
Caves on Dhammalingesvarasvami Hill at Guntupalli
Konaseema fields in East Godavari District
Pandavulametta Cave a historical site in Peddapuram
Kumara Bhimarama Temple at Samalkota
Undavalli Caves in Guntur District
Stone built Stupa and Large group of stupas at Guntupalli
Ganesha stone carved Relief Srikakula Andhra Mahavishnu Temple, Krishna District
Chief Ministers from the region are:
- Tanguturi Prakasam Panthulu - 1st Chief Minister of Andhra State(Prakasam).
- Bezawada Gopala Reddy - 2nd Chief Minister of Andhra State(Nellore).
- Kasu Brahmananda Reddy - 3rd Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh(Guntur).
- Jalagam Vengala Rao - 5th Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh(Srikakulam).
- Bhavanam Venkatarami Reddy - 8th Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh(Guntur).
- N.T.Rama Rao - 10th Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh(Krishna).
- Nadendla Bhaskara Rao - 11th Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh(Guntur).
- Nedurumalli Janardhana Reddy - 12th Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh(Nellore).
- K.Rosaiah - 15th Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh(Guntur).
- Precolonial India in practice: society, region, and identity in medieval Andhra By Cynthia Talbot
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- B.V.S. Bhaskar (2012-02-16). "Buddhist site found near Tuni". The Hindu. Retrieved 2013-07-29.
- K.N. Murali Sankar (2011-11-29). "ASI gets tough with encroachers". The Hindu. Retrieved 2013-07-29.
- Demand Curve (2009-09-07). "The rapidly growing, stable markets of southern India". Livemint. Retrieved 2013-07-29.
- Wetlands of India report, ISRO
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2011)|
- Media related to Coastal Andhra at Wikimedia Commons